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*  Artemis (protein)
"Chromosome breakage after G2 checkpoint release". J. Cell Biol. 176 (6): 749-55. doi:10.1083/jcb.200612047. PMC 2064048 . PMID ... The intervening DNA between the V and D segments is ligated to form a circular DNA molecule that is lost from the chromosome. ... before the V and D segments are ligated to restore the integrity of the chromosome. The exact site of cleavage of the hairpin ... and they show a higher incidence of chromosome breaks following irradiation. Direct measurement of DSBs by pulsed-field ...
*  Chromosomal fragile site
Arlt, MF; Glover, TW (Jun 4, 2010). "Inhibition of topoisomerase I prevents chromosome breakage at common fragile sites". DNA ... "An AT-Rich Sequence in Human Common Fragile Site FRA16D Causes Fork Stalling and Chromosome Breakage in S. cerevisiae". ... The majority of breakages at CFSs are induced by low doses of the antibiotic aphidocilin (APH). Co-treatment with low ... Breakage is reduced after treatment with CPT (camptothecin) (without APH), signifying that CPT also has a necessary role in ...
*  SMC6
In humans, a chromosome breakage syndrome characterized by severe lung disease in early childhood is associated with a mutation ... "Destabilized SMC5/6 complex leads to chromosome breakage syndrome with severe lung disease". J. Clin. Invest. 126 (8): 2881-92 ... Structural maintenance of chromosomes protein 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SMC6 gene. It is involved in the ... Patient's cells display chromosome rearrangements, micronuclei, sensitivity to DNA damage and defective homologous ...
*  Diploidization
Additionally, illegitimate recombinations may also result in dicentric chromosomes lead to chromosome breakage during anaphase ... However, when multiple copies of similar chromosomes are present in the nucleus, homeologous chromosomes can also pair with ... 2. Maintain intra-genomic chromosome pairing at meiosis: Chromosome pairing during meiosis is a significant challenge for ... Since the chromosomes may differ in genetic structure and content, segments of the chromosome may be shuffled around resulting ...
*  Robin Allshire
"Telomere-associated chromosome breakage in fission yeast results in variegated expression of adjacent genes". EMBO J. 13: 3801 ... "A fission yeast chromosome can replicate autonomously in mouse cells". Cell. 50: 391. 1987. PMID 3475186. "Introduction of ... "Live analysis of lagging chromosomes during anaphase and their effect on spindle elongation rate in fission yeast". J Cell Sci ... "Sim4: a novel fission yeast kinetochore protein required for centromeric silencing and chromosome segregation". J Cell Biol. ...
*  G0 phase
"Synthesis of Desoxyribonucleic Acid in Normal and Irradiated Cells and Its Relation to Chromosome Breakage". International ...
*  Alma Howard
"Synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid in normal and irradiated cells and its relation to chromosome breakage". Heredity. 6 (Suppl ... Her Ph.D. thesis was The correlation between chromosome behaviour and susceptibility to mammary gland cancer in mice (1938), ... Phosphorus-32 made it impossible to obtain an autoradiograph localized down to individual chromosomes and parts of chromosomes ... "the idea that chromosomes are made of DNA was generally agreed on." On her first day, she suggested to Stephen Pelc that ...
*  Bloom syndrome
... and there are increases in chromosome breakage and rearrangements compared to persons who do not have Bloom's syndrome. Direct ... Other chromosome manifestations include chromatid breaks and gaps, telomere associations, and fragmented chromosomes. The hyper ... the chromosomes are duplicated so that each new cell will get a complete set of chromosomes. The duplication process is called ... At the level of the chromosomes, the rate of sister chromatid exchange in Bloom's syndrome is approximately 10 fold higher than ...
*  Centric heterochromatin
... this usually happens as a result of a chromosome breakage event and the formed centromere is called a neocentromere. Centric ... the domain exists on both mitotic and interphase chromosomes. Centric heterochromatin is usually formed on alpha satellite DNA ...
