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*  Genetic recombination
Bacterial recombination In Bacteria there are: regular bacterial recombination, as well as noneffective transfer of genetic ... In gene conversion, a section of genetic material is copied from one chromosome to another, without the donating chromosome ... In genetic engineering, recombination can also refer to artificial and deliberate recombination of disparate pieces of DNA, ... Indicated on the right side is a "crossover" (CO) type, where the flanking regions of the chromosomes are exchanged, and on the ...
*  Yeast artificial chromosome
Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) Cosmid Fosmid Genetic engineering Human artificial chromosome Autonomously replicating ... Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) are genetically engineered chromosomes derived from the DNA of the yeast, Saccharomyces ... YACs were abandoned for the use of Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC). Beginning with the initial research of the Rankin et ... have an advantage over bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) in that they can be used to express eukaryotic proteins that ...
*  Biology
DNA is found as linear chromosomes in eukaryotes, and circular chromosomes in prokaryotes. A chromosome is an organized ... Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, treated species as artificial categories and living forms as malleable-even suggesting ... businessweek.com Thanbichler, M; Wang, SC; Shapiro, L (October 2005). "The bacterial nucleoid: a highly organized and dynamic ... The set of chromosomes in a cell and any other hereditary information found in the mitochondria, chloroplasts, or other ...
*  George M. Church
Matthew Allen, 2015, "Artificial Natures (interview with George Church)," Harvard Design Magazine (online), see [23], accessed ... resulted in the first bacterial genome sequence and first commercial genome (the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori) in 1994. ... "Precise Manipulation of Chromosomes in vivo Enables Genome-wide Codon Replacement". Science. 333 (6040): 348-53. Bibcode: ... "Designing artificial life" in 2005 and "The $1000 genome" in 2006). Newsweek picked Church for their 2008 "Power of Ideas" ...
*  Domestic rabbit
A more elaborate setup is an artificial warren. Show rabbits are an increasingly popular activity. Showing rabbits helps to ... There are three main causes of malocclusion, most commonly genetic predisposition, injury, or bacterial infection. In the case ... enumerated by chromosome. The format is gene1-distance-gene2 -- ... c -- 14.4 -- y -- 28.4 -- b du -- 1.2 -- EN -- 13.1 -- l r1 ...
*  Spermatozoon
... a spermatozoon bearing a X chromosome will lead to a female (XX) offspring, while one bearing a Y chromosome will lead to a ... The specific glycoproteins coating sperm cells are also utilized by some cancerous and bacterial cells, some parasitic worms, ... Watson, P. F. (1993). "The potential impact of sperm encapsulation technology on the importance of timing of artificial ... Compared to mitotic chromosomes in somatic cells, sperm DNA is at least sixfold more highly condensed. The specimen contributes ...
*  Somatic evolution in cancer
Advances in cytogenetics facilitated discovery of chromosome abnormalities in neoplasms, including the Philadelphia chromosome ... A combination of bacterial treatment with chemical drugs will increase chances of destroying the tumor. Oncolytic viruses are ... Cancer therapies act as a form of artificial selection, killing sensitive cancer cells, but leaving behind resistant cells. ... In the process of the treatment, cancer cells are most likely to evolve some form of resistance to the bacterial treatment. ...
*  2015 in science
The first artificial ribosome is created, by researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago and Northwestern University. ... In addition, an estimated 20,000 to 40,000 heat-resistant bacterial spores were on the Curiosity rover at launch. As many as ... copying itself to other chromosomes with CRISPRs. Possible applications include malaria-resistant mosquitos. Scientists, ... "Major advance in artificial photosynthesis poses win/win for the environment". Science Daily. 16 April 2015. Retrieved 17 April ...
*  History of biology
Oswald Avery showed in 1943 that DNA was likely the genetic material of the chromosome, not its protein; the issue was settled ... To actually decipher the code, it took an extensive series of experiments in biochemistry and bacterial genetics, between 1961 ... treated species as artificial categories and living forms as malleable-even suggesting the possibility of common descent. ... They quantified the phenomenon of genetic linkage and postulated that genes reside on chromosomes like beads on string; they ...
*  List of metaphor-based metaheuristics
In 2016 an Artificial Swarm Intelligence from Unanimous A.I. was challenged by a reporter to predict the winners of the ... Countries in this algorithm are the counterpart of Chromosomes in GAs and Particles in Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and it ... processes that has been used as the basis for a metaheuristic framework now includes such diverse processes as bacterial ... Artificial swarm intelligence refers to a real-time closed-loop system of human users connected over the internet and ...
*  Magnesium transporter
This bacterial system might also be able to provide some utility for the analysis of eukaryotic Mg2+ transport proteins, but ... Third, Mg2+ efflux was observed via Mrs2p upon the artificial depolarisation of the mitochondrial membrane by valinomycin. ... "Familial hypomagnesaemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis maps to chromosome 3q27 and is associated with mutations in ... The efflux of Mg2+ from bacterial cells was first observed by Lusk and Kennedy (1969) and is mediated by the CorA Mg2+ ...
