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*  Anaphase
They take on a V-shape or Y-shape as they are pulled back. While the chromosomes are drawn to each side of the cell, the non- ... Hickson, Gilles R X; Arnaud Echard; Patrick H O'Farrell (2006). "Rho-kinase Controls Cell Shape Changes during Cytokinesis". ... Once anaphase is complete, the cell moves into telophase. Anaphase accounts for approximately 1% of the cell cycle's duration.[ ... "The Cell Cycle". Kimball's Biology Pages. Retrieved 9 December 2012. ...
*  Contact guidance
... and consequently the resulting cell shape is isotropic (without a preferred alignment). On the other hand, when the groove size ... A similar effect can be obtained when cells are cultured on flat surfaces with lines of proteins printed on top (to which cells ... "Vascular smooth muscle contractility depends on cell shape". Integrative Biology. 3 (11): 1063. doi:10.1039/c1ib00061f. Lamers ... The Interplay Among Cell Traction, Fibrillar Network Deformation, Fibril Alignment, and Cell Contact Guidance". Journal of ...
*  Epithelial polarity
... which is central to cell shape in all plant cells. All epithelial cells express the transmembrane adhesion molecule E-cadherin ... Cell polarity is a fundamental feature of many types of cells. Epithelial cells are one example of a polarized cell type, ... Epithelial cells come in a variety of shapes that relate to their function in development or physiology. How epithelial cells ... Cell shape and contacts provide the likely mechanism. Lateral membranes are the site of contact between epithelial cells, ...
*  Pavement cells
Qian, P.; Hou, S.; Guo, G. (2009). "Molecular mechanisms controlling pavement cell shape in Arabidopsis leaves". Plant Cell ... Pavement cells are a cell type found in the outmost epidermal layer of plants. They are simple cells with no specialized ... Qian, P.; Hou, S.; Guo, G. (2009). "Molecular mechanisms controlling pavement cell shape in Arabidopsis leaves". Plant Cell ... This irregular shape that each individual cell takes on can be influenced by the cytoskeleton and specific proteins. As the ...
*  Neisseria elongata
Re-evaluation of Cell Shape as a Criterion in Classification". Journal of General Microbiology. 60 (1): 67-75. doi:10.1099/ ... Neisseria elongata is a Gram negative bacterium and is different from the other cocci shaped members of the genus Neisseria as ... Bovre, K; Holten, E (1970). "Neisseria elongata sp.nov., a Rod-shaped Member of the Genus Neisseria. ... it is rod shaped. Unlike other Neisseria it is catalase negative. N. elongata is the most ancestral of the human Neisseria. " ...
*  Cell (biology)
Cell Movements and the Shaping of the Vertebrate Body in Chapter 21 of Molecular Biology of the Cell fourth edition, edited by ... In mammals, major cell types include skin cells, muscle cells, neurons, blood cells, fibroblasts, stem cells, and others. Cell ... Some eukaryotic cells (plant cells and fungal cells) also have a cell wall. Inside the cell is the cytoplasmic region that ... Cell nucleus: A cell's information center, the cell nucleus is the most conspicuous organelle found in a eukaryotic cell. It ...
*  Septin
... s in filamentous fungi display a variety of different shapes within single cells, where they control aspects of ... In yeast cells, they compartmentalize parts of the cell and build scaffolding to provide structural support during cell ... link) Gladfelter AS (2006). "Control of filamentous fungal cell shape by septins and formins". Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 4 (3): 223- ... Gladfelter AS (March 2006). "Control of filamentous fungal cell shape by septins and formins". Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 4 (3): 223- ...
*  Neisseria bacilliformis
Re-evaluation of Cell Shape as a Criterion in Classification". Journal of General Microbiology. 60 (1): 67-75. doi:10.1099/ ... Bovre, K; Holten E (January 1970). "Neisseria elongata sp.nov., a Rod-shaped Member of the Genus Neisseria. ...
