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*  Marilyn Kozak
Kozak, M (31 January 1986). "Point mutations define a sequence flanking the AUG initiator codon that modulates translation by ... Kozak, Marilyn (4 October 1993). "Identifying AUG Initiator Codons" (PDF). Citation Classic Commentaries. 36 (40). Retrieved 4 ...
*  Kozak consensus sequence
Kozak M (1984). "Point mutations close to the AUG initiator codon affect the efficiency of translation of rat preproinsulin in ... Kozak M (1986). "Point mutations define a sequence flanking the AUG initiator codon that modulates translation by eukaryotic ... "Downstream secondary structure facilitates recognition of initiator codons by eukaryotic ribosomes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S ... Rarely, GUG is used as an initiation codon, but methionine is still the first amino acid as it is the met-tRNA in the ...
*  Inferring horizontal gene transfer
Wuitschick, J. D.; Karrer, K. M. (1999). "Analysis of genomic G + C content, codon usage, initiator codon context and ... Codon usage bias, a measure related to codon frequencies, was one of the first detection methods used in methodical assessments ... This approach requires a host genome which contains a bias towards certain synonymous codons (different codons which code for ... for example the third nucleotide in a codon and the first nucleotide in the following codon represent the dinucleotide least ...
*  GC-content
Wuitschick JD, Karrer KM (1999). "Analysis of genomic G + C content, codon usage, initiator codon context and translation ... This has been pointed to the fact that the stop codon has a bias towards A and T nucleotides, and, thus, the shorter the ... Codon usage bias Definition of GC - content on CancerWeb of Newcastle University,UK Yakovchuk P, Protozanova E, Frank- ...
*  Shine-Dalgarno sequence
The degree of base pairing also plays a role in determining the rate of initiation at different AUG initiator codons. In 1973 ... Since this conserved sequence contained the complement of each of the three eukaryotic termination codons (UAA, UAG and UGA) it ... doi:10.1016/0092-8674(89)90122-0. Steitz J A, Jakes K (1975). "How ribosomes select initiator regions in mRNA: base pair ... Kozak consensus sequence, the sequence that targets the ribosome to the initiation codon in eukaryotes. Prokaryotic translation ...
*  Internal ribosome entry site
HCV-like IRESs directly bind the 40S ribosomal subunit to position their initiator codons are located in ribosomal P-site ...
*  Start codon
Presence of an AUU initiator codon". The EMBO Journal. 1 (3): 311-315. PMC 553041 . PMID 6325158. Missiakas, D.; Georgopoulos, ... The start codon is the first codon of a messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript translated by a ribosome. The start codon always codes ... Alternate start codons are still translated as Met when they are at the start of a protein (even if the codon encodes a ... Alternative start codons are different from the standard AUG codon and are found in both prokaryotes (bacteria) and eukaryotes ...
*  Hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site
Moreover, it binds 40S in such a manner that AUG initiator codon is positioned in the ribosomal P-site, thus no ribosomal ... Initiator tRNA is delivered either by eIF2 or, in stress conditions when eIF2 is inactivated, by eIF2A, eIF2D, or possibly ... UTR to reach to start codon. In contrast, translation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) mRNA is initiated by a different mechanism ...
*  TUBA4A
... exons either provide or deny an initiator methionine codon to the same alpha-tubulin coding region". Nucleic Acids Research. 15 ...
*  List of MeSH codes (G14)
... codon MeSH G14.340.024.340.137.190.225 --- codon, initiator MeSH G14.340.024.340.137.190.250 --- codon, terminator MeSH G14.340 ... codon, initiator MeSH G14.335.355.250 --- codon, terminator MeSH G14.335.355.250.235 --- codon, nonsense MeSH G14.335.760.640 ...
*  Reelin
ATG initiator codon of the RELN gene in an Italian population. Longer triplet repeats in the 5' region were associated with an ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D13)
... codon MeSH D13.444.735.544.355.225 --- codon, initiator MeSH D13.444.735.544.355.250 --- codon, terminator MeSH D13.444.735.544 ... 235 --- codon, nonsense MeSH D13.444.735.544.500 --- rna caps MeSH D13.444.735.544.500.710 --- rna cap analogs MeSH D13.444. ...
*  TPSB2
These genes have an intron immediately upstream of the initiator Met codon, which separates the site of transcription ...
*  Glycine dehydrogenase (decarboxylating)
2005). "A single nucleotide substitution that abolishes the initiator methionine codon of the GLDC gene is prevalent among ...
