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*  Lysophosphatidic acid
Downstream of LPA receptor activation, the small GTPase Rho can be activated, subsequently activating Rho kinase. This can lead ... which removes the choline group from lysophosphatidylcholine. Lysophosphatidic acid is also an intermediate in the synthesis of ...
*  Acetyl-CoA
Choline, in combination with acetyl-CoA, is catalyzed by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase to produce acetylcholine and ... Pettit, Flora H.; Pelley, John W.; Reed, Lester J. (1975-07-22). "Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and phosphatase ... Allosteric regulator Acetyl-CoA serves as an allosteric regulator of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK). It regulates through ...
*  List of enzymes
EC 2.3.1 Aminolevulinic acid synthase EC 2.3.1.37 Choline acetyltransferase EC 2.3.1.6 Category:EC 2.3.2 Factor XIII EC 2.3. ... EC 2.7.2 Butyrate kinase (EC 2.7.2.7) Hydrolytic enzyme Nuclease Endonuclease Exonuclease Category:EC 3.1.1 Acid hydrolase ...
*  Alanine transaminase
Elevated ALT may also be caused by dietary choline deficiency. However, elevated levels of ALT do not automatically mean that ... including creatine kinase. Many drugs may elevate ALT levels, including Zileuton, omega-3-acid ethyl esters (Lovaza), anti- ...
*  Osmotic shock
Kültz D, Burg M (1 November 1998). "Evolution of osmotic stress signaling via MAP kinase cascades". J. Exp. Biol. 201 (Pt 22): ... A Betaine and metabolite of Choline Sorbitol Glycerophosphocholine Lang KS, Lang PA, Bauer C, et al. (2005). "Mechanisms of ...
*  PDPR
... which functions in choline degradation. The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) catalyzes the oxidative ... by a family of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs 1-4) and its dephosphorylation (activation, reactivation) by the pyruvate ...
*  PKC alpha
Protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKCA gene. Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of ... D is located on the plasma membrane and is responsible for hydrolyzing phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidic acid and choline. ... Protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-α) is a specific member of the protein kinase family. These enzymes are characterized by their ... PKC-α is unique in its mode of regulation compared to other kinases within this family. In general, the protein kinase family ...
*  Neuromuscular junction
Agrin, a heparin proteoglycan, and MuSK kinase are thought to help stabilize the accumulation of AChR in the central regions of ... Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter synthesized from dietary choline and acetyl-CoA (ACoA), and is involved in the stimulation ... MuSK is a receptor tyrosine kinase - meaning that it induces cellular signaling by binding phosphate molecules to self regions ... Also present is the receptor tyrosine kinase protein MuSK, a signaling protein involved in the development of the neuromuscular ...
*  End-plate potential
Acetylcholine is synthesized in the cytoplasm of the neuron from choline and acetyl-CoA. Choline acyltransferase is the enzyme ... The enzyme muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) initiates signaling processes in the developing postsynaptic muscle cell. It ... "Enhanced acetylcholine secretion in neuroblastoma X glioma hybrid NG108-15 cells transfected with rat choline-acetyltransferase ...
*  Coenzyme A
CoA is a competitive inhibitor for Pantothenate Kinase, which normally binds ATP. Coenzyme A, three ADP, one monophosphate, and ... and purify the factor from pig liver and discovered that its function was related to a coenzyme that was active in choline ... dephospho-CoA is phosphorylated to coenzyme A by the enzyme dephosphocoenzyme A kinase (DPCK; CoaE). This final step requires ... phosphopantothenate by the enzyme pantothenate kinase (PanK; CoaA; CoaX). This is the committed step in CoA biosynthesis and ...
*  Sphingolipid
The sphingosine backbone is O-linked to a (usually) charged head group such as ethanolamine, serine, or choline.[citation ... Snider AJ, Orr Gandy KA, Obeid LM (June 2010). "Sphingosine kinase: Role in regulation of bioactive sphingolipid mediators in ... It may be phosphorylated by ceramide kinase to form ceramide-1-phosphate. Alternatively, it may be glycosylated by ... "Regulation of autophagy by sphingosine kinase 1 and its role in cell survival during nutrient starvation". The Journal of ...
*  Autophagy
These two kinases regulate autophagy through inhibitory phosphorylation of the Unc-51-like kinases ULK1 and ULK2 (mammalian ... Choline Dehydrogenase Interacts with Sqstm1/P62 to Recruit Lc3 and Stimulate Mitophagy', Autophagy, 10 (2014), 1906-20 C. M. ... Atg14L and the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate kinase (PI(3)K) VPS34. The active ULK and Beclin-1 complexes re- ... Regulation and Function of Uncoordinated-51 Like Kinase Proteins', Antioxid Redox Signal, 17 (2012), 775-85 R. C. Russell, Y. ...
*  Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor
PKA and PKC, as well as tyrosine kinases, have been shown to phosphorylate the nAChR resulting in its desensitisation. It has ... As well as the endogenous agonist acetylcholine, agonists of the nAChR include nicotine, epibatidine, and choline. Nicotinic ... nAChR function can be modulated by phosphorylation by the activation of second messenger-dependent protein kinases. ... Huganir RL, Greengard P (February 1983). "cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylates the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor". ...
