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*  HUMARA assay
Gartler, S. M.; Riggs, A. D. (1983-01-01). "Mammalian X-chromosome inactivation". Annual Review of Genetics. 17: 155-190. doi: ... that is located on X chromosome. Considering the fact that once one X chromosome is inactivated in a cell, all other cells ... The method is based on X chromosome inactivation and it takes the advantage of having different methylation status of a gene ... Thanks to these qualities of HUMARA gene, clonal origin of any tissue from a female mammalian organism can be determined. The ...
*  Homologous chromosome
Sargent RG, Brenneman MA, Wilson JH (January 1997). "Repair of site-specific double-strand breaks in a mammalian chromosome by ... The additional 23rd pair is the sex chromosomes, X and Y. If this pair is made up of an X and Y chromosome, then the pair of ... It reduces the chromosome number in a germ cell by half by first separating the homologous chromosomes in meiosis I and then ... Homologous chromosomes are chromosomes which contain the same genes in the same order along their chromosomal arms. There are ...
*  Kurt Hirschhorn
Mammalian Chromosomes Newsletter. 4 (14). Hirschhorn K, Cooper HL, Firschein IL (1965). "Deletion of short arms of chromosome 4 ... Cooper H, Hirschhorn K (1961). "Apparent deletion of short arms of one chromosome (4 or 5) in a child with defects of midline ...
*  List of organisms by chromosome count
Brien, Stephen (2006). Atlas of mammalian chromosomes. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Liss. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-471-35015-6. Warren; et al. ( ... O'Brien, Stephen J., Meninger, Joan C., Nash, William G. (2006). Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes. John Wiley & sons. p. 78. ISBN ... The list of organisms by chromosome count describes ploidy or numbers of chromosomes in the cells of various plants, animals, ... origins of an XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system". Mammalian Genome. 8 (6): 418-22. doi:10.1007/s003359900459. PMID 9166586. Fujito ...
*  Red rock hare
Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Liss. pp. 342-355. doi:10.1002/0471779059. ISBN 9780471779056. Robinson, T. ... The Pronolagus chromosomes have undergone four fusions and one fission from the Lagomorpha ancestral state (2n=48), which ... All species in this genus have 21 pairs of chromosomes (2n = 42). The karotype for P. rupestris has been published. ... doi:10.1080/02541858.1982.11447806 . Robinson, T. J. (1980). "Comparative chromosome studies in the family Leporidae ( ...
*  DNA replication
Huberman, Joel A.; Riggs, Arthur D. (March 1968). "On the mechanism of DNA replication in mammalian chromosomes". Journal of ... Because eukaryotes have linear chromosomes, DNA replication is unable to reach the very end of the chromosomes. Due to this ... This shortens the telomeres of the daughter DNA chromosome. As a result, cells can only divide a certain number of times before ... In bacteria, which have a single origin of replication on their circular chromosome, this process creates a "theta structure" ( ...
*  Top-down proteomics
Smith CL, Cantor CR (1989). "Evolving strategies for making physical maps of mammalian chromosomes". Genome. 31 (2): 1055-8. ...
*  Arthur Riggs (geneticist)
As a result of his interest in gene regulation in mammalian cells, Riggs became curious about X chromosome inactivation, in ... Huberman, JA; Riggs, AD (14 March 1968). "On the mechanism of DNA replication in mammalian chromosomes". Journal of Molecular ... As graduate students at Caltech, he and Joel A. Huberman collaborated on work that later led to a classic paper on mammalian ... Somatostatin was the first mammalian hormone to be produced in a bacterium. Next the group created a gene coding for human ...
*  T. C. Hsu
Hsu T.C., & Pomerat, C.M. (1953). Mammalian chromosomes in vitro II: A method for spreading the chromosomes of cells in tissue ... Hsu, T. C. (1952). Mammalian chromosomes in vitro I: The karyotype of man. Journal of Heredity, 43, 167-172. ... The correct diploid chromosome number of 46 human chromosomes was first reported three years later by Joe Hin Tjio and Albert ... He was the 13th president of American Society for Cell Biology, and known as the Father of Mammalian Cytogenetics. Hsu was born ...
*  Fractal globule
It has been proposed that mammalian chromosomes form fractal globules. Dewey, T. Gregory (1998) Fractals in Biophysics. Oxford ... Mirny, Leonid (2011). "The fractal globule as a model of chromatin architecture in the cell". Chromosome Research. 19 (1): 37- ...
