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*  Avoidance response
Food aversions can also be conditioned using classical conditioning, so that an animal learns to avoid a stimulus previously ... This can involve learning through operant conditioning when it is used as a training technique. It is a reaction to undesirable ... When these areas of the brain are lesioned or removed, animals display difficulty in maintaining a conditioned avoidance ... B.F. Skinner (1938) believed that animals learn primarily through rewards and punishments, the basis of operant conditioning. ...
*  Spontaneous recovery
Although aspects of classical conditioning had been noted by previous scholars, the first experimental analysis of the process ... This conclusion has been very important to both theories of classical conditioning and to its applications in behavioral ... Spontaneous recovery is associated with the learning process called classical conditioning, in which an organism learns to ... Proposed views on extinction cues suggest that they reduce the degree to which the test condition matches conditioning. It is ...
*  Classical conditioning
... differs from operant or instrumental conditioning: in classical conditioning, behaviors are modified ... Forms of classical conditioning that are used for this purpose include, among others, fear conditioning, eyeblink conditioning ... In classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus is not simply connected to the unconditioned response; the conditioned ... Scholarpedia Classical conditioning Scholarpedia Computational models of classical conditioning Scholarpedia Hermissenda. ...
*  Dishabituation
"Classical Conditioning , Learning, Memory, & Attention" (PDF). University of California, San Diego - Department of Cognitive ... Psychology portal Adaptive behaviors Operant conditioning Perceptual learning Reinforcement Steiner, Genevieve Z.; Barry, ... to a behavior that was not conditioned to begin with. According to the dual-process theory of habituation, dishabituation is ...
*  Dog training
Classical conditioning (or Pavlovian conditioning) is a form of learning in which one stimulus, the conditioned stimulus, comes ... Classical conditioning is when a dog learns to associate things in its environment, or discovers some things just go together. ... Classical conditioning is used in dog training to help a dog make specific associations with a particular stimulus, ... This can be through classical conditioning, where it forms an association between two stimuli; non-associative learning, where ...
*  Robert A. Rescorla
Rescorla and his team use an assortment of classical conditioning concepts. Some include fear conditioning, reward training and ... This models classical conditioning. It is unique because it explains how the unexpected can influence learning. The model shows ... In A.H. Black & W.F. Prokasy, Eds., Classical Conditioning II, pp. 64-99. Appleton-CenturyCrofts. Rescorla, Robert A. " ... is an American psychologist that specialized in the involvement of cognitive processes in classical conditioning focusing on ...
*  Evaluative conditioning
... is a form of classical conditioning, as invented by Ivan Pavlov, in that it involves a change in the ... Whereas classic conditioning can refer to a change in any type of response, evaluative conditioning concerns only a change in ... doi:10.1016/S0065-2601(10)43005-1. Staats, A.W.; Staats, C.K. (1958). "Attitudes established by classical conditioning". ... a change in the liking of the conditioned stimulus. A classic example of the formation of attitudes through conditioning is the ...
*  Imagined contact hypothesis
Dadds, M.R.; Bovbjerg, D.H.; Redd, W.H.; Cutmore, T.R. (1997). "Imagery in human classical conditioning". Psychological ... In the control condition participants are instructed: "We would like you to take a minute to imagine an outdoor scene. Try to ... In the imagined contact condition instructions state: "We would like you to take a minute to imagine yourself meeting [an ... For the imagined contact condition it is important that the interaction be positive and involve a social element. Indeed, if ...
*  Psychological behaviorism
Skinner contributed greatly in separating Pavlov's classical conditioning of emotion responses and operant conditioning of ... Staats, however, notes that food was used by Pavlov to elicit a positive emotional response in his classical conditioning and ... The basic principles level, as one example, needs to study systematically the relationship of the classical conditioning of ... Staats, Arthur; Saats, Carolyn (1959). "Attitudes established by classical conditioning". The Journal of Abnormal and Social ...
*  Sexual fetishism
Some explanations invoke classical conditioning. In several experiments, men have been conditioned to show arousal to stimuli ... He suggests that conditioning combines with some other factor, such as an abnormality in the sexual learning process. Theories ... Similar sexual conditioning has been demonstrated in gouramis, marmosets and Japanese quails. Possible boot fetishism has been ... Martin Kafka argued that partialism should be merged into fetishism because of overlap between the two conditions, and the DSM- ...
*  Cephalopod intelligence
Classical conditioning of cephalopods has been reported. One study concluded that octopuses are capable of using observational ...
*  Implicit self-esteem
The influence of evaluative conditioning on implicit self-esteem is analogous to the principles of classical conditioning on ... Baccus, J.R.; Baldwin, M.W.; Packer, D.J. (2004). "Increasing implicit self-esteem through classical conditioning". ... Given that evaluative conditioning changes attitude at a fundamental level and the evaluation that is automatically activated ... 2004). "I like myself but I don't know why: enhancing implicit self-esteem by subliminal evaluative conditioning". Journal of ...
*  Learning theory (education)
Classical conditioning regards this form of learning to be the same whether in dogs or in humans. Operant conditioning ... There are three types of conditioning and learning: Classical conditioning, where the behavior becomes a reflex response to an ... Classical conditioning was discovered by Ivan Pavlov. He observed that if dogs come to associate the delivery of food with a ... There are many different conditions that influence transfer of learning in the classroom. These conditions include features of ...
*  Functional magnetic resonance imaging
For example, the hippocampus has been shown to be activated during classical conditioning, however lesion studies have ... By making the conditions differ in only the cognitive process of interest, the fMRI signal that differentiates the conditions ... "Intact delay-eyeblink classical conditioning in amnesia". Behav. Neurosci. 109 (5): 819-27. doi:10.1037/0735-7044.109.5.819. ... demonstrated that classical conditioning can occur without the hippocampus. The most common risk to participants in an fMRI ...
