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*  Small supernumerary marker chromosome
47th autosomal chromosome called a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC). These small supernumerary marker chromosomes ... Humans typically have 22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes in their cells, and a pair of sex chromosomes. About 2.7 million ... Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) in humans. Cytogenet Genome Research, 2004; 107: 55-67 Liehr et al. Small ... can originate from any of the 24 different human chromosomes. About 70% of the cases with sSMC are de novo (new mutations), 30 ...
*  HUMARA assay
... that is located on X chromosome. Considering the fact that once one X chromosome is inactivated in a cell, all other cells ... The method is based on X chromosome inactivation and it takes the advantage of having different methylation status of a gene ... 1-) The gene is located on X chromosome and it goes through inactivation by methylation in normal embryogenesis of a female ... The fact that most-but not all-genes on X chromosome undergo inactivation, this feature becomes an important one. 2-) Human ...
*  Homologous chromosome
The additional 23rd pair is the sex chromosomes, X and Y. If this pair is made up of an X and Y chromosome, then the pair of ... It reduces the chromosome number in a germ cell by half by first separating the homologous chromosomes in meiosis I and then ... Homologous chromosomes are chromosomes which contain the same genes in the same order along their chromosomal arms. There are ... Therefore, when two chromosomes of the exact structure exist, they are able to pair together to form homologous chromosomes. ...
*  Allosome
The X chromosome is always present as the 23rd chromosome in the ovum, while either an X or a Y chromosomes can be present in ... The chromosomes of the 23rd pair are called allosomes consisting of two X chromosomes in women, and an X chromosome and a Y ... a total of 46 chromosomes. The first 22 pairs are called autosomes. Autosomes are homologous chromosomes i.e. chromosomes which ... X chromosome carry about 1500 genes, more than any other chromosome in the human body. Most of them code for something other ...
*  Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer
... is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the ... "Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer". 2014 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2015. Official ...
*  Chromosome
Chromosomes in humans can be divided into two types: autosomes (body chromosome(s)) and allosome (sex chromosome(s)). Certain ... Aneuploidy Chromosome segregation DNA Genetic deletion For information about chromosomes in genetic algorithms, see chromosome ... and two sex chromosomes. This gives 46 chromosomes in total. Other organisms have more than two copies of their chromosome ... in humans two chromosomes fused to form chromosome 2. (See Also: Argument from authority#Inaccurate chromosome number) ...
*  Lampbrush chromosome
Lampbrush chromosomes are a special form of chromosome found in the growing oocytes (immature eggs) of most animals, except ... Lampbrush chromosomes of tailed and tailless amphibians, birds and insects are described best of all. Chromosomes transform ... Giant chromosomes in the lampbrush form are useful model for studying chromosome organization, genome function and gene ... Chromosome Research. 10: 177 - 200. Gaginskaya E, Kulikova T, Krasikova A (2009) Avian Lampbrush Chromosomes: a Powerful Tool ...
*  Balancer chromosome
Balancer chromosomes are named for the chromosome they serve to stabilize and for the phenotypic or genetic marker the balancer ... Balancer chromosomes were first used by Hermann Muller. In the modern usage of balancer chromosomes, random mutations are first ... However, offspring that only get one copy of one balancer chromosome and one copy of a wild type or mutant chromosome will live ... Balancer chromosomes are special, modified chromosomes used for genetically screening a population of organisms to select for ...
*  Ring chromosome
A ring chromosome is an aberrant chromosome whose ends have fused together to form a ring. Ring chromosomes were first ... Ring-chromosome-12-syndrome&title=Ring-chromosome-12-syndrome&search=Disease_Search_Simple "Ring chromosome 12 , Genetic and ... Ring-chromosome-16-syndrome&title=Ring-chromosome-16-syndrome&search=Disease_Search_Simple "Ring chromosome 16 , Genetic and ... Ring-chromosome-19-syndrome&title=Ring-chromosome-19-syndrome&search=Disease_Search_Simple "Ring chromosome 20 , Genetic and ...
*  Y chromosome
Males have one Y chromosome and one X chromosome, while females have two X chromosomes. In mammals, the Y chromosome contains a ... The chromosome with this allele became the Y chromosome, while the other member of the pair became the X chromosome. Over time ... Stevens proposed that chromosomes always existed in pairs and that the Y chromosome was the pair of the X chromosome discovered ... Only the tips of the Y and X chromosomes recombine. The tips of the Y chromosome that could recombine with the X chromosome are ...
*  Chromosome engineering
In an experiment pertaining to chromosome engineering that was conducted in 2006, it was found that chromosome engineering can ... After much experimenting, it was found that manipulating chromosomes, or chromosome engineering, is an excellent and efficient ... Genetics Chromosome Chromosomal deletion Chromosomal inversion Chromosomal translocation DNA Disease "Chromosome engineering". ... Chromosome engineering is "the controlled generation of chromosomal deletions, inversions, or translocations with defined ...
*  Chromosome microdissection
... one chromosome may have a piece of another chromosome inserted within it, creating extra bands. Or, a portion of a chromosome ... Scientists who study chromosomes are known as cytogeneticists. They are able to identify each chromosome based on its unique ... Chromosome microdissection is a technique that physically removes a large section of DNA from a complete chromosome. The ... Chromosome microdissection is a specialized way of isolating these regions by removing the DNA from the band and making that ...
*  Chromosome regions
Most important is the distinction between chromosome region p and chromosome region q. These are virtual regions that exist in ... At either end of a chromosome is a telomere, a cap of DNA that protects the rest of the chromosome from damage. The areas of ... The p region is represented in the shorter arm of the chromosome (p is for petit, French for small) while the q region is in ... The centromere divides each chromosome into two regions: the smaller one, which is the p region, and the bigger one, the q ...
