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*  Membrane lipid
Both these cells synthesized iodolipids, as novel words of the chemical lipid language developed among cell membranes during ... membranes?ev=prf_pub de Meyer F, Smit B. Effect of cholesterol on the structure of a phospholipid bilayer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U ... Cell membranes require high levels of cholesterol - typically an average of 20% cholesterol in the whole membrane, increasing ... The bilayer formed by membrane lipids serves as a containment unit of a living cell. Membrane lipids also form a matrix in ...
*  Red blood cell
The cell membrane is composed of proteins and lipids, and this structure provides properties essential for physiological cell ... also an important structural component of the red blood cell cell membrane, makes up to 25% of the cell membrane surface, each ... The red blood cell cell membrane comprises a typical lipid bilayer, similar to what can be found in virtually all human cells. ... Oxygen can easily diffuse through the red blood cell's cell membrane. Hemoglobin in the red blood cells also carries some of ...
*  SMC3
... a five domain structure including coiled-coil motifs". J. Cell Biol. 136 (2): 433-44. doi:10.1083/jcb.136.2.433. PMC 2134808 . ... A post-translated modified form that is excreted is known as basement membrane-associated chondroitin proteoglycan (bamacan). ... Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID ... Cell. 18 (2): 185-200. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2005.03.017. PMID 15837422. Khanna H, Hurd TW, Lillo C, Shu X, Parapuram SK, He S, ...
*  Ronald S. Weinstein
Weinstein, Ronald S. (1969-07-10). "The Structure of Cell Membranes". New England Journal of Medicine. 281 (2): 86-89. doi: ... He continued his research on normal cell membranes and cancer cell membranes and initiated research on animal models for ... As an MGH pathology resident, he co-authored research papers on intercellular junctions, cancer cell, and red cell membranes. ... He studied cell membrane properties in normal epithelium, pre-cancers and cancers. Medical science education reform To ...
*  Montmorillonite
These structures resemble cell membranes on many cells. It can also help nucleotides to assemble into RNA which will end up ... Clays May Have Aided Formation of Primordial Cells Howard Hughes Medical Institute, from EurekAlert!, American Association for ... "Montmorillonite Clay Benefits, Uses in Cat / Dog Food, Structure & Properties". DurableHealth. Retrieved 12 October 2015. ... or for the demolition of concrete structures where the use of explosive charges is unacceptable.[citation needed] This swelling ...
*  History of cell membrane theory
"Membrane Structure." The Journal of Cell Biology. (1981) 91. 189s-204s. B Alberts, A Johnson, J Lewis, M Raff, K Roberts, and P ... Membrane models Cell Membrane Membrane theory Jacques Loeb, The Dynamics of Living Matter. Columbia University Biological ... P Mueller, D O Rudin, H I Tien, and W C Wescott."Reconstitution of cell membrane structure in vitro and its transformation into ... S J Singer and G L Nicolson."The fluid mosaic model of the structure of cell membranes." Science. (1972) 175. 720-731. A B ...
*  Garth L. Nicolson
"The fluid mosaic model of the structure of cell membranes" in 1972, which is now regarded as a classic paper in cell biology. ... They made a seminal model for the structure of cell membranes, which they named the Fluid Mosaic Model, and published in a 12- ... The model turned out to be the foundation of modern understanding of cell membrane structure and functions. Although its basic ... Singer, S. J.; Nicolson, G. L. (1972). "The Fluid Mosaic Model of the Structure of Cell Membranes". Science. 175 (4023): 720- ...
*  Mesosome
Robertson, J.D. (1959). "The ultra structure of cell membranes and their derivatives, Biochem". Soc. Syrup: 3. Suganuma A (1966 ... The appearance of these mesosome-like structures may be the result of these chemicals damaging the plasma membrane and/or cell ... These structures are invaginations of the plasma membrane observed in gram-positive bacteria that have been chemically fixed to ... Cell membrane Organelle Lysosome Nanninga N (1971). "The mesosome of Bacillus subtilis as affected by chemical and physical ...
*  Davson-Danielli model
Wells, W. A. (2005). "The invention of freeze fracture EM and the determination of membrane structure". The Journal of Cell ... Singer, S. J.; Nicolson, G. L. (1972). "The fluid mosaic model of the structure of cell membranes". Science. 175 (4023): 720- ... The Davson-Danielli model (or paucimolecular model) was a model of the plasma membrane of a cell, proposed in 1935 by Hugh ...