*  Central dogma of molecular biology
The ribosome reads the mRNA triplet codons, usually beginning with an AUG (adenine−uracil−guanine), or initiator methionine ... matching the codon in the mRNA to the anti-codon on the tRNA. Each tRNA bears the appropriate amino acid residue to add to the ... Translation ends with a stop codon which may be a UAA, UGA, or UAG triplet. The mRNA does not contain all the information for ... codon downstream of the ribosome binding site. Complexes of initiation factors and elongation factors bring aminoacylated ...
*  Prokaryotic initiation factor-3
It also allows for rapid codon-anticodon pairing for the initiator tRNA to bind quickly to. IF3 is required by the small ...
*  Prokaryotic initiation factor
It also allows for rapid codon-anticodon pairing for the initiator tRNA to bind quickly to. IF3 is required by the small ... Prokaryotic initiation factor-2 binds to an initiator tRNA and controls the entry of that tRNA into the ribosome. IF2, bound to ...
*  TPSD1
... most of the tryptase genes have an intron immediately upstream of the initiator Met codon, which separates the site of ...
*  Parathyroid hormone-related protein
... in-frame and downstream of the initiator AUG codon, to give rise to nuclear forms of this hormone. The protein was first ...
*  Index of genetics articles
Industrial melanism Infectious transfer Informed consent Inherit Inherited Initiation codon Initiation Initiation Initiator ... bank Cloned DNA Cloning Cloning vector Coccus Code Code dictionary Coding strand Codominance Codon Codon usage bias aka Codon ... Ochre codon Okazaki fragment Oligo Oligogenic Oligonucleotide Oncogene Oncogenes Oncovirus Oocyte Oogenesis Oogonia Opal codon ... Non-disjunction Non-histone protein Non-linear tetrad Non-Mendelian ratio Non-parental Non-recombinant Nonsense codon Nonsense ...
*  P-site
Initiation involves recognition of the start codon (AUG) by initiator tRNA in the P-site, elongation phase involves passage of ... The A-site binds to incoming to aminoacyl-tRNA which has the anti-codon for the corresponding codon in the mRNA presented in ... When a stop codon is reached, the peptidyl-tRNA bond of the tRNA located in the P-site is cleaved releasing the newly ... Translation moves the tRNA from the A-site through the P- and E-sites, with the exception of the initiator tRNA, which binds ...
*  Eukaryotic initiation factor
Following placement of the initiator tRNA on the AUG start codon in the P-site, eIF1 dissociates and eIF2 switches to the GDP- ... along the mRNA to reach an AUG start codon. Recognition of the start codon by the Met-tRNAiMet promotes gated phosphate and ... In particular, eIF1 dissociation from the 40S subunit is considered to be a key step in start codon recognition. eIF1 and eIF1A ... eIF2 is the main protein complex responsible for delivering the initiator tRNA to the P-site of the preinitiation complex, as a ...
*  Eukaryotic translation
... the amino acid encoded by the start codon is methionine. The Met-charged initiator tRNA (Met-tRNAiMet) is brought to the P-site ... The initiator tRNA occupies the P site in the ribosome, and the A site is ready to receive an aminoacyl-tRNA. During chain ... At the end of the initiation step, the mRNA is positioned so that the next codon can be translated during the elongation stage ... Leaky termination in these genes leads to translational readthrough of up to 10% of the stop codons of these genes. Some of ...
*  SUI1 protein domain
... helped by eIF2 and the initiator Met-tRNAiMet. SUI1 ensures that translation initiation commences from the correct start codon ... SUI1 promotes a high initiation fidelity for the AUG codon, discriminating against non-AUG codons. . The primary structure of ... and 2β discriminate against poor AUG context and non-AUG start codons". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 31 (23): 4814-31. doi: ... recognition of the start codon". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 12 (1): 248-60. PMC 364089 . PMID 1729602. Martin-Marcos P, ...
*  Biosynthesis
In all, there are 64 codons, 61 of each code for one of the 20 amino acids, while the remaining codons specify chain ... The binding of a charged initiator tRNA into the P site of the ribosome 3. The proper alignment of the ribosome with mRNA's ... The last stage of translation occurs when a stop codon enters the A site. Then, the following steps occur: 1. The recognition ... start codon Following initiation, the polypeptide chain is extended via anticodon:codon interactions, with the ribosome adding ...
*  Stringent response
W Haseltine; R Block (1973). "Synthesis of guanosine tetra- and pentaphosphate requires the presence of a codon-specific, ... "Thermodynamic characterization of ppGpp binding to EF-G or IF2 and of initiator tRNA binding to free IF2 in the presence of GDP ...