*  Frequency (gene)
... and a calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase (CAMK-1), and additional kinases, reaching its peak around mid-subjective day. Kinase ... the CDO or choline deficiency oscillator that controls conidiation under conditions of choline limitation) controls conidiation ... FRQ recruits kinases such as casein kinase 1a (CK-1a) that phosphorylate WCC, although the function of these phosphorylations ... Additional interactions with other kinases including PRD-4 (CHK2) and casein kinase 2 (CKII) are known. Structural prediction ...
*  Riboflavin
Flavin Riboflavin kinase Riboflavin synthase "riboflavin". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the ... and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. pp. 87-122. ISBN 0-309-06554-2. Archived from the original on 2015- ...
*  Transferase
A prominent kinase is cyclin-dependent kinase (or CDK), which comprises a sub-family of protein kinases. As their name implies ... ChAT functions to transfer an acetyl group from acetyl co-enzyme A to choline in the synapses of nerve cells and exists in two ... "Biochemical characterization of the human cyclin-dependent protein kinase activating kinase. Identification of p35 as a novel ... Choline acetyltransferase (also known as ChAT or CAT) is an important enzyme which produces the neurotransmitter acetylcholine ...
*  Neuromuscular junction disease
This protein is an enzyme that is responsible for catalyzing the reaction that combines acetyl-coenzyime A with choline, ... a muscle-specific serum kinase, and lipoprotein receptor-related protein.(reference 36) So these mechanisms describe myasthenia ... "Auto-antibodies to the receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK in patients with myasthenia gravis without acetylcholine receptor ... type of congenital myasthenia gravis can affect the junction presynaptically by a mutation in the gene encoding choline acetyl ...
*  Nutriepigenomics
Choline deficiency alters global histone methylation and epigenetic marking at the Re1 site of the calbindin 1 gene. FASEB J. ... Genes involved in adipogenesis, such as fibroblast growth-factor-2, phosphatase and tensin homologue, cyclin-dependent kinase ... The methyl groups used in DNA methylation are often derived from dietary sources, such as folate and choline, and explains why ... For example, choline-deficient diets and alcohol metabolism during pregnancy may have very similar metabolic pathways. ...
*  Phosphatidylcholine
Choline metabolism Phosphatidate Choline Jackowski, Suzanne; Cronan, jr., John E.; Rock, Charles O. (1991). "Chapter 2: Lipid ... "Learning behaviour and cerebral protein kinase C, antioxidant status, lipid composition in senescence-accelerated mouse: ... Injection of phosphatidyl choline in small numbers of patients has been reported to reduce or completely resolve a majority of ... This phospholipid is composed of a choline head group and glycerophosphoric acid, with a variety of fatty acids. Usually, one ...
*  List of EC numbers (EC 3)
... choline-sulfatase EC 3.1.6.7: cellulose-polysulfatase EC 3.1.6.8: cerebroside-sulfatase EC 3.1.6.9: chondro-4-sulfatase EC 3.1. ... pyruvate kinase)-phosphatase EC 3.1.3.50: sorbitol-6-phosphatase EC 3.1.3.51: dolichyl-phosphatase EC 3.1.3.52: (3-methyl-2- ...
*  Sodium-solute symporter
Some bacterial sensor kinases (e.g., 2.A.21.9.1) have N-terminal, 12 TMS, sensor domains that regulate the C-terminal kinase ... The solutes transported may be sugars, amino acids, organo cations such as choline, nucleosides, inositols, vitamins, urea or ... The latter are homologous to the kinase domain of NtrB and other sensor kinases. The N-terminal sensor domains are homologous, ...
*  Biology of bipolar disorder
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 has been implicated in bipolar disorder, as bipolar medications lithium and valproate have been ... One review of magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies reported increased choline in the basal ganglia, and cingulate as well as ... Phosphoinositide signaling is also altered, with elevated levels of phospholipase C, protein kinase C, and Gαq being reported ... Increased levels of adenylyl cyclase, protein kinase A(PKA), and cyclic adenosine monophosphate induced PKA activity are also ...
*  Lipid raft
These events include phosphorylations by tyrosine kinases and/or serine/threonine kinases. The specificity and fidelity of ... To offset the elevated sphingolipid levels, phosphatidylcholine levels are decreased which results in similar choline- ... Csk may then suppress the Src-family kinases through phosphorylation. B cell antigen receptor (BCR) is a complex between a ... One possible mechanism of down-regulating this signaling involves the binding of cytosolic kinase Csk to the raft associated ...
*  Oligodendrocyte progenitor cell
"Morphological Differentiation of Oligodendrocytes Requires Activation of Fyn Tyrosine Kinase". Journal of Cell Biology. Spassky ... "Saltatory conduction precedes remyelination in axons demyelinated with lysophosphatidyl choline". Journal of the Neurological ...
*  Enzyme inhibitor
Protein kinases can also be inhibited by competition at the binding sites where the kinases interact with their substrate ... acetate and choline. This is somewhat unusual among neurotransmitters as most, including serotonin, dopamine, and ... As a consequence, if two protein kinase inhibitors both bind in the active site with similar affinity, but only one has to ... For example, some protein kinase inhibitors have chemical structures that are similar to adenosine triphosphate, one of the ...
*  3q29 microdeletion syndrome
These include transferrin receptor, choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase A, RNF168, serine/threonine-protein kinase, nuclear ...