*  Viroporin
Nieva, José; Carrasco, Luis (29 September 2015). "Viroporins: Structures and functions beyond cell membrane permeabilization". ... the membrane permeability changes may be sufficient to induce cell lysis, thereby permitting the new virions to exit the cell. ... The most well-studied and well-established function of viroporins is the permeabilization of the cell membrane to ions and ... Viroporins are capable of assembling into oligomeric ion channels or pores in the host cell's membrane, rendering it more ...
*  Holin
Nieva, José; Carrasco, Luis (29 September 2015). "Viroporins: Structures and functions beyond cell membrane permeabilization". ... Holins form pores in the host's cell membrane, allowing lysins to reach and degrade peptidoglycan, a component of bacterial ... Viruses that infect eukaryotic cells may use similar proteins called viroporins to permeabilize the host's membrane. According ... They are associated with SAR endolysins, which remain inactive in the periplasm prior to the depolarization of the membrane. ...
*  Differential geometry
In chemistry and biophysics when modelling cell membrane structure under varying pressure. In economics, differential geometry ... An almost Hermitian structure is given by an almost complex structure J, along with a Riemannian metric g, satisfying the ... A Finsler structure on a manifold M is a function F : TM → [0,∞) such that: F(x, my) = ,m,F(x,y) for all x, y in TM, F is ... is called a Kähler structure, and a Kähler manifold is a manifold endowed with a Kähler structure. In particular, a Kähler ...
*  Model lipid bilayer
Mueller, P; Rudin, D O; Tien, H I; Wescott, W C (1962). "Reconstitution of cell membrane structure in vitro and its ... as opposed to the bilayer of natural cell membranes or covering various sub-cellular structures like the nucleus. A model ... "High-Level Cell-Free Production of Membrane Proteins with Nanodiscs". Cell-Free Protein Synthesis. Methods in Molecular Biology ... "Co-translational association of cell-free expressed membrane proteins with supplied lipid bilayers". Molecular Membrane Biology ...
*  Polymyxin B
Polymyxins bind to the cell membrane and alter its structure, making it more permeable. The resulting water uptake leads to ... since cell wall is too thick to permit access to membrane Alters bacterial outer membrane permeability by binding to a ... nonspecific for cell membranes of any type, highly toxic. Polymyxin B is composed of polymyxins B1, B1-I, B2, B3, and B6. ... a destabilized outer membrane Fatty acid portion dissolves in hydrophobic region of cytoplasmic membrane and disrupts membrane ...
*  Red tide
... an important structure of cell membranes. Binding results in persistent activation of nerve cells, which interferes with neural ... Moderate cell concentrations have been found at the Isla Blanca Park boat ramp." Brevetoxin Ciguatera Domoic acid Fish kill ... The density of these organisms during a bloom can exceed tens of millions of cells per litre of seawater, and often discolor ... There are two major types of brevetoxin compounds with similar but distinct backbone structures. PbTx-2 is the primary ...
*  Lipid raft
Singer, S. J.; Nicolson, Garth L. (1972). "The Fluid Mosaic Model of the Structure of Cell Membranes". Science. 175 (4023): 720 ... Caveolae Cell membrane Cholesterol Lipid microdomain Membrane proteins Sphingomyelin Thomas, Sunil; Preda-Pais, Anca; Casares, ... Until 1982, it was widely accepted that phospholipids and membrane proteins were randomly distributed in cell membranes, ... From Model Membranes to Cells". Annual Review of Biophysics and Biomolecular Structure. 32: 257-83. doi:10.1146/annurev.biophys ...
*  Coenzyme A
This process facilitates the production of fatty acids in cells, which are essential in cell membrane structure. Coenzyme A is ... During cell starvation, coenzyme A is synthesized and transports fatty acids in the cytosol to the mitochondria. Here, acetyl- ... This process is the body's primary catabolic pathway and is essential in breaking down the building blocks of the cell such as ... Molecular Cell Biology. 17 (10): 605-606. doi:10.1038/nrm.2016.110. ISSN 1471-0080. PMID 27552973. Ahern, Kevin; Rajagopal, ...