*  Ancestral reconstruction
Murphy, W. J. (2005). "Dynamics of Mammalian Chromosome Evolution Inferred from Multispecies Comparative Maps". Science. 309 ( ... Studies of both mammalian carnivores and fishes have demonstrated that without incorporating fossil data, the reconstructed ... Chromosome painting is currently the main experimental technique. Recently, researchers have developed computational methods to ... Watterson, G.A.; Ewens, W.J.; Hall, T.E.; Morgan, A. (1982). "The chromosome inversion problem". Journal of Theoretical Biology ...
*  Insulated neighborhood
"Control of cell identity genes occurs in insulated neighborhoods in mammalian chromosomes". Cell. 159 (2): 374-87. doi:10.1016/ ... In mammalian biology, insulated neighborhoods are chromosomal loop structures formed by the physical interaction of two DNA ... Mammalian gene transcription is generally controlled by enhancers. Enhancers can regulate transcription of genes at large ... Hnisz, D; Day, DS; Young, RA (17 November 2016). "Insulated Neighborhoods: Structural and Functional Units of Mammalian Gene ...
*  Richard A. Young
"Control of cell identity genes occurs in insulated neighborhoods in mammalian chromosomes". Cell. 159 (2): 374-87. doi:10.1016/ ... He teaches two graduate courses at MIT, "Cell Biology: Structure and Functions of the Nucleus" and "Topics of Mammalian ... Hnisz, D; Day, DS; Young, RA (2016). "Insulated neighborhoods: structural and functional units of mammalian gene control". Cell ... "3D Chromosome Regulatory Landscape of Human Pluripotent Cells". Cell stem cell. 18 (2): 262-75. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2015.11.007 ...
*  Insulator (genetics)
"Control of cell identity genes occurs in insulated neighborhoods in mammalian chromosomes". Cell. 159 (2): 374-87. doi:10.1016/ ... The need for insulators arises where two adjacent genes on a chromosome have very different transcription patterns; it is ... Perkel J (1 June 2015). "Mapping chromosome neighborhoods". Biotechniques. 58 (6): 280-284. doi:10.2144/000114296. PMID ... "chromosome neighborhoods" - genomic regions within which regulation occurs. Some insulators can act as both enhancer blocker ...
*  Super-enhancer
"Control of cell identity genes occurs in insulated neighborhoods in mammalian chromosomes". Cell. 159 (2): 374-87. doi:10.1016/ ... In genetics, a super-enhancer is a region of the mammalian genome comprising multiple enhancers that is collectively bound by ... Ohba S, He X, Hojo H, McMahon AP (July 2015). "Distinct Transcriptional Programs Underlie Sox9 Regulation of the Mammalian ... "3D Chromosome Regulatory Landscape of Human Pluripotent Cells". Cell Stem Cell. 18 (2): 262-75. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2015.11.007 ...
*  Genome diversity and karyotype evolution of mammals
S. J. O'Brien, W. G. N.; Menninger, J. C. (2006). "Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes". a. C-banded chromosomes of the Eurasian ... The banded karyotypes of 850 mammalian species were summarized in the Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes. Karyotype variability in ... Chromosome banding has been a reliable indicator of chromosome homology overall, i.e. that the chromosome identified on the ... Comparative genomics data including chromosome painting confirmed the substantial conservation of mammalian chromosomes. Total ...
*  SEPT2
Spiliotis ET, Kinoshita M, Nelson WJ (March 2005). "A mitotic septin scaffold required for Mammalian chromosome congression and ... Kinoshita M, Kumar S, Mizoguchi A, Ide C, Kinoshita A, Haraguchi T, Hiraoka Y, Noda M (June 1997). "Nedd5, a mammalian septin, ... Sakai K, Kurimoto M, Tsugu A, Hubbard SL, Trimble WS, Rutka JT (May 2002). "Expression of Nedd5, a mammalian septin, in human ... Nagata K, Asano T, Nozawa Y, Inagaki M (December 2004). "Biochemical and cell biological analyses of a mammalian septin complex ...