*  Barbara McClintock
McClintock observed the breakage and fusion of chromosomes in irradiated maize cells. She was also able to show that, in some ... Through her work with X-ray-mutagenized maize, she identified ring chromosomes, which form when the ends of a single chromosome ... By studying the morphology of the chromosomes, McClintock was able to link specific chromosome groups of traits that were ... spontaneous chromosome breakage occurred in the cells of the endosperm. Over the course of mitosis, she observed that the ends ...
*  Cytogenetics
She identified a particular chromosome breakage event that always occurred at the same locus on maize chromosome 9, which she ... The great apes have 48 chromosomes. Human chromosome 2 was formed by a merger of ancestral chromosomes, reducing the number. ... The routine chromosome analysis (Karyotyping) refers to analysis of metaphase chromosomes which have been banded using trypsin ... A female with only one X chromosome has Turner syndrome, whereas an additional X chromosome in a male, resulting in 47 total ...
*  1p36 deletion syndrome
In new mutations, the mechanism causing chromosome breakage is unknown. Deletions of paternal origin (father) are larger than ... This means a portion of one chromosome is transferred to another chromosome, so the parent has the "36" portion of chromosome 1 ... The "p" stands for the short or 'petite' arm of the chromosome. '36' stands for the location of the deletion on the chromosome ... This suggests that the most genetically potent area of the 1P36 chromosome occurs at the terminal end of the chromosome. Many ...
*  History of genetics
McClintock studied transposon-mediated mutation and chromosome breakage in maize and published her first report in 1948 on ... 1913: Alfred Sturtevant makes the first genetic map of a chromosome 1913: Gene maps show chromosomes containing linear arranged ... Sutton's work with grasshoppers showed that chromosomes occur in matched pairs of maternal and paternal chromosomes which ... see the chromosome theory. Boveri was studying sea urchins when he found that all the chromosomes in the sea urchins had to be ...
*  Quantum evolution
... of a genotype conducive to extensive chromosome breakage. A similar mode of origin by rapid reorganization of the chromosomes ... This rapid reorganization of the chromosomes is comparable to the systemic mutations proposed by Goldschmidt as a mechanism of ... The repeated occurrence of the same pattern of differentiation in Clarkia suggests that a rapid reorganization of chromosomes ... as a consequence of a rapid reorganization of the chromosomes due to the presence, at some time, ...
*  Chromosomal inversion
An inversion occurs when a single chromosome undergoes breakage and rearrangement within itself. Inversions are of two types: ... Painter TS (1933). "A new method for the study of chromosome rearrangements and the plotting of chromosome maps". Science. 78 ( ... An inversion is a chromosome rearrangement in which a segment of a chromosome is reversed end to end. ... In insects with polytene chromosomes, for example Drosophila, preparations of larval salivary gland chromosomes allow ...
*  Mutagen
Powerful mutagens may result in chromosomal instability, causing chromosomal breakages and rearrangement of the chromosomes ... The chromosomes are stained and observed for any changes. Sister chromatid exchange is a symmetrical exchange of chromosome ... and is therefore a test for clastogenic agents that cause chromosome breakages. Other tests may check for various chromosomal ... The gene for the yellow body lies on the X-chromosome. The fruit flies are fed on a diet of test chemical, and progenies are ...
*  Chromosomal deletion syndrome
... possibly arising from chromosome breakage during gamete formation in males Some examples of the possible dysmorphic features ... One of them consists in micro-deletions of the chromosome region 15q11-q13. 70% of patients present a 5-7-Mb de novo deletion ... The mechanism is due to maternal meiotic non-disjunction followed by mitotic loss of the paternal chromosome 15 after ... The third cause for PWS is the disruption of the imprinting process on the paternally inherited chromosome 15 (epigenetic ...
*  List of diseases (T)
... asplenia miosis Thrombocytopathy Thrombocytopenia cerebellar hypoplasia short stature Thrombocytopenia chromosome breakage ...
