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*  Allosome
In humans, each cell nucleus contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, a total of 46 chromosomes. The first 22 pairs are called ... Other complications include: 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development, also called XX male syndrome, is a condition in ... The chromosomes of the 23rd pair are called allosomes consisting of two X chromosomes in women, and an X chromosome and a Y ... is a chromosome that differs from an ordinary autosome in form, size, and behavior. The human sex chromosomes, a typical pair ...
*  Chromosome 20 (human)
The following is a partial list of genes on human chromosome 20. For complete list, see the link in the infobox on the right. ... The following are some of the gene count estimates of human chromosome 20. Because researchers use different approaches to ... Gilbert F (1997). "Disease genes and chromosomes: disease maps of the human genome". Genet Test. 1 (3): 225-229. doi:10.1089/ ... 2001). "The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 20". Nature. 414 (6866): 865-871. doi:10.1038/414865a. ...
*  Calico cat
As with humans, female cats have paired sex chromosomes, XX, and male cats have XY sex chromosomes. The female cat, therefore, ... Such a combination of chromosomes could produce tortoiseshell or calico markings in the male, in the same way as XX chromosomes ... a male calico would have to have a rare condition where they have three sex chromosomes (two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome ... with one color linked to the maternal X chromosome and a second color linked to the paternal X chromosome. Because males only ...
*  Radiation hybrid mapping
The RH procedure was used to map 14 DNA probes from a region of human chromosome 21 spanning 20 megabase pairs. Deloukas, Panos ... If two given DNA markers are far apart on the initial chromosome, then it is likely that they will appear in distinct fragments ... First of all, desired chromosomes are broken into several segments with X-rays, after which they are implanted in rodent cells ... Radiation hybrid mapping (also known as RH mapping) is a technique for mapping mammalian chromosomes. Radiation hybrid mapping ...
*  Mouse
Humans have eaten mice since prehistoric times and still eat them as a delicacy throughout eastern Zambia and northern Malawi, ... The mouse has approximately 2.7 billion base pairs and 20 chromosomes. They can also be manipulated in ways that are illegal ... Mice are generally very docile if raised from birth and given sufficient human contact. However, certain strains have been ... Mice are no longer routinely consumed by humans elsewhere. However in Victorian Britain, fried mice were still given to ...
*  Laboratory mouse
This was only the second mammalian genome to be sequenced after humans. The haploid genome is about three billion base pairs ... "Human assembly and gene annotation". Ensembl. Retrieved 29 July 2013. "JAX Mice Database - 002983 MRL.CBAJms-Fas/J". Jaxmice. ... compared to an estimated 20,774 in humans. Various mutant strains of mice have been created by a number of methods. A small ... Kolata, Gina (11 February 2013). "Mice Fall Short as Test Subjects for Some of Humans' Deadly Ills". New York Times. Retrieved ...
*  Human accelerated regions
HAR1 is an 106-base pair stretch found on the long arm of chromosome 20 overlapping with part of the RNA genes HAR1F and HAR1R ... There are 18 base pair mutations different between humans and chimpanzees, far more than expected by its history of ... Human accelerated regions (HARs), first described in August 2006, are a set of 49 segments of the human genome that are ... "Comment on "Human-Specific Gain of Function in a Developmental Enhancer"". Science. February 6, 2009. What Makes Us Human?, ...
*  Dosage compensation
For example, in humans, females (XX) silence the transcription of one X chromosome of each pair, and transcribe all information ... of the Y chromosome during meiosis. Additionally, 10-25% of human X chromosome genes, and 3-7% of mouse X chromosome genes ... Specifically, platypus X1 shares homology with the chicken Z chromosome, and both share homology with the human chromosome 9. ... smaller W chromosome. Instead of silencing the entire chromosome as humans do, male chickens (the model ZZ organism) seem to ...
*  Dominance (genetics)
Human females are typically XX; males are typically XY. The remaining pairs of chromosome are found in both sexes and are ... In humans and other mammal species, sex is determined by two sex chromosomes called the X chromosome and the Y chromosome. ... Most animals and some plants have paired chromosomes, and are described as diploid. They have two versions of each chromosome, ... Each chromosome of a matching (homologous) pair is structurally similar to the other, and has a very similar DNA sequence (loci ...