*  Magnesium in biology
Third, the technique of patch-clamp uses isolated sections of natural or artificial membrane in much the same manner as voltage ... Section 8.5.2 in Marschner, 1995 Bui, D.M.; Gregan, J.; Jarosch, E.; Ragnini, A.; Schweyen, R. J. (1999). "The bacterial ... "Familial hypomagnesaemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis maps to chromosome 3q27 and is associated with mutations in ...
*  Phytophthora infestans
P. infestans is diploid, with about 11-13 chromosomes, and in 2009 scientists completed the sequencing of its genome. The ... 3 Oct 2014), "Appraisal of artificial screening techniques of tomato to accurately reflect field performance of the late blight ... and quickly decay to a foul-smelling mush caused by the infestation of secondary soft bacterial rots. Seemingly healthy tubers ...
*  Schistosoma mansoni
April 2000). "Construction and characterization of a Schistosoma mansoni bacterial artificial chromosome library". Genomics. 65 ... Chromosomes range in size from 18 to 73 MB and can be distinguished by size, shape, and C banding. In 2000, the first BAC ... Schistosoma mansoni has 8 pairs of chromosomes (2n = 16)-7 autosomal pairs and 1 sex pair. The female schistosome is ... of the bases organised into chromosomes. Schistosome eggs, which may become lodged within the hosts tissues, are the major ...
*  GPR132
The G2A gene (Gene ID: 29933) is located on chromosome 14q32.3 codes for two alternative splice variants, the original one, G2A ... and protect mice from the lethal effects of experimentally induced bacterial sepsis endotoxin. G2A may similarly be responsible ... neutrophils with increased levels of lysophosphatidylserine on their surface membrane due to cell activation or artificial ... BCR-ABL is the oncogene of the Philadelphia chromosome that causes human Chronic myelogenous leukemia and is sometimes found ...
*  End-sequence profiling
The classic strategy to construct an artificial chromosome is bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). Basically, the target ... the fragments is cloned into plasmids to construct artificial chromosome such as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) which ... Another commonly used artificial chromosome is fosmid. The difference between BAC and fosmids is the size of the DNA inserted. ... ESP can be applied for either with or without constructed artificial chromosome. With BAC, precious samples can be immortalized ...
*  P1-derived artificial chromosome
Bacterial artificial chromosome Human artificial chromosome Yeast artificial chromosome Michael Yarmolinsky, Ronald Hoess (2015 ... Online Medical Dictionary P1-derived artificial chromosome P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC) definition. ... The P1-derived artificial chromosome are DNA constructs that are derived from the DNA of P1 bacteriophage. They can carry large ...
*  Gene expression
X chromosome inactivation in female mammals to prevent an "overdose" of the genes it contains. Cyclin expression levels control ... Several natural expression systems are directly used or modified and used for artificial expression systems such as the Tet-on ... Berk V, Cate JH (June 2007). "Insights into protein biosynthesis from structures of bacterial ribosomes". Curr. Opin. Struct. ... An expression system is therefore often artificial in some manner. Expression systems are, however, a fundamentally natural ...
*  Concatemer
"Cloning human herpes virus 6A genome into bacterial artificial chromosomes and study of DNA replication intermediates". ... and may be seen in the late stage of bacterial infection by phages. As an example, if the genes in the phage DNA are arranged ...
*  Bacillus safensis
Strain B. safensis JPL-MERTA-8-2 is (so far) the only bacterial strain shown to grow noticeably faster in micro-gravity ... This strain displays a G+C content of 46.1% in a circular chromosome of 3.68 Mbp. 3,928 protein-coding sequences were ... Fructooligosaccharides are used as artificial sweeteners and can be found in many commercial food products. Corn syrup is also ... This gene is conserved among bacterial species. The rate of evolution at the molecular level deduced from gyrB related gene ...
*  Index of molecular biology articles
... bacterial artificial chromosome - bacteriophage - bacteriophage lambda - band shift assay - base - base pair - binding site - ... bacterial) - human artificial chromosome - Human Genome Project - human immunodeficiency virus - Huntington's disease - ... yeast artificial chromosome) zinc finger - Index of biochemistry articles. ... chromosome - Chromosomal translocation - chromosome walking - CIS - cistron - clone (genetics) - clone (noun) - clone (verb) - ...
*  Horizontal gene transfer
Natural transformation is a bacterial adaptation for DNA transfer (HGT) that depends on the expression of numerous bacterial ... Artificial horizontal gene transfer is a form of genetic engineering. Horizontal genetic transfer was first described in ... In order for a bacterium to bind, take up and recombine exogenous DNA into its chromosome, it must become competent, that is, ... Inter-bacterial gene transfer was first described in Japan in a 1959 publication that demonstrated the transfer of antibiotic ...