*  Zernike polynomials
These quantifiers of cell shape have been used to distinguish between high invasive cancer cell lines from low invasive lines. ... Zernike Moments also have been used to quantify shape of osteosarcoma cancer cell lines in single cell level. ... "Measuring systematic changes in invasive cancer cell shape using Zernike moments". Integrative Biology. 8 (11): 1183-1193. doi: ... Thus, they can be utilized to extract features from images that describe the shape characteristics of an object. For instance, ...
*  Apical constriction
These cells are known as bottle cells, for their eventual shape. Because all of the cells constrict on the apical side, the ... Apical constriction is the process in which contraction of the apical side of a cell causes the cell to take on a wedged shape ... this shape change is coordinated across many cells of an epithelial layer, generating forces that can bend or fold the cell ... 2009). "Apical constriction: A cell shape change that can drive morphogenesis". Developmental Biology. 341: 5-19. doi:10.1016/j ...
*  Artificial neural network
... colorectal cancer and to distinguish highly invasive cancer cell lines from less invasive lines using only cell shape ... Lyons, Samanthe (2016). "Changes in cell shape are correlated with metastatic potential in murine". Biology Open. 5 (3): 289- ... simple cells and complex cells. The first functional networks with many layers were published by Ivakhnenko and Lapa in 1965, ... "Measuring systematic changes in invasive cancer cell shape using Zernike moments". Integrative Biology. 8 (11): 1183-1193. doi: ...
*  Collodictyon
The cell shape is variable but is mostly obovoid to ellipsoid. The lateral cell margins maybe somewhat angular leading to a ... Organelles called dictyosomes are present and arranged in a horseshoe like shape. Members of this genus are known to reproduce ... Structure transparent, cancellated, composed of globular cells, with a strongly marked, greenish granule here and there in the ... They are devoid of cellulosic cell walls, chloroplasts or stigmata. There are two to several contractile vacuoles. ...
*  Scanning acoustic microscope
"Mechanical basis of cell shape: investigations with the scanning acoustic microscope". Biochem. Cell Biol. 73 (7-8): 337-48. ... SAM can provide data on the elasticity of cells and tissues, which can give useful information on the physical forces holding ... Hildebrand JA; Rugar D; Johnston RN; Quate CF (1981). "Acoustic microscopy of living cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78 ( ... These studies are particularly valuable in investigating processes such as cell motility. Some work has also been performed to ...
*  Peptidoglycan
van den Ent F, Johnson CM, Persons L, de Boer P, Löwe J (2010). "Bacterial actin MreB assembles in complex with cell shape ... A common misconception is that peptidoglycan gives the cell its shape; however, whereas peptidoglycan helps maintain the ... Gram-positive cell wall Penicillin binding protein forming cross-links in newly formed bacterial cell wall. The peptidoglycan ... structural strength of the cell, it is actually the MreB protein that facilitates cell shape. Peptidoglycan is also involved in ...
*  Principal component analysis
"Measuring systematic changes in invasive cancer cell shape using Zernike moments". Integrative Biology. 8 (11): 1183-1193. doi: ... In neuroscience, PCA is also used to discern the identity of a neuron from the shape of its action potential. Spike sorting is ...
*  Andrea Brand
... cell shape change and the control of myosin localization". Development. 132 (18): 4165-78. doi:10.1242/dev.01938. PMID 16123312 ... Neural stem cells divide in a self-renewing manner, generating daughter cells that give rise to different types of neurons. The ... One protein, known by the name Prospero, is responsible for regulating stem cells to produce cells which produce neurons. ... By causing cells to express cell death genes-and effectively commit suicide-the system can model diabetes by killing insulin- ...
*  Actin
... cell signaling, and the establishment and maintenance of cell junctions and cell shape. Many of these processes are mediated by ... Cell division in animal cells and yeasts normally involves the separation of the parent cell into two daughter cells through ... as well as the determination of a cell's shape. However, actin has a wider role in eukaryotic cell physiology, in addition to ... "Actin plays a role in both changes in cell shape and gene-expression associated with Schwann cell myelination". The Journal of ...
