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*  Directed differentiation
Only cells committed to the lineage of interest is surviving the selection. Directed differentiation provides a potentially ... co-culture with stromal cells or feeder cells, and on specific culture substrates: support cells and matrices provide ... introduced in the cells. The starting material can be either pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), or either differentiated cell type ... human immortalized cells or primary cultures from biopsies, which their limitations. Clinically-relevant cell types i.e. cell ...
*  Thymus
Patients may present with a profound immunodeficiency disease, due to the lack of T cells. No other immune cell lineages are ... Defects that affect both the T cell and B cell lymphocyte lineages result in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Acquired ... Cells in the thymus can be divided into thymic stromal cells and cells of hematopoietic origin (derived from bone marrow ... Stromal cells include epithelial cells of the thymic cortex and medulla, and dendritic cells. The thymus provides an inductive ...
*  CFU-GEMM
... mast cell or myeloblast based on the presence of specific factors that encourage the cell to choose a lineage to follow. The ... CFU-GEMM cells are the multipotential progenitor cells for myeloid cells; they are thus also called common myeloid progenitor ... The CFU-GEMM cell is capable of differentiating into white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets, all of which are ... The cells are characterized by expressing the cell surface markers CD33, CD34 and HLA-DR. These surface markers are proteins on ...
*  Ancestral reconstruction
Eventually, all lineages converge to the most recent common ancestor of the entire sample of taxa. In the context of ancestral ... such as RNA viruses or tumour cells, in a relatively short amount of time. At the same time, the massive amount of data and ... In its most basic form, this model involves six parameters: two speciation rates (one each for lineages in states 0 and 1); ... Variation in time among lineages. Parsimony methods implicitly assume that the same amount of evolutionary time has passed ...
*  Endothelial stem cell
It is characteristic of hematopoietic stem cells, as well as muscle stem cells. The two lineages arising from the EPC and the ... red blood cells), megakaryocytes/platelets, mast cells, T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, ... For stem cells, this usually occurs through several stages, where a cell proliferates giving rise to daughter cells that are ... These parent stem cells, ESCs, give rise to progenitor cells, which are intermediate stem cells that lose potency. Progenitor ...
*  Proneural genes
... regulate cell cycle by the activation of cyclin-dependent kinase (''Cdk'') inhibitors in some lineages at the ... Lateral inhibition is a cell-cell interaction that occurs within a proneural cluster to determine and limit the cells that give ... Glial progenitor cells could differentiate into oligodendrocytes or astrocytes. However, lineage commitment of neural ... The cells within a cluster that express a proneural gene (called a proneural cluster) can be thought of as cells of an ...
*  Embryoid body
Wiles, M. V.; Keller, G. (1991). "Multiple hematopoietic lineages develop from embryonic stem (ES) cells in culture". ... including somatic cell nuclear transfer or the reprogramming of somatic cells to yield induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS). ... and BMP Signaling Regulate Distinct Stages in the Developmental Pathway from Embryonic Stem Cells to Blood". Cell Stem Cell. 2 ... "Disease-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells". Cell. 134 (5): 877-886. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.07.041. PMC 2633781 . PMID ...
*  Cell lineage
... denotes the developmental history of a tissue or organ from the fertilized embryo. Cell lineage can be studied by ... These more variable cell fates are thought to be due to the cells' interaction with the environment. Cell lineage can be ... This causes the cell lineage and cell fate to be highly correlated. Other organisms, such as humans, have variable lineages and ... is activated and permanently labels the cell of interest and its offspring cells, thus the name cell lineage tracing. With the ...
*  Stem cell lineage database
The Stem Cell Lineage Database (SCLD) is a database of resources used to identify cell lineages. The Stem Cell Lineage Database ... "about cell type gene expression, cell lineage maps and stem cell differentiation protocols for both human and mouse stem cells ... A stem cell lineage database for the annotation of cell types and developmental lineages". Nucleic Acids Research. 39 (Database ... The Stem Cell Lineage Database could help compare stem cell information around the world and eliminate taking a global gene ...
*  Sel-12
... cell LINeage defective; glp, Germ Line Proliferation defective. sel-12 gene summary (WormBase) Diane Levitan, Iva Greenwald ( ...
