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*  Effective number of codons
... (abbreviated as ENC or Nc) is a measure to study the state of codon usage biases in genes and ... Fuglsang A. (2006). "Estimating the "effective number of codons": the Wright way of determining codon homozygosity leads to ... Although it is easy to compute ENC values, it has been shown that this measure is one of the best measures to show codon usage ... Fuglsang A. (2008). "Impact of bias discrepancy and amino acid usage on estimates of the effective number of codons used in a ...
*  Codon usage bias
... codon pair bias, a codon ramp or codon correlations. Specialized codon bias is further seen in some endogenous genes such as ... stop codons). There are 64 different codons (61 codons encoding for amino acids plus 3 stop codons) but only 20 different ... General Codon Usage Analysis Graphical Codon Usage Analyser JCat - Java Codon Usage Adaptation Tool INCA - Interactive Codon ... Codon usage bias refers to differences in the frequency of occurrence of synonymous codons in coding DNA. A codon is a series ...
*  Exon shuffling
... between the first and second nucleotide of a codon (phase 1 introns), or between the second and third nucleotide of a codon ( ... Introns can interrupt the reading frame of a gene by inserting a sequence between two consecutive codons (phase 0 introns), ...
*  Codon (genus)
Codon is a small genus of plants from South Africa in the family Codonaceae in the order Boraginales. The genus Codon comprises ... Codon royenii L. Codon schenckii Schinz Weigend, M.; Hilger, H. H. (2014-10-28). "Codonaceae-a newly required family name in ... Codon was placed in the Hydrophyllaceae and Boraginaceae. Recent phyllogenetic analysis place it as sister group to the ... The species of the genus Codon are annual to perennial herbs. The whole plants are densely covered with strong mineralised, ...
*  Codon degeneracy
Degeneracy of codons is the redundancy of the genetic code, exhibited as the multiplicity of three-base pair codon combinations ... Only two amino acids are specified by a single codon. One of these is the amino-acid methionine, specified by the codon AUG, ... The appearance of codon degeneracy implies the existence of certain symmetry for codon multiplicity assignment. These ... For example, in theory, fourfold degenerate codons can tolerate any point mutation at the third position, although codon usage ...
*  Stop codon
... suppression or translational readthrough occurs when in translation a stop codon is interpreted as a sense codon, ... Because of this terminology, stop codons have also been referred to as nonsense codons. Recognition of stop codons in bacteria ... Codons that can form hidden stops are used in genomes more frequently compared to synonymous codons that would otherwise code ... While start codons need nearby sequences or initiation factors to start translation, a stop codon alone is sufficient to ...
*  Start codon
The start codon is the first codon of a messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript translated by a ribosome. The start codon always codes ... Alternate start codons are still translated as Met when they are at the start of a protein (even if the codon encodes a ... Alternative start codons are different from the standard AUG codon and are found in both prokaryotes (bacteria) and eukaryotes ... The most common start codon is AUG. The start codon is often preceded by a 5' untranslated region (5' UTR). In prokaryotes this ...
*  Codon (disambiguation)
Codon may refer to any of the following: a three-base sequence of DNA that encodes a single amino acid in the genetic code ... Codon (genus), a genus of plants in the family Boraginaceae. ...
*  DNA codon table
The DNA codons in such tables occur on the sense DNA strand and are arranged in a 5' → 3' direction. There is the existence of ... A The codon ATG both codes for methionine and serves as an initiation site: the first ATG in an mRNA's coding region is where ... With the rise of computational biology and genomics, most genes are now discovered at the DNA level, so a DNA codon table is ... The genetic code is traditionally represented as an RNA codon table because, when proteins are made in a cell by ribosomes, it ...
*  Codon Adaptation Index
... synonymous codons for amino acid}}]} Codon usage bias Genetic code Codon Sharp, Paul M.; Li, Wen-Hsiung (1987). "The codon ... The Codon Adaptation Index (CAI) is the most widespread technique for analyzing Codon usage bias. As opposed to other measures ... as the ratio between the observed frequency of the codon fi and the frequency of the most frequent synonymous codon fj for that ... w i = f i max ( f j ) i , j ∈ [ synonymous codons for amino acid ] {\displaystyle w_{i}={\frac {f_{i}}{\max(f_{j})}}\qquad i,j\ ...
