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*  Enterotoxin
Cholera toxin) Staphylococcus aureus (Staphylococcal enterotoxin B) Yersinia enterocolitica Shigella dysenteriae (Shiga toxin) ... All of these toxins share a similar two-domain fold (N and C-terminal domains) with a long alpha-helix in the middle of the ... These toxins share the ability to bind to the major histocompatibility complex proteins of their hosts. A more distant relative ... They are mostly pore-forming toxins (mostly chloride pores), secreted by bacteria, that assemble to form pores in cell ...
*  Cholera toxin
... acts by the following mechanism: First, the B subunit ring of the cholera toxin binds to GM1 gangliosides on the ... Cholera toxin was discovered in 1959 by Late Prof. Sambhu Nath De at Kolkata (India) The cholera toxin is an oligomeric complex ... Once bound, the entire toxin complex is endocytosed by the cell and the cholera toxin A1 (CTA1) chain is released by the ... Cholera toxin (also known as choleragen and sometimes abbreviated to CTX, Ctx or CT) is protein complex secreted by the ...
*  Keratinocyte
Cholera toxin. Within the epidermis keratinocytes are associated with other cell types such as melanocytes and Langerhans cells ...
*  Hes3 signaling axis
Treatment with cholera toxin. This has been shown in vitro. This particular treatment may bypass the STAT3-Ser stage and act ... Androutsellis-Theotokis A, Walbridge S, Park DM, Lonser RR, McKay RD (2010). "Cholera toxin regulates a signaling pathway ...
*  Enterocyte
Toxins such as cholera toxin may increase the secretion or decrease the intake of water and electrolytes, leading to possibly ... Joaquín Sánchez, Jan Holmgren (February 2011). "Cholera toxin - A foe & a friend" (PDF). Indian Journal of Medical Research. ...
*  TA-CD
It is created by combining norcocaine with inactivated cholera toxin. It works in much the same way as a regular vaccine. A ...
*  NPLOC4
McConnell E, Lass A, Wójcik C (2007). "Ufd1-Npl4 is a negative regulator of cholera toxin retrotranslocation". Biochem. Biophys ...
*  John Woollam (physicist)
"Repeatability of ellipsometric data in cholera toxin GM1-ELISA structures". Surface Science. 601 (8): 1795. Bibcode:2007SurSc. ...
*  GM1
The bacteria Vibrio cholerae produces a multimeric toxin called the cholera toxin. The secreted toxin attaches to the surface ... Besides its function in the physiology of the brain, GM1 acts as the site of binding for both Cholera toxin and E. coli heat- ... When the cholera patient is given a solution containing water, sodium and glucose, the SGLT1 receptor will reabsorb sodium and ... The A1 subunit of this toxin will gain entry to intestinal epithelial cells with the assistance of the B subunit via the GM1 ...
*  Cystic fibrosis
With the discovery that cholera toxin requires normal host CFTR proteins to function properly, it was hypothesized that ... "Cystic fibrosis heterozygote resistance to cholera toxin in the cystic fibrosis mouse model". Science. 266 (5182): 107-9. ... Over time, this can lead to scarring and nodularity (cirrhosis). The liver fails to rid the blood of toxins and does not make ... In both cases, the low level of cystic fibrosis outside of Europe, in places where both cholera and typhoid fever are endemic, ...
*  Symporter
S. N. Dey and Cholera Toxin Willmer, Pat (2009). Environmental Physiology of Animals. Wiley-Blackwell. Symporters at the US ...
*  Vibrio mimicus
V. mimicus was isolated from cultures of stool specimens, and genes encoding cholera toxin were identified by polymerase chain ... V. mimicus, when carrying genes that encode cholera toxin, can cause severe watery diarrhea. Consumers and physicians should be ... and cholera toxin genes were not detected using PCR. D. MacEachern; J. McCullough; J. Duchin; M. Tran; K. MacDonald; A. Marfin ...
*  Heat-labile enterotoxin family
In molecular biology, the heat-labile enterotoxin family includes Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin and cholera toxin secreted ... a close relative of cholera toxin". J. Mol. Biol. 230 (3): 890-918. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1993.1209. PMID 8478941. van den Akker F, ... These toxins consist of an AB5 multimer structure, in which a pentamer of B chains has a membrane-binding function and an A ...
*  Differentiation therapy
Other agents investigated (pre-clinically) to encourage MET include cholera toxin (CTx) and forskolin (Fsk). Sell, Stewart. ( ...