*  Human genetics
XX), and are called the homogametic sex. Males have two distinct sex chromosomes (XY), and are called the heterogametic sex. ... the sex of an individual is determined by a pair of sex chromosomes (gonosomes). Females have two of the same kind of sex ... The human genome is the total collection of genes in a human being contained in the human chromosome, composed of over three ... Genetic Chromosomal Human evolutionary genetics Human genome Human genetic clustering List of Mendelian traits in humans ...
*  Wellcome Sanger Institute
The Institute was engaged in collaborations to sequence 8 of the 23 human pairs of chromosomes (1, 6, 9, 10, 13, 20, 22, and X ... "International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium Announces "Working Draft" of Human Genome". National Human Genome Research ... Human Genome Sequencing Consortium (2004). "Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome". Nature. 431 (7011): 931- ... The Institute's research in human genetics focuses on the characterisation of human genetic variation in health and disease. ...
*  PRNP
The human PRNP gene is located on the short (p) arm of chromosome 20 between the end (terminus) of the arm and position 12, ... from base pair 4,615,068 to base pair 4,630,233. PrP is highly conserved through mammals, lending credence to application of ... "Localization of a human gene homologous to the PrP gene on the p arm of chromosome 20 and detection of PrP-related antigens in ... "Assignment of the human and mouse prion protein genes to homologous chromosomes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83 (19): 7358- ...
*  XY sex-determination system
In humans, most mammals, and some other species, two of the chromosomes, called the X chromosome and Y chromosome, code for sex ... where just one chromosome type appears in pairs for the female but alone in the males, while all other chromosomes appear in ... the fact that males have XY sex chromosomes and females have XX sex chromosomes. The first clues to the existence of a factor ... In humans, half of spermatozoons carry X chromosome and the other half Y chromosome. A single gene (SRY) present on the Y ...
*  Y chromosome
The DNA in the human Y chromosome is composed of about 59 million base pairs. The Y chromosome is passed only from father to ... in addition to the ancestral XX female, through a variety of modifications to the X and Y chromosomes. In the creeping vole, ... Stevens proposed that chromosomes always existed in pairs and that the Y chromosome was the pair of the X chromosome discovered ... The chromosome with this allele became the Y chromosome, while the other member of the pair became the X chromosome. Over time ...
*  Human accelerated region 1
It is a Human accelerated region. It is located within a pair of overlapping long non-coding RNA genes, HAR1A (HAR1F) and HAR1B ... The HAR1B gene overlaps HAR1A, and is located on the opposite strand of the chromosome. Its expression in the human brain is ... In molecular biology, Human accelerated region 1 (highly accelerated region 1, HAR1) is a segment of the human genome found on ... Scientists Identify Gene Difference Between Humans and Chimps, Scientific American, 17 August 2006 Page for Human accelerated ...
*  C7orf43
In humans, C7orf43 is located in the long arm of human chromosome 7 (7q22.1), and is on the negative (antisense) strand. Genes ... This promoter is 657 base pairs long and is located at position 99756182 to 99756838 in the negative strand of chromosome 7. ... "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "C7orf43 chromosome 7 open reading frame 43 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]". ... C7orf43 (Chromosome 7 Open reading frame 43) is a protein that in human is encoded by the gene C7orf43. C7orf43 has no other ...
*  Nuclear sexing
... is a technique for genetic sex determination in those species where XX chromosome pair is present. Nuclear ... Barr body is the inactive X chromosome which lies condensed in the nucleus of somatic cells. A typical human female has only ... Though a Barr body can be sought in any human nucleated cell, circulating mononuclear cells are commonly used for this purpose ... one Barr body per somatic cell, while a typical human male has none. ...
*  NDUFA8
The NDUFA8 gene is located on the q arm of chromosome 9 in position 33.2 and spans 27,354 base pairs. The gene produces a 20 ... Related pseudogenes have also been identified on four other chromosomes. The human NDUFA8 gene codes for a subunit of Complex I ... NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 8 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NDUFA8 gene. The ... Smeitink J, van den Heuvel L (1999). "Human mitochondrial complex I in health and disease". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 64 (6): 1505-10 ...
*  Lactoferrin
In humans, lactoferrin gene LTF is located on the third chromosome in the locus 3q21-q23. In oxen, the coding sequence consists ... insertions and mutations of stop codons affect the coding part and its length varies between 2,055 and 2,190 nucleotide pairs. ... Human colostrum ("first milk") has the highest concentration, followed by human milk, then cow milk (150 mg/L). Lactoferrin is ... lactoferrin shows potent activity against both human immunodeficiency virus and human cytomegalovirus replication in vitro". J ...
