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*  List of MeSH codes (G03)
... risk factors MeSH G03.850.490.687 --- comorbidity MeSH G03.850.490.718 --- confounding factors (epidemiology) MeSH G03.850. ... age factors MeSH G03.850.490.250.100 --- age of onset MeSH G03.850.490.250.550 --- maternal age MeSH G03.850.490.500 --- bias ( ... behavioral risk factor surveillance system MeSH G03.850.520.308.250.300 --- dental health surveys MeSH G03.850.520.308.250.300. ... sex factors MeSH G03.850.505.200 --- biometry MeSH G03.850.505.200.100 --- anthropometry MeSH G03.850.505.200.100.175 --- body ...
*  List of MeSH codes (N05)
... risk factors MeSH N05.715.350.225 --- comorbidity MeSH N05.715.350.240 --- confounding factors (epidemiology) MeSH N05.715. ... epidemiologic factors MeSH N05.715.350.075 --- age factors MeSH N05.715.350.075.100 --- age of onset MeSH N05.715.350.075.550 ... behavioral risk factor surveillance system MeSH N05.715.360.300.375.300 --- dental health surveys MeSH N05.715.360.300.375.300. ... sex factors MeSH N05.715.360 --- health care evaluation mechanisms MeSH N05.715.360.300 --- data collection MeSH N05.715. ...
*  Mendelian randomization
The reason for such spurious findings in observational epidemiology is most likely to be confounding by social, behavioural or ... a causal effect from observational data in the presence of confounding factors. It uses common genetic polymorphisms with well- ... the observed association between the particular risk factor and disease must imply that the risk factor actually causes the ... In epidemiology, Mendelian randomization is a method of using measured variation in genes of known function to examine the ...
*  Epidemiology
Confounding has traditionally been defined as bias arising from the co-occurrence or mixing of effects of extraneous factors, ... "molecular epidemiology". Specifically, "genetic epidemiology" has been used for epidemiology of germline genetic variation and ... "An Introduction to Epidemiology, Fifth Edition". Chapter 2: Historic Developments in Epidemiology. Jones and Bartlett ... This question, sometimes referred to as specific causation, is beyond the domain of the science of epidemiology. Epidemiology ...
*  Confounding
In some disciplines, confounding is categorized into different types. In epidemiology, one type is "confounding by indication ... In statistics, a confounder (also confounding variable or confounding factor) is a variable that influences both the dependent ... but it is always possible that a forgotten or unknown factor was not included or that factors interact complexly. Confounding ... procedural confound), or inter-individual differences (person confound). An operational confounding can occur in both ...
*  Observer-expectancy effect
... by detecting confounding factors, is the only way to isolate true cause-effect relationships.[citation needed] Experimenter ... bias in epidemiology has been better studied than in other sciences.[citation needed] A number of studies into Spiritual ...
*  Warren Winkelstein
... successfully separating the effect of pollution from other confounding social and environmental factors, and also contributed ... Winkelstein has made important contributions in a number of areas of epidemiology. Early in his academic career, he ... Winkelstein W (May 2004). "A conversation with Warren Winkelstein, Jr". Epidemiology. 15 (3): 368-72. doi:10.1097/01.ede. ... "A History of Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology: Warren Winkelstein". University of Minnesota School of Public Health. ...
*  Post-chemotherapy cognitive impairment
Such factors may include menopausal status, surgery/anesthesia, stress, genetics and fatigue, among other suspected confounding ... though the overall epidemiology and prevalence is not well known and may depend on many factors. It generally affects about 10- ... comorbid conditions and paraneoplastic syndrome may all co-occur and act as confounding factors in the study or experience of ... PCCI is complex and factors other than the chemotherapeutic agents may impact cognitive functioning. Menopause, the biological ...
*  List of countries by traffic-related death rate
... between left-handed and right-handed traffic cannot be done without taking into account a variety of confounding factors such ... Epidemiology of motor vehicle collisions Traffic collision Road-traffic safety Smeed's law List of countries by vehicles per ... have adequate laws that address all five risk factors (speed, drunk driving, helmets, seat-belts and child restraints). Over a ...