*  Prenatal memory
... classical conditioning, habituation and exposure learning. Classical conditioning is described as the pairing of a conditioned ... Many of these functions are measured through methods such as classical conditioning, habituation and exposure learning, being ... Overall, studies indicate that there is an ability for fetal learning and memory, and through classical conditioning, ... without prior classical conditioning. However, the continuous pairing of the loud noise (US) with the vibration (CS) converts ...
*  Neural top-down control of physiology
Irie, M.; Asami, S.; Nagata, S.; Miyata, M.; Kasai, H. (2000). "Classical conditioning of oxidative DNA damage in rats". ... Such conditioning in rats can last a year. Nonimmune functions can also be conditioned: Serum iron levels The level of ... This work was originally done on rats, however, the same conditioning can also occur in humans. The conditioned response ... "Classical conditioning and conditionability of insulin and glucose effects in healthy humans". Physiology & Behavior. 81 (3): ...
*  Encoding (memory)
Ivan Pavlov began research pertaining to classical conditioning. His research demonstrated the ability to create a semantic ... showed significantly more activation during semantic encoding conditions compared to nonsemantic encoding conditions regardless ... They found that those who were tested in the same condition that they had learned the information in were better able to recall ... For these NMDA receptors to be activated, there must be two conditions. Firstly, glutamate has to be released and bound to the ...
*  Association (psychology)
Classical conditioning is an example of a learned association. The classical conditioning process consists of four elements: ... This learning is seen in classical and operant conditioning. Edward Thorndike did research in this area and developed the law ... Stimuli do not cause behavior, as in classical conditioning, but instead the associations are created between stimulus and ... The secondary stimulus is known as the conditioned stimulus and elicits a conditioned response. The strength of the response to ...
*  Implicit attitude
This finding supports the fundamental principals of classical conditioning. Implicit attitudes are also developed by more ...
*  Blocking effect
Classical conditioning Rescorla-Wagner model Kamin, L.J. (1969). Predictability, surprise, attention and conditioning. In B.A. ... In Kamin's blocking effect the conditioning of an association between two stimuli, a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an ... conditioned response, CR). Then, there are more conditioning trials, this time with the light (CS1) and a tone (CS2) together ... For example, an agent (such as a mouse in the figure) is exposed to a light (the first conditioned stimulus, CS1), together ...
*  Prenatal and perinatal psychology
S. 143). William P. Smotherman, Scott R. Robinson: Classical conditioning of opioid activity in the fetal rat. In: Behavioral ... Smotherman, William P.; Robinson, Scott R. (1994). Classical conditioning of opioid activity in the fetal rat. In: Behavioral ... Ray examined vibro-acoustic conditioning of human fetuses. According to Hepper it rested uncertain, if such conditioning was ... Hepper claims to have repeat such conditioning experiments successfully, with the earliest vibro-acoustic conditioning in the ...
*  Psychology of learning
Educational Psychology Learning Media psychology Learning theory (education) Classical conditioning Operant conditioning . ... The process he used is now called classical conditioning. John Broadus Watson (1878-1958) also used this method of learning to ... Operant conditioning is only limited by what can be used as reinforcement or punishment. ... The main assumption behind all learning psychology is that the effects of the environment, conditioning, reinforcement, etc. ...
*  Placebo button
First, placebo thermostats work in accordance with classical conditioning. Classical conditioning was first discovered by Ivan ... Both psychological concepts of classical conditioning and the placebo effect may play a role in the effectiveness of placebo ... Placebo thermostats work on two psychological principles, which are classical conditioning and the placebo effect. ... Stewart-Williams, Steve; John Podd (2004). "The Placebo Effect: Dissolving the Expectancy Versus Conditioning Debate". ...
*  Delos Wickens
... he investigated classical conditioning in light of proactive interference. He found evidence of retention of the conditioned ... Wickens focused on classical conditioning. In 1938 he authored several articles about the transference of conditioned ... Wickens, D. (1938). "The Transference of conditioned excitation and conditioned inhibition from one muscle group to the ... contributing the section on classical conditioning to the Encyclopedia of Psychology, and was associate editor of the Journal ...
*  Conditioned emotional response
Classical conditioning Measures of conditioned emotional response Carlson, Neil (2010). Psychology the Science of Behaviour [ ... In Pavlov's original demonstration of classical conditioning, he used a backward conditioning arrangement as the control ... "conditioned fear response (CFR)." It is an "emotional response" that results from classical conditioning, usually from the ... 0 is indicative of asymptotic conditioning). CER can, therefore, measure both conditioned excitation and conditioned inhibition ...
*  Anton Chekhov
But on these conditions: everything must be as it has been hitherto - that is, she must live in Moscow while I live in the ... ISBN 978-1-84331-841-5. For Rozanov, Chekhov represents a concluding stage of classical Russian literature at the turn of the ... of how people truly act and speak with each other and translating it to the stage to manifest the human condition as accurately ... unhealthy and cramped living conditions, which he recalled in his short story "Peasants". Chekhov visited the upper classes as ...
*  Mushroom bodies
In a classical conditioning paradigm, pairing neuronal depolarization (via acetylcholine application to represent the odor or ... doi:10.1016/S1405-888X(14)70317-1. Tully, T; Quinn, WG (September 1985). "Classical conditioning and retention in normal and ... Essentially, during a conditioning paradigm when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus, PKA exhibits ... Long-Term Memory Trace Forms in the γ Neurons of Drosophila Mushroom Bodies after Olfactory Classical Conditioning". The ...