*  Liam Dolan
"Local Positive Feedback Regulation Determines Cell Shape in Root Hair Cells". Science. 319 (5867): 1241-1244. doi:10.1126/ ... "Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase regulate plant cell growth". Nature. 422 (6930): 442-446. doi:10.1038/ ...
*  Vimentin
"The function of intermediate filaments in cell shape and cytoskeletal integrity". J. Cell Biol. 134 (4): 971-83. doi:10.1083/ ... In essence, vimentin is responsible for maintaining cell shape, integrity of the cytoplasm, and stabilizing cytoskeletal ... With the blocking of transport of LDL-derived cholesterol inside the cell, cells were found to store a much lower percentage of ... Because of this, vimentin is often used as a marker of mesenchymally-derived cells or cells undergoing an epithelial-to- ...
*  Amira (software)
Leischner, U.; Schierloh, A.; Zieglgänsberger, W.; Dodt, H.U. (2010). "Formalin-Induced Fluorescence Reveals Cell Shape and ... "Evidence of direct cell-cell fusion in Borrelia by cryogenic electron tomography". Cellular Microbiology. Wiley Online Library ... "3D visualization of HIV transfer at the virological synapse between dendritic cells and T cells". Proceedings of the National ... The segmentation can then be used for a variety of subsequent tasks, such as volumetric analysis, density analysis, shape ...
*  Chlorodendrales
Cell shape and size of Chlorodendrales cells varies depending on the species. The cells range greatly in size from species to ... Cells of Chlorodendrales are completely covered in scales, which fuse around the cell body producing the theca, but remain ... Cells can be round, ovoid, elliptical, flattened, or compressed; there is great diversity in Chlorodendrales cells. See figure ... the main difference being the fusion of cell-body scales. The scales also differ in size, shape, and macromolecular composition ...
*  Haloterrigena turkmenica
Cell shape can be classified as being ovoid to coccoid in shape. The diameter of the cells ranges from 1.5 µm to 2.0 µm. On ... Cells are typically found as individuals, but have been seen in the form of pairs and tetrads. ...
*  Sulfolobus solfataricus
It usually has a spherical cell shape and it makes frequent lobes. Being an autotroph it receives energy from growing on sulfur ... The results of the findings came from the varied methods of their DNA mechanisms, cell cycles, and transitional apparatus. ... Solfataricus are researched for their methods of DNA replication, cell cycle, chromosomal integration, transcription, RNA ... similar to the more well-studied bacterial transformation that is also associated with DNA transfer between cells leading to ...
*  Albendazole
Cell motility, maintenance of cell shape, and intracellular transport are also disrupted. At higher concentrations, it disrupts ... drop in white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets), hepatitis, acute liver failure, and acute renal failure, ... Fewer than 1% of people get hypersensitivity reactions (such as rashes and hives), leukopenias (drop in white blood cell levels ... As a vermicidal, albendazole causes degenerative alterations in the intestinal cells of the worm by binding to the colchicine- ...
*  SHROOM3
This protein may be involved in regulating cell shape in certain tissues. Mutations in this gene have been shown to cause ... "Shroom3 and a Pitx2-N-cadherin pathway function cooperatively to generate asymmetric cell shape changes during gut ... Cell. Proteomics. 4 (6): 785-95. doi:10.1074/mcp.M500021-MCP200. PMID 15778465. Navarro-Lérida I, Martínez Moreno M, Roncal F, ... Grosse AS, Pressprich MF, Curley LB, Hamilton KL, Margolis B, Hildebrand JD, Gumucio DL (2011). "Cell dynamics in fetal ...
*  Camelpox
After the virus attaches to a host cell, it injects its viral core (the shell containing its DNA) into the cell's cytoplasm. ... It is a large, brick-shaped, enveloped virus that ranges in size from 265-295 nm. The viral genetic material is contained in ... The newly formed virus particles can be released during cell lysis, or they can derive a host cell produced membrane and be ... The Camelpox virus has a unique shape that is readily identifiable using this method. In cases where TEM technology is not ...