*  J. Craig Venter Institute
... in which both sets of chromosomes were sequenced. In 2010, the Institute determined the 1.08 million base pair Mycoplasma ... Pennisi, E. (1998). "HUMAN GENOME PROJECT:A Planned Boost for Genome Sequencing, but the Plan is in Flux". Science. 281 (5374 ... "The Human Genome Project Race". Center for Biomolecular Science & Engineering, UC Santa Cruz. Retrieved 20 March 2012. Pruitt, ... In June 2000, Venter founded The Center for the Advancement of Genomics (TCAG), a think tank for studying the ethics of human ...
*  KIAA0090
... is located on chromosome one in the p arm at location 1p36.132. It covers 36.74 kb, from base pairs 19451486 to ... KIAA0090 is a human gene coding for a protein of unknown function. KIAA0090 has two aliases OTTHUMP00000002581 and RP1-43E13.1 ... Gupta R, Brunak S (2002). "Prediction of glycosylation across the human proteome and the correlation to protein function". Pac ... The gene is composed of 37 gt-at introns/alternative introns with 57 exons expressed in 1 unspliced form of 4253 bp and 20 ...
*  Human
Among the 23 pairs of chromosomes there are 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. Like other mammals, humans ... so that females have the sex chromosomes XX and males have XY. One human genome was sequenced in full in 2003, and currently ... During this split, chromosome 2 was formed from two other chromosomes, leaving humans with only 23 pairs of chromosomes, ... Human Chromosome 2 is a fusion of two ancestral chromosomes by Alec MacAndrew; accessed 18 May 2006. Evidence of Common ...
*  Satellite DNA
Some types of satellite DNA in humans are: A repeated pattern can be between 1 base pair long (a mononucleotide repeat) to ... "Structure of the major block of alphoid satellite DNA on the human Y chromosome". Journal of Molecular Biology. 195 (3): 457- ... Often the base pair repetition will disrupt proper protein synthesis, leading to diseases such as myotonic dystrophy.[citation ... Most satellite DNA is localized to the telomeric or the centromeric region of the chromosome. The nucleotide sequence of the ...
*  PITX1
... maps to human chromosome 5 (BFT) and mouse chromosome 13 (Bft)". Genomics. 40 (1): 108-13. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.4558. PMID ... paired-like homeodomain 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PITX1 gene. This gene encodes a member of the RIEG/PITX ... "Identification of PITX1 as a TERT suppressor gene located on human chromosome 5". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 31 (8): 1624- ... "Association of autism with polymorphisms in the paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 1 (PITX1) on chromosome 5q31: a ...
*  C20orf96
... (Chromosome 20 open reading frame 96) is a protein-coding gene in humans. It codes for an unknown protein known as ... The most prevalent mutations of C20orf96 in humans are M1V, Q6K, T13I, T13S, M94I, S117G, S117T, S117N, L142V, D159N, M215T, ... base pairs 270,863 to 290,778 on the complementary strand. It is a member of the DUF4618 superfamily, with the DUF position ... "C20orf96 chromosome 20 open reading frame 96 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2016-05-09 ...
*  Sex determination in Silene
XX) pair during female meiosis. Contrastingly, recombination is suppressed across most of the Y chromosomes during pairing in ... The system for determining sex in Silene latifolia is close to that found in humans because in both cases the Y chromosome ... Biologists have found that sex chromosomes in plants originated from pairs of autosomes. As these chromosomes diverge from ... In the case of Silene, the pair of automsomal chromosomes are transformed into heteromorphic sex-determining chromosomes ...
*  Epigenetics of neurodegenerative diseases
SMN1 is located in a telomeric region of human chromosome 5 and also contains SMN2 in a centromeric region. SMN1 and SMN2 are ... Wang Y, Zhang JX, Du XX, Zhao L, Tian Q, Zhu LQ, Wang SH, Wang JZ. "Temporal correlation of the memory deficit with Alzheimer- ... "Epigenetic differences in cortical neurons from a pair of monozygotic twins discordant for Alzheimer's disease." PLoS One 4.8 ( ... some experiments have been performed on human cells as well as in human drug trials (see table below). There are inherent risks ...