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*  Choline dehydrogenase
In enzymology, a choline dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.99.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction choline + acceptor ⇌ {\ ... Other names in common use include choline oxidase, choline-cytochrome c reductase, choline:(acceptor) oxidoreductase, and ... Gadda G, McAllister-Wilkins EE (2003). "Cloning, Expression, and Purification of Choline Dehydrogenase from the Moderate ... Ebisuzaki K, Williams JN (1955). "Preparation and partial purification of soluble choline dehydrogenase from liver mitochondria ...
*  Glycine betaine aldehyde
Betaine aldehyde is a substrate for choline dehydrogenase (mitochondrial). Glycine betaine aldehyde is a short chain aldehyde ... stress tolerance in Escherichia coli and Nicotiana tabacum expressing a betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase/choline dehydrogenase ... The human aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.3) stimulates the transformation of betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine. ...
*  Trimethylglycine
... choline dehydrogenase, EC 1.1.99.1). Betaine aldehyde is further oxidised in the mitochondria in mice to betaine by the enzyme ... USDA Database for the Choline Content of Common Foods - including the data on choline metabolites, such as betaine, in 434 food ... In most organisms, glycine betaine is biosynthesized by oxidation of choline in two steps. The intermediate, betaine aldehyde, ... "BRENDA - Information on EC 1.2.1.8 - betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase". Brenda-enzymes.org. Retrieved 2016-07-07. Chern, M. K.; ...
*  Autophagy
Choline Dehydrogenase Interacts with Sqstm1/P62 to Recruit Lc3 and Stimulate Mitophagy', Autophagy, 10 (2014), 1906-20 C. M. ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D08)
... uridine diphosphate glucose dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.047.180 --- choline dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.047.210 --- ... acyl-coa dehydrogenases MeSH D08.811.682.660.150.100 --- acyl-coa dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.660.150.150 --- acyl-coa ... 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 MeSH D08.811.682.047.436.174.600 --- 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 ... l-lactate dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.047.551.500 --- l-lactate dehydrogenase (cytochrome) MeSH D08.811.682.047.605 --- ...
*  Glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family
... choline dehydrogenase (CHD) EC 1.1.99.1, methanol oxidase (MOX) EC 1.1.3.13 and cellobiose dehydrogenase EC 1.1.99.18 which ... The glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductases are FAD flavoproteins oxidoreductases. These enzymes include a variety of ... In molecular biology, the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family (GMC oxidoreductase) is a family of enzymes with ... Henriksson G, Johansson G, Pettersson G (March 2000). "A critical review of cellobiose dehydrogenases". J. Biotechnol. 78 (2): ...
*  Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase
... in phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase influence biomarkers of choline ... While the CDP-choline pathway, in which choline obtained either by dietary consumption or by metabolism of choline-containing ... PC made via the PEMT pathway can be degraded by phospholipases C/D, resulting in the de novo formation of choline. Thus, the ... This is one of several examples of the reciprocal regulation of PEMT and CT in the PEMT and CDP-choline pathways. Estrogen has ...
*  PDPR
... which functions in choline degradation. The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) catalyzes the oxidative ... Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase regulatory subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PDPR gene. The complete ... by the pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatases (PDPs 1 and 2). As PDPR is involved in the regulation of the central metabolic ... Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase regulatory subunit". Lawson JE, Park SH, Mattison AR, Yan J, Reed LJ (December 1997). " ...
*  List of EC numbers (EC 1)
... choline dehydrogenase EC 1.1.99.2: L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase EC 1.1.99.3: gluconate 2-dehydrogenase (acceptor) EC 1.1. ... EC 1.1.1.1: alcohol dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.2: alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+) EC 1.1.1.3: homoserine dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.4: (R ... L-arabinitol 4-dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.13: L-arabinitol 2-dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.14: L-iditol 2-dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.15: D- ... glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase EC 1.3.8.7: medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase EC 1.3.8.8: long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase EC 1.3 ...
*  Oxidative phosphorylation
NADH dehydrogenase succinate dehydrogenase Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase cytochrome c oxidase Metabolism portal. ... In mammals, this metabolic pathway is important in beta oxidation of fatty acids and catabolism of amino acids and choline, as ... NADH-coenzyme Q oxidoreductase, also known as NADH dehydrogenase or complex I, is the first protein in the electron transport ... Ikeda Y, Dabrowski C, Tanaka K (25 January 1983). "Separation and properties of five distinct acyl-CoA dehydrogenases from rat ...
*  3q29 microdeletion syndrome
These include transferrin receptor, choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase A, RNF168, serine/threonine-protein kinase, nuclear ... cap-binding protein complex, melanotransferrin, DLG1 and D-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase Research on the risk for ...
*  Phenylpropanoids metabolism
Cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), an enzyme responsible for the transformation of cinnamyl alcohol into cinnamaldehyde ... D-quinate into trans-5-O-caffeoyl-D-quinate Sinapoylglucose-choline O-sinapoyltransferase, an enzyme responsible for the ... Sinapine esterase, an enzyme responsible for the transformation of sinapoylcholine into sinapate (sinapic acid) and choline ...
*  Sarcosine
... is found naturally as an intermediate in the metabolism of choline to glycine. Sarcosine is sweet to the taste and ... Sarcosine is metabolized to glycine by the enzyme sarcosine dehydrogenase, while glycine-N-methyl transferase generates ... Sarcosine is formed from dietary intake of choline and from the metabolism of methionine, and is rapidly degraded to glycine, ...