*  Chromosome territories
... chromosome territories are regions of the nucleus preferentially occupied by particular chromosomes. Interphase chromosomes are ... The concept of chromosome territories was proposed by Carl Rabl in 1885 based on studies of Salamandra maculata. Chromosome ... The chromosome territory concept holds that despite this apparent disorder, chromosomes largely occupy defined regions of the ... "Chromosome Territories: The Arrangement of Chromosomes in the Nucleus". Nature Education. Retrieved 15 August 2015. ...
*  Chromosome instability
As chromosome instability refers to the rate that chromosomes or large portions of chromosomes are changed, there should be ... It can occur due to loss of a whole chromosome, gain of a whole chromosome or rearrangement of partial chromosomes known as ... Although chromosome instability has long been proposed to promote tumor progression, recent studies suggest that chromosome ... Structural CIN is different in that rather than whole chromosomes, fragments of chromosomes may be duplicated or deleted. The ...
*  B chromosome
B chromosomes are not to be confused with marker chromosomes or additional copies of normal chromosomes as they occur in ... B chromosomes may play a positive role on normal A chromosomes in some circumstances. The B chromosomes suppress homologous ... White M.J.D. (1973). The chromosomes (6th ed.). London: Chapman & Hall. ISBN 0-412-11930-7. B Chromosomes B chromosomes in wood ... Chromosome polymorphisms are very common among fungi. Different isolates of the same species often have a different chromosome ...
*  X chromosome
He called this chromosome an accessory chromosome and insisted, correctly, that it was a proper chromosome, and theorized, ... which later became X chromosome after it was established that it was indeed a chromosome. The idea that the X chromosome was ... Chromosomes are so named because of their ability to take up staining. Although the X chromosome could be stained just as well ... The X chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes (allosomes) in many organisms, including mammals (the other is ...
*  Dicentric chromosome
A dicentric chromosome is an abnormal chromosome with two centromeres. It is formed through the fusion of two chromosome ... a trisomy of chromosome 18, and Turner syndrome, a loss (or partial loss) of the X chromosome. Pseudodicentric chromosomes ... Most dicentric chromosomes are known to form through chromosomal inversions, which are rotations in regions of a chromosome due ... As these chromosomes are pulled apart, the chromosome bridges break, resulting in the formation of "tailed" nuclei, protrusions ...
*  Chromosome segregation
Improper chromosome segregation can result in aneuploid gametes having either too few or too many chromosomes. The second stage ... After the first chromosome segregation in meiosis I is complete, there is further chromosome segregation during the second ... These chromosomes (paired chromatids) then pair with the homologous chromosome (also paired chromatids) present in the same ... Both proper initial segregation of chromosomes in prophase I and the next chromosome segregation during equational division in ...
*  Derivative chromosome
A derivative chromosome (der) is a structurally rearranged chromosome generated either by a rearrangement involving two or more ... Derivative chromosomes are designated by the abbreviation der when used to describe a Karyotype. The derivative chromosome must ... chromosomes or by multiple aberrations within a single chromosome (e.g. an inversion and a deletion of the same chromosome, or ... band 6 and the long arm of chromosome 8 at region 2, band 2, and a translocation between the long arm of chromosome 4 at region ...
*  Philadelphia chromosome
The Philadelphia chromosome is designated Ph (or Ph') chromosome and designates the shortened chromosome 22. It arises from the ... of chromosome 9 and region (1), band (1), sub-band (2) of the long arm (q) of chromosome 22. Hence the chromosome breakpoints ... creating an elongated chromosome 9 (termed a derivative chromosome, or der 9), and a truncated chromosome 22 (the Philadelphia ... or a variant translocation involving another chromosome or chromosomes as well as the long arm of chromosomes 9 and 22). ...
*  Parasitic chromosome
... in contrast to A chromosomes. Parasitic Chromosomes are classified as selfish genetic elements. Parasitic chromosomes, if ... Parasitic Chromosomes are often B chromosomes, such that they are not necessarily present in the majority of the species ... Parasitic chromosomes are ¨selfish¨ chromosomes that propagate throughout cell divisions, even if they have no benefit to the ... An example of a parasitic chromosome is the b24 chromosome in grasshoppers. Werren, J. H.; Beukeboom, L. W. (1993-08-01). " ...
*  Satellite chromosome
A satellite chromosome or SAT chromosome has a chromosome segment that is separated from the main body of the chromosome by ... In humans, the chromosomes number 13, 14, 15, 21 and 22 are examples of SAT chromosomes. Rieger, R.; Michaelis, A.; Green, M.M ... The satellite at metaphase appears to be attached to the rest of the body of chromosomes by a thread of chromatin. There are at ... Besides the centromere, one or more secondary constrictions can also be observed in some chromosomes at metaphase. The ...
*  Marker chromosome
Chromosome 15 has been observed to contribute to a high number of marker chromosomes, but the reason has not been determined. ... A marker chromosome (mar) is a small fragment of a chromosome which generally cannot be identified without specialized genomic ... Marker chromosomes typically occur in addition to the standard 46 chromosomes, making it a partial trisomy or supernumerary ... Marker chromosomes occur sporadically about 70% of the time, with the remainder being inherited from a parent. About 50% of ...
*  Chromosome abnormality
It can be from an atypical number of chromosomes or a structural abnormality in one or more chromosomes. Chromosome mutation ... on chromosome 17. Translocations: A portion of one chromosome is transferred to another chromosome. There are two main types of ... A chromosome anomaly may be detected or confirmed in this manner. Chromosome anomalies usually occur when there is an error in ... When the chromosome's structure is altered, this can take several forms: Deletions: A portion of the chromosome is missing or ...