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*  Photosynthesis
Therefore, chloroplasts may be photosynthetic bacteria that adapted to life inside plant cells. Like mitochondria, chloroplasts ... A typical plant cell contains about 10 to 100 chloroplasts. The chloroplast is enclosed by a membrane. This membrane is ... An even closer form of symbiosis may explain the origin of chloroplasts. Chloroplasts have many similarities with ... DNA in chloroplasts codes for redox proteins such as those found in the photosynthetic reaction centers. The CoRR Hypothesis ...
*  TIC/TOC complex
Chloroplast DNA Chloroplast "Preprotein Import into Chloroplasts via the Toc and Tic Complexes Is Regulated by Redox Signals in ... The TIC complex (translocon on the inner chloroplast membrane) is located in the inner envelope of the chloroplast. The TOC ... The chloroplast also harnesses the power of an electrochemical gradient using protons. The gradient is only used to power ... This initiates transport and translocation through the TIC/TOC complexes into the stroma of the chloroplast. It is there that a ...
*  Dunaliella salina
The chloroplast can hold large amounts of β-carotene, which makes it appear orange-red. The β-carotene appears to protect the ... Dunaliella has two flagella of equal length and has a single cup-like chloroplast that often contains a central pyrenoid. ...
*  Plastid
Proplastids and young chloroplasts commonly divide by binary fission, but more mature chloroplasts also have this capacity. In ... A Novel View of Chloroplast Structure: contains fluorescence images of chloroplasts and stromules as well as an easy to read ... For example, chloroplasts have lost all phycobilisomes, the light harvesting complexes found in cyanobacteria, red algae and ... Rhodophytic algae contain rhodoplasts, which are red chloroplasts that allow the algae to photosynthesise to a depth of up to ...
*  Chloroplast
Some chloroplasts contain a structure called the chloroplast peripheral reticulum. It is often found in the chloroplasts of C4 ... Almost all chloroplasts in a cell divide, rather than a small group of rapidly dividing chloroplasts. Chloroplasts have no ... All chloroplasts have at least three membrane systems-the outer chloroplast membrane, the inner chloroplast membrane, and the ... Most dinophyte chloroplasts are secondary red algal derived chloroplasts. Many other dinophytes have lost the chloroplast ( ...
*  Chloroplast DNA
... a histone-like chloroplast protein (HC) coded by the chloroplast DNA that tightly packs each chloroplast DNA ring into a ... Most chloroplasts have their entire chloroplast genome combined into a single large ring, though those of dinophyte algae are a ... Chloroplast DNAs have long been thought to have a circular structure, but some evidence suggests that chloroplast DNA more ... Protein synthesis within chloroplasts relies on an RNA polymerase coded by the chloroplast's own genome, which is related to ...
*  Chloroplast membrane
Chloroplasts contain several important membranes, vital for their function. Like mitochondria, chloroplasts have a double- ... membrane envelope, called the chloroplast envelope, but unlike mitochondria, chloroplasts also have internal membrane ... The chloroplasts come via endosymbiosis by engulfment of a photosynthetic cyanobacterium by the eukaryotic, already ... The outer membrane is permeable to most ions and metabolites, but the inner membrane of the chloroplast is highly specialised ...
*  Chloroplast capture
Chloroplast DNA variation within and among genera of the Heuchera group: evidence for extensive chloroplast capture and the ... Chloroplast capture is an evolutionary process through which inter-species hybridization and subsequent backcrosses yield a ... Chloroplast evolution in the Pinus montezumae complex: a coalescent approach to hybridization. Evolution 54: 1218-1233 ... For instance, 1) species A's (having chloroplast genome a and nuclear genome AA) pollen hybridizes (backcross) to species B's ( ...
*  Chloroplast sensor kinase
... (CSK) is a protein in chloroplasts of green plants and algae. In the plant Arabidopsis thaliana ( ... CSK is intrinsic to chloroplasts, targeted to chloroplast genes, and may be required for the retention, in evolution, of ... The gene for CSK is found in cyanobacteria; prokaryotes from which chloroplasts evolved by endosymbiosis. CSK and its redox ... Journal of Theoretical Biology 165: 609-631 Allen JF (2015) Why chloroplasts and mitochondria retain their own genomes and ...
*  Chloroplast protein-transporting ATPase
In enzymology, a chloroplast protein-transporting ATPase (EC 3.6.3.52) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + ... Nakai M, Goto A, Nohara T, Sugita D, Endo T (1994). "Identification of the SecA protein homolog in pea chloroplasts and its ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP phosphohydrolase (chloroplast protein-importing). Cline K, Ettinger WF, Theg SM ... Scott SV, Theg SM (1996). "A new chloroplast protein import intermediate reveals distinct translocation machineries in the two ...
*  Evolution of molecular chaperones
Mitochondria were found to be most closely related to the α-purple subdivision of Gram negative bacteria and chloroplasts were ... Hsp10 and hsp60 are present in all eubacteria and organelles of eukaryotes (mitochondria and chloroplasts), but not in ... and chloroplasts. Any two hsp60 amino acid sequences share at least 40% similarity, with 18-20% of differences coming from ... support the current endosymbiosis model of the origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts. ...