*  ERCC4
"Alternative-NHEJ is a mechanistically distinct pathway of mammalian chromosome break repair". PLoS Genetics. 4 (6): e1000110. ... Mammalian cells with mutant ERCC1-XPF are moderately more sensitive than normal cells to agents (such as ionizing radiation) ... Mammalian cells carrying mutations in ERCC1 or XPF are especially sensitive to agents that cause DNA interstrand crosslinks ( ... ERCC1 and ERCC4 are the human gene names and Ercc1 and Ercc4 are the analogous mammalian gene names. Similar genes with similar ...
*  Long non-coding RNA
Telomeres form the terminal region of mammalian chromosomes and are essential for stability and aging and play central roles in ... The expression of Xist from the future inactive X-chromosome, and its subsequent coating of the inactive X-chromosome, occurs ... "Telomeric repeat containing RNA and RNA surveillance factors at mammalian chromosome ends". Science. 318 (5851): 798-801. ... The inactivation of a X-chromosome in female placental mammals is directed by one of the earliest and best characterized long ...
*  Radiation hybrid mapping
... (also known as RH mapping) is a technique for mapping mammalian chromosomes. Radiation hybrid mapping ... a somatic cell genetic method for constructing high-resolution maps of mammalian chromosomes". Science. 250. doi:10.1126/ ... If two given DNA markers are far apart on the initial chromosome, then it is likely that they will appear in distinct fragments ... The RH procedure was used to map 14 DNA probes from a region of human chromosome 21 spanning 20 megabase pairs. Deloukas, Panos ...
*  AndrĂ© Choulika
Induction of homologous recombination in mammalian chromosomes by using the I-SceI system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. " ... "Induction of homologous recombination in mammalian chromosomes by using the I-SceI system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae". ... to edit genes in mammalian cells, giving rise to the modern field of gene editing. After receiving his doctorate in molecular ... "The yeast I-Sce I meganuclease induces site-directed chromosomal recombination in mammalian cells". Comptes rendus de ...
*  Autoradiograph
"Deoxyribonucleic acid fiber autoradiography as a technique for studying the replication of the mammalian chromosome". J. ...
*  EZH2
X-chromosome inactivation and transcriptional regulation. In mammalian chromosomes, histone lysine methylation can either ... Laible G, Wolf A, Dorn R, Reuter G, Nislow C, Lebersorger A, Popkin D, Pillus L, Jenuwein T (1997). "Mammalian homologues of ... Laible G, Wolf A, Dorn R, Reuter G, Nislow C, Lebersorger A, Popkin D, Pillus L, Jenuwein T (Jun 1997). "Mammalian homologues ... H3K27me3 is also important in driving X-inactivation, the silencing of one X-chromosome in females during development. During X ...
*  Gene therapy
In 1984 a retrovirus vector system was designed that could efficiently insert foreign genes into mammalian chromosomes. The ... The vector incorporates genes into chromosomes. The expressed nucleases then knock out and replace genes in the chromosome. As ... The initial approach incorporated DNA into an engineered virus to deliver the DNA into a chromosome. Naked DNA approaches have ... Retroviruses and stem cells were mixed, after which the viruses inserted the gene into the stem cell chromosomes. Stem cells ...
*  Klinefelter syndrome
Chow JC, Yen Z, Ziesche SM, Brown CJ (2005). "Silencing of the mammalian X chromosome". Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet. 6: 69-92. ... Jacobs described her discovery of this first reported human or mammalian chromosome aneuploidy in her 1981 William Allan ... In mammals with more than one X chromosome, the genes on all but one X chromosome are not expressed; this is known as X ... The underlying mechanisms involves at least one extra X chromosome in addition to a Y chromosome such that there is a total of ...
*  UCKL1
2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome ... 2002). "The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 20". Nature. 414 (6866): 865-71. doi:10.1038/414865a. ...
*  UTX (gene)
Gerrard DT, Filatov DA (2005). "Positive and negative selection on mammalian Y chromosomes". Mol. Biol. Evol. 22 (6): 1423-32. ... Foresta C, Ferlin A, Moro E (2000). "Deletion and expression analysis of AZFa genes on the human Y chromosome revealed a major ... Agate RJ, Choe M, Arnold AP (2004). "Sex differences in structure and expression of the sex chromosome genes CHD1Z and CHD1W in ... Lahn BT, Page DC (1997). "Functional coherence of the human Y chromosome". Science. 278 (5338): 675-80. doi:10.1126/science. ...