*  Acetyl-CoA
Choline, in combination with acetyl-CoA, is catalyzed by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase to produce acetylcholine and ... namely acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, enoyl-CoA hydratase, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and thiolase. The cycle produces a new ... The oxidative conversion of pyruvate into acetyl-CoA is referred to as the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction. It is catalyzed by ... Ethanol also serves as a carbon source for acetylation of CoA utilizing the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase. Degradation of ...
*  PLD2
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, PLCG1, PRKCD, Src, and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein. N-(2-(1-(3-fluorophenyl)-4- ... catalyze the hydrolysis of PC to produce phosphatidic acid and choline. Activation of PC-specific PLDs occurs as a consequence ... "Hydrogen peroxide induces association between glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and phospholipase D2 to facilitate ...
*  MTHFD1
Allaire M, Li Y, MacKenzie RE, Cygler M (1998). "The 3-D structure of a folate-dependent dehydrogenase/cyclohydrolase ... "Genetic variation of folate-mediated one-carbon transfer pathway predicts susceptibility to choline deficiency in humans". Proc ... 2006). "Evaluation of a methylenetetrahydrofolate-dehydrogenase 1958G>A polymorphism for neural tube defect risk". J. Hum. ... Mejia NR, MacKenzie RE (1985). "NAD-dependent methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase is expressed by immortal cells". J. Biol ...
*  Upstream activating sequence
These enzymes are regulated by inositol and choline, both of which are phospholipid precursors. Within this consensus sequence ... study looked at the effect of inserting the UASG into the promoter region of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene ... A cis-regulatory element responsible for inositol choline-mediated regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis". The Journal of ...
*  Glutaric aciduria type 1
Choline increases carnitine uptake and retention. Choline supplements are inexpensive, safe (probably even in all children ... Christensen E, Ribes A, Merinero B, Zschocke J (2004). "Correlation of genotype and phenotype in glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase ... Daily JW 3rd, Sachan DS (1995). "Choline supplementation alters carnitine homeostasis in humans and guinea pigs". J. Nutr. 125 ... The GCDH gene encodes the enzyme glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase. This enzyme is involved in degrading the amino acids lysine, ...
*  Animal nutrition
Other essential nutrients not classed as vitamins include essential amino acids (see above), choline, essential fatty acids ( ... liver alcohol dehydrogenase, carbonic anhydrase As with the minerals discussed above, some vitamins are recognized as essential ...
*  List of EC numbers (EC 2)
3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring)) kinase EC 2.7.11.5: (isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP+)) kinase EC ... choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase EC 2.7.7.16: now EC 3.1.27.5 EC 2.7.7.17: now EC 3.1.27.1 EC 2.7.7.18: nicotinate- ... choline kinase EC 2.7.1.33: pantothenate kinase EC 2.7.1.34: pantetheine kinase EC 2.7.1.35: pyridoxal kinase EC 2.7.1.36: ... choline O-acetyltransferase EC 2.3.1.7: carnitine O-acetyltransferase EC 2.3.1.8: phosphate acetyltransferase EC 2.3.1.9: ...
*  List of MeSH codes (C18)
... choline deficiency MeSH C18.654.521.500.133.699.308 --- folic acid deficiency MeSH C18.654.521.500.133.699.529 --- pellagra ... pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency disease MeSH C18.452.648.240 --- cytochrome-c oxidase deficiency MeSH C18.452.648.390 ... pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency disease MeSH C18.452.100.100.875 --- tyrosinemias MeSH C18.452.100.360 --- hepatic ... pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency disease MeSH C18.452.648.151.825 --- sphingolipidoses MeSH C18.452.648.151.825.200 ...
*  Methylobacillus flagellatus
Based on null mutant experiments of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (Gnd) (a key enzyme of the cyclic oxidation pathway), and ... methylotrophs within the genus of Methylobacillus can even use organic compounds such as the pesticide carbofuran and choline ... dehydrogenases) of the TCA cycle. One last notable point to mention is that the M. flagellatus' genome does not code for any ... dehydrogenases) means that it can only rely on one-carbon compounds as carbon substrates for the production of precursor ...
*  Glioblastoma
The IDH1 gene encodes for the enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and is frequently mutated in glioblastoma (primary GBM: 5%, ... may add value to standard MRI in select cases by showing increased relative cerebral blood volume and increased choline peak ... the gene encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase-1. The Mesenchymal subtype is characterized by high rates of mutations or other ... "The driver and passenger effects of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 mutations in oncogenesis and survival prolongation". ...
*  Nutriepigenomics
Choline deficiency alters global histone methylation and epigenetic marking at the Re1 site of the calbindin 1 gene. FASEB J. ... 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 and corticotrophin releasing hormone. Epigenetic modification of these genes may lead ... The methyl groups used in DNA methylation are often derived from dietary sources, such as folate and choline, and explains why ... For example, choline-deficient diets and alcohol metabolism during pregnancy may have very similar metabolic pathways. ...
*  HSD2 neurons
Roland, BL; Li, KX; Funder, JW (Oct 1995). "Hybridization histochemical localization of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase ... choline acetyltransferase, nitric oxide synthase, cholecystokinin, neurotensin, neuropeptide FF, substance P, somatostatin, ... and 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2). HSD2 is an enzyme that metabolizes cortisol and other ...
*  Coenzyme A
In the citric acid cycle, coenzyme A works as an allosteric regulator in the stimulation of the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase. ... and purify the factor from pig liver and discovered that its function was related to a coenzyme that was active in choline ... phosphopantetheinyl transferase activates 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase". J. Biol. Chem. 285 (3): 1627-33. doi: ... group that is added as a prosthetic group to proteins such as acyl carrier protein and formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase. ...