*  List of MeSH codes (C23)
... chromosome fragility MeSH C23.550.210.170 --- chromosome breakage MeSH C23.550.210.175 --- chromosome deletion MeSH C23.550. ... ring chromosomes MeSH C23.550.210.815 --- sex chromosome aberrations MeSH C23.550.210.815.970 --- xyy karyotype MeSH C23.550. ... 210.420 --- inversion, chromosome MeSH C23.550.210.430 --- isochromosomes MeSH C23.550.210.570 --- micronuclei, chromosome- ... chromosome fragility MeSH C23.550.382.250 --- eosinophilic granuloma MeSH C23.550.382.375 --- granuloma annulare MeSH C23.550. ...
*  List of MeSH codes (G05)
... chromosome breakage MeSH G05.180.185 --- dna fragmentation MeSH G05.192.095 --- chromatin assembly and disassembly MeSH G05.195 ... chromosome pairing MeSH G05.105.220.687.500.299.500 --- synaptonemal complex MeSH G05.105.220.687.500.600 --- pachytene stage ... chromosome pairing MeSH G05.105.220.875.500.299.500 --- synaptonemal complex MeSH G05.105.220.875.500.600 --- pachytene stage ... x chromosome inactivation MeSH G05.315.200 --- down-regulation MeSH G05.315.203 --- epigenesis, genetic MeSH G05.315.207 --- ...
*  Major vault protein
... evidence that chromosome breakage plays a key role in MRP or LRP gene amplification". Cancer Research. 55 (19): 4214-9. PMID ... "The LRP gene encoding a major vault protein associated with drug resistance maps proximal to MRP on chromosome 16: ...
*  Centromere
Dicentric chromosome) will result in chromosome breakage during mitosis. In some unusual cases human neocentromeres have been ... "Chromosomes, Chromosome Anomalies". *Gilbert F (1999). "Disease genes and chromosomes: disease maps of the human genome. ... the fusion of two acrocentric chromosomes to form one metacentric chromosome. If arms' lengths are unequal, the chromosome is ... The human genome includes six acrocentric chromosomes: 13, 14, 15, 21, 22 and the Y chromosome. In an acrocentric chromosome ...
*  Nondisjunction
"Nondisjunction of a single chromosome leads to breakage and activation of DNA damage checkpoint in G2". PLOS Genetics. 8 (2): ... or if the normal number of chromosomes is restored via duplication of the single monosomic chromosome ("chromosome rescue"). ... Gaining a single chromosome, in which the daughter cell(s) with the defect will have one chromosome in addition to its pairs is ... The extra Y chromosome is usually a result of nondisjunction during paternal meiosis II. Trisomy X is a form of sex chromosome ...
*  Extrachromosomal DNA
DMs are thought to be produced through breakages in chromosomes or overreplication of DNA in an organism. Studies show that in ... There is only one region of the mitochondrial chromosome that does not contain a coding sequence and that is the 1 kb region ... Double minute chromosomes (DMs) are also extrachromosomal elements that are associated with genome instability. DMs are ... Most DNA in an individual genome is found in chromosomes but DNA found outside the nucleus also serves important biological ...
*  FOXP2
... in which part of chromosome 7 had become exchanged with part of chromosome 5. The site of breakage of chromosome 7 was located ... The gene is located on chromosome 7 (7q31, at the SPCH1 locus), and is expressed in fetal and adult brain, heart, lung and gut ... Mapping and sequencing of the chromosomal region was performed with the aid of bacterial artificial chromosome clones. Around ... non-sex chromosome) acting in a dominant fashion. This is one of the few known examples of Mendelian (monogenic) inheritance ...
*  DNA damage theory of aging
Mouse cells deficient for maturation of prelamin A show increased DNA damage and chromosome aberrations and are more sensitive ... These include ataxia telangiectasia, Nijmegen breakage syndrome, some subgroups of xeroderma pigmentosum, trichothiodystrophy, ... and thus can be correctly repaired using the complementary undamaged sequence in a homologous chromosome if it is available for ...