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*  Nettie Stevens
Using observations of insect chromosomes she discovered that, in some species, chromosomes are different among the sexes. The ... one with a large chromosome and one with a small chromosome. When the sperm with the large chromosome fertilized eggs, they ... Stevens proposed that chromosomes always existed in pairs and that the Y chromosome was the pair of the X chromosome discovered ... The experiments completed to determine this used a range of insects. She identified the Y chromosome in the mealworm, Tenebrio ...
*  Sex
... but organisms may inherit one or two X chromosomes. In field crickets, for example, insects with a single X chromosome develop ... Many insects use a sex determination system based on the number of sex chromosomes. This is called X0 sex-determination-the 0 ... Chromosomes are passed on from one generation to the next in this process. Each cell in the offspring has half the chromosomes ... Kaiser VB, Bachtrog D (2010). "Evolution of sex chromosomes in insects". Annu. Rev. Genet. 44: 91-112. doi:10.1146/annurev- ...
*  Agrodiaetus
With 134 pairs of chromosomes this insect has one of the highest chromosome numbers among all multicellular animals. ...
*  Horizontal gene transfer
"Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (22): ... Bites from the insect Reduviidae (assassin bug) can, via a parasite, infect humans with the trypanosomal Chagas disease, which ... In order for a bacterium to bind, take up and recombine exogenous DNA into its chromosome, it must become competent, that is, ... The DNA integrated into the host chromosome is usually (but with infrequent exceptions) derived from another bacterium of the ...
*  Torbjörn Caspersson
He was the first to study the giant chromosomes found in insect larvae. He studied the role of the nucleolus in protein ... Zelenin, A V; Zoshchuk N V (2000). "[The history of modern chromosome analysis. The founding contribution of the works of ... He examined the relationship between the quantity of heterochromatin (chromosomes with few genes) and the rate of growth of ... This banding method permits the accurate identification of all 22 autosomes and the X and Y chromosomes. This technique ...
*  Microevolution
"Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (22): ... 2000). "Chromosome Mutation I: Changes in Chromosome Structure: Introduction". An Introduction to Genetic Analysis (7th ed.). ... or multiple chromosomes fuse, and cite the chromosome difference between humans and the other great apes as an example. ... Such hybrids are generally infertile, due to the two different sets of chromosomes being unable to pair up during meiosis. In ...
*  Evolution
October 29, 2002). "Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... Indeed, chromosome doubling within a species may be a common cause of reproductive isolation, as half the doubled chromosomes ... This allows the chromosomes from each parental species to form matching pairs during meiosis, since each parent's chromosomes ... An extreme case is the eusociality found in social insects, such as bees, termites and ants, where sterile insects feed and ...
*  Population genetics
"Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect". PNAS. 99 (22): 14280-5. Bibcode:2002PNAS ... One common approach is to look for regions of high linkage disequilibrium and low genetic variance along the chromosome, to ... especially with genes located nearby on the same chromosome. Recombination breaks up this linkage disequilibrium too slowly to ... "The Rate of Adaptation in Large Sexual Populations with Linear Chromosomes". Genetics. 196 (4): 1167-1183. doi:10.1534/genetics ...
*  Endophenotype
Biomarker John, Bernard; Kenneth R. Lewis (1966). "Chromosome Variability and Geographic Distribution in Insects". Science. 152 ... "Replication of linkage on chromosome 7q22 and association of the regional Reelin gene with working memory in schizophrenia ...
*  Inherited sterility in insects
The structure of condensed chromosomes in mitosis and meiosis of insects. International Journal of Insect Morphology and ... Sterilizing insects with ionizing radiation. pp. 233-268 In V. A. Dyck, J. Hendrichs, and A. S. Robinson (eds.), Sterile Insect ... Inherited Sterility in Insects. Chapter 2.4 in Dyck, V. A., J. Hendrichs, and A. S. Robinson, editors, "Sterile Insect ... Sterile insect technique in codling moth control. pp. 85-99. Proceedings of the international symposium on the sterile insect ...
*  MGAT2
... localization to chromosome 14q21, expression in insect cells and purification of the recombinant protein". Eur J Biochem. 231 ( ...
*  MGAT1
... localization to chromosome 14q21, expression in insect cells and purification of the recombinant protein". Eur. J. Biochem. 231 ... "Organization and localization to chromosome 5 of the human UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:alpha-3-D-mannoside beta-1,2-N- ...
*  Chromosomal inversion
In insects with polytene chromosomes, for example Drosophila, preparations of larval salivary gland chromosomes allow ... An inversion is a chromosome rearrangement in which a segment of a chromosome is reversed end to end. An inversion occurs when ... Painter TS (1933). "A new method for the study of chromosome rearrangements and the plotting of chromosome maps". Science. 78 ( ... The most common inversion seen in humans is on chromosome 9, at inv(9)(p12q13). This inversion is generally considered to have ...
*  Wolbachia
"Microorganisms associated with chromosome destruction and reproductive isolation between two insect species" (PDF). Nature. 346 ... Bourtzis, Kostas; Miller, Thomas A. (eds.). "14: Insect pest control using Wolbachia and/or radiation". Insect Symbiosis. p. ... Outside of insects, Wolbachia infects a variety of isopod species, spiders, mites, and many species of filarial nematodes (a ... One study concluded that more than 16% of neotropical insect species carry bacteria of this genus, and as many as 25 to 70% of ...