*  Botany
ISBN 978-0-00-220212-1. Possingham, J. V.; Rose, R. J. (May 18, 1976). "Chloroplast Replication and Chloroplast DNA Synthesis ... have unique organelles known as chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are thought to be descended from cyanobacteria that formed ... Chloroplasts and cyanobacteria contain the blue-green pigment chlorophyll a. Chlorophyll a (as well as its plant and green ... Chloroplasts are inherited through the male parent in gymnosperms but often through the female parent in flowering plants. A ...
*  Blidingia minima
Stellate chloroplasts also exist. The tubes rise in groups from the center. It thalli grow as clusters which carry cylindrical ...
*  Red algae
Chloroplasts evolved following an endosymbiotic event between an ancestral, photosynthetic cyanobacterium and an early ... According to this theory, over time these endosymbiont red algae have evolved to become chloroplasts. This part of ... The red algae form a distinct group characterized by having eukaryotic cells without flagella and centrioles, chloroplasts that ... within their chloroplasts. Some marine species are found on sandy shores, while most others can be found attached to rocky ...
*  R. John Ellis
Blair, G. E.; Ellis, R. J. (1973). "Protein synthesis in chloroplasts. I. Light-driven synthesis of the large subunit of ... Barraclough, R.; Ellis, R. J. (1980). "Protein synthesis in chloroplasts IX. Assembly of newly-synthesised large subunits into ... 1973: First identification of a product of protein synthesis by chloroplast ribosomes. 1978: First demonstration of in vitro ... 1983: Elected Fellow of the Royal Society of London for contributions to chloroplast biogenesis. 1983: Five-year Senior ...
*  Steve A. Kay
Atkins, K.A. & Dodd, A.N. (2014). "Circadian Regulation of Chloroplasts". Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 21: 43-50. doi: ...
*  Ceratoperidiniaeceae
Member species possess chloroplasts. Reñé, Albert; de Salas, Miguel; Camp, Jordi; Balagué, Vanessa; Garcés, Esther (September ...
*  Loxopterygium
"Loxopterygium huasango isolate 68 maturase K (matK) gene, partial cds; chloroplast." National Center for Biotechnology ...
*  Differential centrifugation
... chloroplasts, lysosomes, and peroxisomes; Microsomes (vesicles of disrupted endoplasmic reticulum); and Ribosomes and cytosol. ...
*  Robin Hill (biochemist)
Walker, D. A.; Hill, R (1967). "The relation of oxygen evolution to carbon assimilation with isolated chloroplasts". Biochimica ... Hill, R.; Bendall, F. (1960). "Function of the Two Cytochrome Components in Chloroplasts: A Working Hypothesis". Nature. 186 ( ... Hill, R. (1939). "Oxygen Produced by Isolated Chloroplasts". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 127 (847 ... subscription required) Bendall, D.S. (1971). "[33] Cytochrome components in chloroplasts of the higher plants". Methods in ...
*  1954 in science
Daniel I. Arnon demonstrates in the laboratory the chemical function of photosynthesis in chloroplasts. Heinz Sielmann makes ... Arnon, Daniel I.; Allen, Mary B.; Whatley, F. R. (1954). "Photosynthesis by Isolated Chloroplasts" (PDF). Nature. 174 (4426): ...
*  Hill reaction
... is reduced in chloroplasts to NADPH. Overall within a chloroplast, the following equilibrium reaction takes place. A reduction ... The ferrocyanide is reduced (just as NADP is when the chloroplast is in vivo) while water (H2O) is oxidized into oxygen (O2) ... He demonstrated that isolated chloroplasts would make oxygen (O2) but not fix carbon dioxide (CO2). This is evidence that the ... The reaction in which oxygen is released takes place within the chloroplast of plants and the Hill reaction demonstrated that ...
*  Light-dependent reactions
PS II, PS I, and cytochromeb 6 are found in chloroplasts. All plants and all photosynthetic algae contain chloroplasts, which ... They do not contain chloroplasts. Rather, they bear a striking resemblance to chloroplasts themselves. This suggests that ... The photosynthesis process in chloroplasts begins when an electron of P680 of PSII attains a higher-energy level. This energy ... PS II is a transmembrane structure found in all chloroplasts. It splits water into electrons, protons and molecular oxygen. The ...
*  Protein disulfide-isomerase
In the chloroplasts of the unicellular algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii the protein disulfide-isomerase RB60 serves as a redox ... Wittenberg G, Danon A (2008). "Disulfide bond formation in chloroplasts". Plant Science. 175 (4): 459-466. doi:10.1016/j. ... disulfide-isomerase has also been suggested to play a role in the formation of regulatory disulfide bonds in chloroplasts. ...
*  Prokaryote
This is one of many pieces of evidence that mitochondria and chloroplasts are themselves descended from free-living bacteria. ... However, two organelles found in many eukaryotic cells, mitochondria and chloroplasts, contain ribosomes similar in size and ... Prokaryotes lack mitochondria and chloroplasts. Instead, processes such as oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis take ...