*  Alfred G. Gilman
Schleifer, LS; Kahn, RA; Hanski, E; Northup, JK; Sternweis, PC; Gilman, AG (1982). "Requirements for cholera toxin-dependent ... Bokoch, GM; Gilman, AG (1984). "Inhibition of receptor-mediated release of arachidonic acid by pertussis toxin". Cell. 39 (2 Pt ...
*  Cholera
O'Neal CJ, Jobling MG, Holmes RK, Hol WG (2005). "Structural basis for the activation of cholera toxin by human ARF6-GTP". ... Prevention and control of cholera outbreaks: WHO policy and recommendations Cholera-World Health Organization Cholera - Vibrio ... Of particular interest have been the genetic mechanisms by which cholera bacteria turn on the protein production of the toxins ... Descriptions of cholera are found as early as the 5th century BC in Sanskrit. The study of cholera in England by John Snow ...
*  Channel blocker
"Thiazolidinone CFTR inhibitor identified by high-throughput screening blocks cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion ... are affected by many different toxins. Tetrodotoxin (TTX), a toxin found in pufferfish, completely blocks sodium ion ... Much of the structure of the pores of ion channels has been elucidated from studies that used toxins to inhibit channel ... "Topology of the pore-region of a K+ channel revealed by the NMR-derived structures of scorpion toxins". Neuron. 15 (5): 1169-81 ...
*  Cytochalasin B
When adding cytochalasin B and the beta-andrenergic agonist (-)-isoproterenol, prostaglandin E1 or cholera toxin to wild type ... Insel, PA; Koachman, AM (1982). "Cytochalasin B Enhances Hormone and Cholera Toxin-Stimulated Cyclic AMP Accumulation in S49 ...
*  ARL1
Hong JX, Lee FJ, Patton WA, Lin CY, Moss J, Vaughan M (1998). "Phospholipid- and GTP-dependent activation of cholera toxin and ... "Different ARF domains are required for the activation of cholera toxin and phospholipase D". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (1): 21-4. doi: ... described as activators of cholera toxin (CT) ADP-ribosyltransferase activity, regulate intracellular vesicular membrane ...
*  Short linear motif
The KDEL motif of the bacteria encoded cholera toxin mediates cell entry of the cholera toxin. Linear motif mediated protein- ... "Targeting of cholera toxin and Escherichia coli heat labile toxin in polarized epithelia: Role of COOH-terminal KDEL". The ...
*  ARF6
... a family of approximately 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that activate cholera toxin". Mol. Cell. Biochem. 138 (1-2 ... ARF genes encode small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that stimulate the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of cholera toxin ...
*  Crofelemer
In 1999 the drug was reported to improve the symptoms of cholera toxin induced diarrhoea in mice. SP-303 was eventually named ...
*  ARF1
... two guanine nucleotide-dependent activators of cholera toxin". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86 (16): 6101-5. doi:10.1073/pnas. ... a guanine nucleotide-binding activator of cholera toxin". J Biol Chem. 267 (13): 9028-34. PMID 1577740. "Entrez Gene: ARF1 ADP- ... a family of approximately 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that activate cholera toxin". Mol. Cell. Biochem. 138 (1-2 ... members encode small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that stimulate the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of cholera toxin ...
*  History of emerging infectious diseases
The study showed that a series of genetic mutations in some people provide resistance to cholera toxin; but these mutations ... scientific representatives from 21 countries voted unanimously to resolve that cholera was caused by environmental toxins from ... "Cystic fibrosis heterozygote resistance to cholera toxin in the cystic fibrosis mouse model". Science. 266 (5182): 107-9. ... Before the discovery of an infectious cause, the symptoms of cholera were thought to be caused by an excess of bile in the ...
*  AB toxin
De Haan L, Hirst TR (2004). "Cholera toxin: a paradigm for multi-functional engagement of cellular mechanisms (Review)". Mol. ... Examples of the "A" component of an AB toxin include C. perfringens iota toxin Ia, C. botulinum C2 toxin CI, and Clostridium ... The AB5 toxins are usually considered a type of AB toxin, characterized by B pentamers. Less commonly, the term "AB toxin" is ... The Diphtheria toxin also is an AB toxin. It inhibits protein synthesis in the host cell through phosphorylation of the ...
*  Anterograde tracing
Luppi PH, Fort P, Jouvet M (November 1990). "Iontophoretic application of unconjugated cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) combined ...
*  Inovirus
At least one of the viruses (Vibrio phage CTX) is medically important as it encodes the cholera toxin. The type species is ...