*  Candida tropicalis
phospholipases will hydrolyze phospholipid; assist to break the epithelial cell membrane structure allowing the hyphal tip to ... Azoles are agents that can deplete ergosterol, the main component of the fungus cell wall membrane, in order to inhibit fungal ... Species in the genus are vegetative cells which reproduces asexually by budding, and the structure, shape, septation, color and ... adhere to epithelial and endothelial cells, and undergo transition of bud to hyphae. Biofilms are complex structures that are ...
*  Elasticity of cell membranes
Singer, S. Jonathan; Nicolson, Garth L. (1972), "The fluid mosaic model of the structure of cell membranes", Science, 175 (23 ... A cell membrane defines a boundary between the living cell and its environment. The primary constituent of a membrane is a ... A cell membrane is simplified as lipid bilayer plus membrane skeleton. The skeleton is a cross-linking protein network and ... Physics of Composite Cell Membrane and Actin Based Cytoskeleton, in Physics of bio-molecules and cells, Edited by H. Flyvbjerg ...
*  Cell membrane
Bacterial cells provide numerous examples of the diverse ways in which prokaryotic cell membranes are adapted with structures ... damage to cell membrane Cell theory Cytoneme Elasticity of cell membranes Gram-positive bacteria Membrane models Membrane ... plasmatic membrane (Pfeffer, 1900), plasma membrane, cytoplasmic membrane, cell envelope and cell membrane. Some authors that ... The basic function of the cell membrane is to protect the cell from its surroundings. The cell membrane controls the movement ...
*  Electrolyte
... s may enter or leave the cell membrane through specialized protein structures embedded in the plasma membrane called ... In some fuel cells, a solid electrolyte or proton conductor connects the plates electrically while keeping the hydrogen and ... are a type of highly conductive non-aqueous electrolytes and thus have found more and more applications in fuel cells and ... have found to be promising solid-state proton conductors for fuel cells. Examples include 1,2,4-triazolium ...
*  Dubowitz syndrome
Cholesterol is essential for several bodily functions, including maintaining cell membrane structure, embryogenesis, and ... In Dubowitz syndrome, the cause is likely due to the the underlying mutations or to disruption of brain structures during ...
*  Clostridium enterotoxin
The way the protein work is it destroys the cell membrane structure of animals by binding to claudin family proteins. These are ... components of tight junctions of the epithelial cell membrane. Van Itallie CM, Betts L, Smedley JG, McClane BA, Anderson JM ( ... It has a molecular weight of 35.3kDa, and is responsible for the disintegration of tight junctions between epithelial cells in ... Cell Biol. 136 (6): 1239-1247. doi:10.1083/jcb.136.6.1239. PMC 2132509 . PMID 9087440. Long H, Crean CD, Lee WH, Cummings OW, ...
*  Fluid mosaic model
These membrane structures may be useful when the cell needs to propagate a non bilayer form, which occurs during cell division ... cell-cell signaling, apoptosis, cell division, membrane budding, and cell fusion. Chemically a cell membrane is composed of ... states that all membranes in the cell, i.e. plasma and organelle membranes, have the same structure: a bilayer of phospholipids ... 2003). "Dynamic, yet structured: The cell membrane three decades after the Singer-Nicolson model". PNAS. 100 (14): 8053-8058. ...
*  Archaea
The major structure in cell membranes is a double layer of these phospholipids, which is called a lipid bilayer. The ... Like bacteria, the cell membranes of archaea are usually bounded by a cell wall and they swim using one or more flagella. ... One possibility is that this occurred before the evolution of cells, when the lack of a typical cell membrane allowed ... Archaea and bacteria have generally similar cell structure, but cell composition and organization set the archaea apart. Like ...
*  Phage display
The use of a helper phage can be eliminated by using 'bacterial packaging cell line' technology. Elution can be done combining ... Users can use three dimensional structure of a protein and the peptides selected from phage display experiment to map ... Ff phages for phage display is that they require the protein of interest to be translocated across the bacterial inner membrane ... Then the expression of single chain Fv's (scFv), and single chain T cell receptors (scTCR) were expressed both with and without ...
*  Biophysical chemistry
... the areas in which biophysical chemists engage themselves are protein structure and the functional structure of cell membranes ... Similarly the structure and function of the biomembranes may be understood through the study of model supramolecular structures ... Biophysical chemists employ various techniques used in physical chemistry to probe the structure of biological systems. These ... Techniques for the Study of Biological Structure and Function (1st ed.). W.H. Freeman & Co Ltd. ISBN 0716711907. Cantor, ...