*  John Frank (epidemiologist)
... of mechanical workplace risk factors and low back pain with assessment of confounding and heterogeneity of effect measures. ... the changing face of epidemiology]. Epidemiology 2006; 17(6):595-598. 106. Medlar B, Mowat, D, Di Ruggiero E, and Frank JW. ... Do coronary risk factors measured in the elderly have the same predictive value as in middle age? Comparisons of relative and ... Annals of Epidemiology 1992; 2:273-82. 31. Coates RA, Frank JW, Arshinoff R. et al. Preliminary results from the Ontario HIV ...
*  Forensic epidemiology
Confounding refers to a situation in which an association between an exposure and outcome is all or partly the result of a ... factors? What is the chance that Mr. X would have needed neck surgery when he did if he had not been in a minor traffic crash ... Law and epidemiology: Misinterpretation of epidemiologic information in claims for asbestos-related diseases. OA Epidemiology ... The term Forensic Epidemiology was first associated with the investigation of bioterrorism in 1999, and coined by Dr. Ken ...
*  Haroutune Armenian
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention. November 1999. Blanchard JF, Armenian HK, Paoulter Friesen P. Risk factors for ... A positive or a negative confounding variable? A simple teaching aid for clinicians and students. Annal Epidemiol 15 (6):421-3 ... Risk Factors for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), American Journal of Epidemiology 146(8): ... American Journal of Epidemiology 136(6):761-762,1992. Manual of Epidemiology for District Health Management Edited by J.P. ...
*  Observational study
Sometimes the recorded factors may not be directly causing the differences in the output. There may be more important factors ... It would also suffer from various confounds and sources of bias, e.g. it would be impossible to conduct it as a blind ... In fields such as epidemiology, social sciences, psychology and statistics, an observational study draws inferences from a ... Finally, as the number of recorded factors increases, the likelihood increases that at least one of the recorded factors will ...
*  Cause (medicine)
Bradford Hill criteria Causal inference Epidemiology Molecular pathological epidemiology Molecular pathology Pathogenesis ... Events may occur together simply due to chance, bias or confounding, instead of one event being caused by the other. It is also ... An etiological agent of disease may require an independent co-factor, and be subject to a promoter (increases expression) to ... In epidemiology, several lines of evidence together are required to infer causation. Sir Austin Bradford-Hill demonstrated a ...
*  Oesophagostomum
Factors like religion, family size and wealth do not suffice in explaining the unique epidemiology of Oesophagostomum; ... the difficulty in distinguishing these parasites may have had some confounding effect. Infection rates were low in children ... "Clinical epidemiology and classification of human oesophagostomiasis." By: P.A. Storey et al. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2000. ... "Clinical epidemiology and classification of human oesophagostomiasis." By: P.A. Storey et al. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2000. ...
*  Obesity paradox
"Reverse epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in maintenance dialysis patients". Kidney International. 63 (3): 793-808. ... Strong confounding by smoking has been noted by several researchers. Since smokers, who are subject to higher mortality rates, ... "Reverse epidemiology of conventional cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic heart failure". Journal of the ... The terminology reverse epidemiology was first proposed by Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh in the journal Kidney International in 2003 ...
*  Bradford Hill criteria
Considering confounding factors and bias. Using Hill's criteria as a guide, but not considering them to give definitive ... Potischman N, Weed DL (1999). "Causal criteria in nutritional epidemiology". Am J Clin Nutr. 69 (6): 1309S-14S. PMID 10359231. ... However, in some cases, the mere presence of the factor can trigger the effect. In other cases, an inverse proportion is ... The more specific an association between a factor and an effect is, the bigger the probability of a causal relationship. ...