*  Lampbrush chromosome
Lampbrush chromosomes of tailed and tailless amphibians, birds and insects are described best of all. Chromosomes transform ... Lampbrush chromosomes are a special form of chromosome found in the growing oocytes (immature eggs) of most animals, except ... Giant chromosomes in the lampbrush form are useful model for studying chromosome organization, genome function and gene ... Chromosome Research. 10: 177 - 200. Gaginskaya E, Kulikova T, Krasikova A (2009) Avian Lampbrush Chromosomes: a Powerful Tool ...
*  Nothomyrmecia
Studies show that all hymenopteran insects that have a diploid (2n) chromosome count above 52 are themselves all ants; ... It is situated in the basal part of the insect's sting, and is located between the two ducts of the venom gland and the ... The mandibles, clypeus (one of the sclerites that make up the "face" of an arthropod or insect), antennae and legs are pale ... p. 6. ISBN 978-0-644-03922-2. Choe, J.C.; Crespi, B.J. (1997). The Evolution of Social Behavior in Insects and Arachnids (1st ...
*  Reproductive isolation
"Microorganisms associated with chromosome destruction and reproductive isolation between two insect species", Nature, 346 (6284 ... In addition, interactions between chromosomes are detected so that certain combinations of the chromosomes have a multiplying ... the fusion of two acrocentric chromosomes into a single chromosome with two arms, causing a reduction in the haploid number, or ... or the fission of one chromosome into two acrocentric chromosomes, in this case increasing the haploid number. The hybrids of ...
*  List of organisms by chromosome count
Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 41 (6): 370-7. doi:10.1016/j.ibmb.2011.02.005. PMID 21396446. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list ... The list of organisms by chromosome count describes ploidy or numbers of chromosomes in the cells of various plants, animals, ... "Chromosome painting shows that skunks (Mephitidae, Carnivora) have highly rearranged karyotypes". Chromosome Res. 16 (8): 1215- ... "You Have 46 Chromosomes. This Pond Creature Has 15,600", National Geographic, [3]. List of pages in English from Russian bionet ...
*  Transmembrane protein 268
To date, there has been no protein expression found in organisms simpler than insects. TMEM268 maps on chromosome 9 at 9q32. ... Orthologs have been found in mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, sharks, fish, and a few insects. It was not found within ...
*  Chromosome 1 open reading frame 162
No orthologs have been identified in fish, insects, or prokaryotes. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000143110 - Ensembl, May ... Chromosome 1 open reading frame 162 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C1orf162 gene. It has been found to be ... The gene is located at p13.2 on chromosome 1 in humans and contains 8 exons. It is 11,026 bases long and is oriented on the ... Chromosome 1 open reading frame 162". Retrieved 2016-05-09. "NCBI GenBank". "GeneCards". "NCBI Gene". "M-fold Analysis". "SDSC ...
*  Y chromosome
Such groups include Drosophila, some other insects, some fish, some reptiles, and some plants. In Drosophila melanogaster, the ... Males have one Y chromosome and one X chromosome, while females have two X chromosomes. In mammals, the Y chromosome contains a ... The chromosome with this allele became the Y chromosome, while the other member of the pair became the X chromosome. Over time ... Stevens proposed that chromosomes always existed in pairs and that the Y chromosome was the pair of the X chromosome discovered ...
*  Female
... it is the female which is heterozygous and carries a Z and a W chromosome whilst the male carries two Z chromosomes. Intersex ... reptiles and some insects and other organisms. Members of Hymenoptera, such as ants and bees, are determined by haplodiploidy, ... Most mammalian females have two copies of the X chromosome as opposed to the male which carries only one X and one smaller Y ... The ZW sex-determination system, where males have ZZ (as opposed to ZW) sex chromosomes, is found in birds, ...
*  C12orf66
"C12orf66 chromosome 12 open reading frame 66 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2017-02-25 ... The list of C12orf66 orthologs includes mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, marine worms, mollusks, insects, and fungi ... C12orf66 variant 1 is 36 Mbp in length spanning the base pairs 64,186,312 - 64,222,296 on chromosome 12. There are 3 total ...
*  Insect
... the offspring's sex is determined by the number of sets of chromosomes an individual receives. This system is typical in bees ... Insectivorous insects, or insects that feed on other insects, are beneficial to humans if they eat insects that could cause ... Adult insects, such as crickets and insect larvae of various kinds, are also commonly used as fishing bait. Insects play ... Many insects are parasites of other insects such as the parasitoid wasps. These insects are known as entomophagous parasites. ...
*  Lasthenia conjugens
According to Greene, the chromosome characteristic is: 2n=12. Lasthenia conjugens relies upon insect pollination for ... An alternative conclusion is that members of one particular insect family, Sciaridae, are also efficient pollinators of L. ... conjugens, since it was the only insect family to visit the restoration colonies in significant numbers (the specialist bees ...
*  Choriogenesis
For example, the pattern of X chromosome inactivation is affected by placental status. There is some evidence that it affects ... ISBN 0-452-26672-6. Irles P, Bellés X, Piulachs MD (2009). "Identifying genes related to choriogenesis in insect panoistic ...