*  Mutation
A nonsense mutation is a point mutation in a sequence of DNA that results in a premature stop codon, or a nonsense codon in the ... They may occur in a region that does not code for a protein, or they may occur within a codon in a manner that does not alter ... See Stop codon.) Missense mutations or nonsynonymous mutations are types of point mutations where a single nucleotide is ... A neutral mutation is a mutation that occurs in an amino acid codon that results in the use of a different, but chemically ...
*  Genetic code
Translation starts with a chain-initiation codon or start codon. The start codon alone is not sufficient to begin the process. ... The three stop codons have names: UAG is amber, UGA is opal (sometimes also called umber), and UAA is ochre. Stop codons are ... The following codon usage table is for the human genome. A The codon AUG both codes for methionine and serves as an initiation ... Stop codons: Codons for translational stops are also an interesting aspect to the problem of the origin of the genetic code. As ...
*  Saumitra Das
"Molecular Genetics of Secondary Glioblastoma". Brisbane (AU): Codon Publications. ISBN 9780994438126. PMID 29251857. Nath, ...
*  PON2
2002). "Codon 311 (Cys --> Ser) polymorphism of paraoxonase-2 gene is associated with apolipoprotein E4 allele in both ...
*  Molecular evolution
Mutation of a stop codon to a regular codon or a frameshift may cause an extended protein that includes a previously non-coding ... Biases in codon usage are usually explained with reference to the ability of even weak selection to shape molecular evolution. ... For example, there are six codons that code for leucine. Thus, despite the difference in mutation rates, it is essential to ... Even synonymous mutations are not necessarily neutral because there is not a uniform amount of each codon. The nearly neutral ...
*  Seven Sutherland Sisters
"Seven Sutherland Sisters Hair Grower". hairraisingstories.com/. Colorado Springs, CO: Don Fadely. Retrieved January 14, 2018. " ...
*  Silent mutation
For example, there is a specific tRNA molecule for the codon UCU and another specific for the codon UCC, both of which code for ... This is reflected in the codon usage bias that is observed in many species. Mutations that cause the altered codon to produce ... Many organisms are known to exhibit codon usage biases, suggesting that there is selection for the use of particular codons due ... Most amino acids are specified by multiple codons demonstrating that the genetic code is degenerate. Codons that code for the ...
*  Kangri cancer
"Impact of codon 72 Arg > Pro single nucleotide polymorphism in TP53 gene in the risk of kangri cancer: a case control study in ... codon 72 polymorphism). Patients with higher grade tumors exhibited more proline amino acid mutations at this site. Another ...
*  C1QL1
Editing results in a codon change from a Glutamine codon to an Arginine codon. T/A site This site is also found in exon 1, at ... These codon changes are nonsynomonous. Since the editing sites are located just before a collagen like trimerization domain, ...
*  Minnesota United FC
Codon, Patrick (April 20, 2015). "Senate votes to bar state money for soccer stadium". Minneapolis Star Tribune. Retrieved ...
*  Alan Garen
The Garen lab also showed that certain triplet codons (5'-UAG, 5'-UAA, and 5'-UGA) failed to bind amino acids. Thus, the Garen ... Stretton AO, Kaplan S, Brenner S (1966). "Nonsense codons". Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol. 31: 173-179. doi:10.1101/sqb. ... lab and Brenner labs are both credited with discovery of the stop codons of the genetic code. Garen is currently a professor at ...
*  List of Plasmodium species
In the New World strains this residue has been replaced by an isoleucine (G -> A in the first codon position). Two separate ...
*  SECIS element
In archaea and eukaryotes, it occurs in the 3' UTR of an mRNA, and can cause multiple UGA codons within the mRNA to code for ... This structural motif (pattern of nucleotides) directs the cell to translate UGA codons as selenocysteines. (UGA is normally a ... In bacteria the SECIS element appears soon after the UGA codon it affects. ... stop codon.) SECIS elements are thus a fundamental aspect of messenger RNAs encoding selenoproteins, proteins that include one ...
*  Edward Rubin
Stop codon reassignments in the wild. Science. 2014 344 (6186): 909-913. Rinke C et al. Insights into the phylogeny and coding ...
*  Untranslated region
This sequence is found 3-10 base pairs upstream from the initiation codon. The initiation codon is the start site of ... The initiation codon is the start site of translation into protein. The importance of these untranslated regions of mRNA is ... The 3' UTR is found immediately following the translation stop codon. The 3' UTR plays a critical role in translation ... It contains a kozak consensus sequence (ACCAUGG)(put internal link). This sequence contains the initiation codon. ...