*  Legg-CalvĂ©-Perthes disease
Genetics do not appear to be a determining factor, but a deficiency of blood factors with anticoagulant property used to ... One possible explanation that has been considered is tobacco smoke exposure, though this is significantly confounded by the ... though a paucity of reliable epidemiology exists in the Southern Hemisphere. Children of sufferers of the disease themselves ... Dietary factors of the child, and of the mother during pregnancy, are of interest to the research groups.[citation needed] 1897 ...
*  Correlation does not imply causation
... a risk factor and a disease, or a social or economic factor and various outcomes. It is one of the most abused types of ... Coincidence and causality Confounding Confusion of the inverse French paradox Design of experiments Joint effect Normally ... is this the death of observational epidemiology?". Int J Epidemiol. 33 (3): 464-467. doi:10.1093/ije/dyh124. PMID 15166201. CS1 ... Factors other than the potential causative variable of interest are controlled for by including them as regressors in addition ...
*  Case-control study
The results may be confounded by other factors, to the extent of giving the opposite answer to better studies. A meta-analysis ... Porta's Dictionary of Epidemiology defines the case-control study as: an observational epidemiological study of persons with ... Case-control studies are often used to identify factors that may contribute to a medical condition by comparing subjects who ... CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Rothman, K. J.; Greenland, S.; Lash, T. L. (2008). Modern Epidemiology (3rd ed.). ...
*  Cohort study
This minimizes the chance that the incidence of confounding (particularly unknown confounding) variables will differ between ... For instance: in medicine, it is an analysis of risk factors and follows a group of people who typically do not have a given ... Key findings of NCDS and a detailed profile of the study appear in the International Journal of Epidemiology. The Dunedin ... The advantage of prospective cohort study data is that it can help determine risk factors for contracting a new disease because ...
*  Hepatocellular carcinoma
The common risk factor for HCC in Asia is the high diagnosis of Hepatitis B. However, in Japan the common risk factor is ... A review of epidemiology and control measures". Journal of Epidemiology. 21 (6): 401-416. doi:10.2188/jea.JE20100190. PMC ... However, more research is required to examine issues related to the duration and treatment of diabetes, and confounding by diet ... HCC mostly occurs in people with cirrhosis of the liver, and so risk factors generally include factors which cause chronic ...
*  Causes of autism
... including a small number of studies and failure to control for potential confounding factors. A wide variety of postnatal ... International Journal of Epidemiology. 11 February 2014;43(2):443-464. doi:10.1093/ije/dyt282. PMID 24518932. Kinney DK, Munir ... The consensus among mainstream autism researchers is that genetic factors predominate. Environmental factors that have been ... Among these factors, vaccines have attracted much attention, as parents may first become aware of autistic symptoms in their ...
*  Cross-sectional study
... studies using data originally collected for other purposes are often unable to include data on confounding factors, other ... Epidemiology for the Uninitiated by Coggon, Rose, and Barker, Chapter 8, "Case-control and cross-sectional studies", BMJ ( ... The cross-sectional study has the advantage that it can investigate the effects of various demographic factors (age, for ... Lee, James (1994). "Odds Ratio or Relative Risk for Cross-Sectional Data?". International Journal of Epidemiology. 23 (1): 201- ...
*  Spurious relationship
... unseen factor (referred to as a "common response variable", "confounding factor", or "lurking variable"). A well-known case of ... Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. 18 (1): 18-22. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3016.2003.00534.x. Banerjee, A.; Dolado, J.; Galbraith ... If a confounding factor is omitted from the regression, its effect is captured in the error term by default, and if the ... If there is an unseen confounding factor in those conditions, this control culture will die as well, so that no conclusion of ...
*  Effects of cannabis
A confounding factor in cannabis research is the prevalent usage of other recreational drugs, especially alcohol and nicotine. ... Kelly, Erin; Darke, Shane; Ross, Joanne (2004). "A review of drug use and driving: epidemiology, impairment, risk factors and ... Studies on cannabis and memory are hindered by small sample sizes, confounding drug use, and other factors. The strongest ... The cause, according to the report, is driving inexperience and factors associated with youth relating to risk taking, ...