*  Zebrafish
Kimmel, Charles B.; Law, Robert D. (1985). "Cell lineage of zebrafish blastomeres". Developmental Biology. 108 (1): 78-85. doi: ... reducing gene expression in only cells descended from that cell. However, cells in the early embryo (less than 32 cells) are ... "MIO-M1 Cells and Similar Müller Glial Cell Lines Derived from Adult Human Retina Exhibit Neural Stem Cell Characteristics". ... Kimmel, Charles B.; Law, Robert D. (1985). "Cell lineage of zebrafish blastomeres". Developmental Biology. 108 (1): 94-101. doi ...
*  Agranulocyte
Blood cell lineage White blood cell. ... T cells and natural killer cells (NK cells). B cells make ... T cells and natural killer cells are able to kill cells of the body that are infected by a virus. T cells are crucial to the ... and include natural killer T-cells. The blood has three types of lymphocytes: B cells, ... CD4+ (helper) T cells co-ordinate the immune response (they are what becomes defective in an HIV infection). CD8+ (cytotoxic) ...
*  FOXP3
... is a specific marker of natural T regulatory cells (nTregs, a lineage of T cells) and adaptive/induced T regulatory cells ... cytokine production and cell survival. This would inhibit a cell's ability to perform apoptosis and stop its own cell cycle, ... cells, which are pro-inflammatory rather than regulatory cells. Th17 cells are proinflammatory and are produced under similar ... Foxp3 is the major transcription factor controlling T-regulatory cells (Treg or CD4+ cells). CD4+ cells are leukocytes ...
*  Epiboly
Kimmel CB, Warga RM (November 1987). "Indeterminate cell lineage of the zebrafish embryo". Dev. Biol. 124 (1): 269-80. doi: ... The cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin has been shown to be required for the radial intercalation of the deep cells. Many ... All groups undergo cell shape changes such as the characteristic flattening of cells to increase surface area. Warga RM, Kimmel ... Interior cells of the blastoderm move towards the outer cells, thus "intercalating" with each other. The blastoderm begins to ...
*  Segmentation (biology)
The N and Q lineages contribute two blast cells for each segment, while the M, O, and P lineages only contribute one cell per ... Weisblat DA; Shankland M (1985). "Cell lineage and segmentation in the leech". Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 312 (1153): ... Annelids such as the leech use smaller blast cells budded off from large teloblast cells to define segments. Although ... Early divisions within the leech embryo result in teloblast cells, which are stem cells that divide asymmetrically to create ...
*  Mechanosensitive channels
Engler, A.; Shamik, S.; Sweeney, L.; Dishe, D. (2006). "Matrix Elasticity Directs Stem Cell Lineage Specification". Cell. 126 ( ... In one such experiment on adult heart cells, whole cell recordings were taken on cells being squeezed with two pipettes at 1 Hz ... One type of mechanically sensitive ion channel activates specialized sensory cells, such as cochlear hair cells and some touch ... In specialized cells of the higher organisms, other types of MSCs are probably the basis of the senses of hearing and touch and ...
*  Leech
D. A. Weisblat; M. Shankland (1985). "Cell lineage and segmentation in the leech". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal ... of embryonic stem cells that form segmented columns of cells (germinal band) in the surface of the embryo. The M-derived cells ... Each segment of the body of the leech is generated from one M, O, P cell types and two N and two Q cells types. The ectoderm ... As a consequence, it creates a large D cell on the left and a smaller C cell to the right. This unequal division process is ...
*  WormBase
... tissue and cell) from microarrays, SAGE analysis and GFP promoter fusions; The complete cell lineage of the worm; The wiring ...
*  Teloblast
The O, P, and M lineages contribute one blast cell per segment, but the contributions from each blast cell spans a segmental ... These segmental boundaries were discovered by injecting teloblasts with cell lineage tracers after a few blast cells have ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Weisblat DA, Shankland M (1985). "Cell lineage and segmentation in the leech". ... Only the teloplasm gets passed onto the daughter stem cells after cell division. The O and P teloblasts are specified from two ...
*  Fate mapping
When carried out at single-cell resolution, this process is termed cell lineage tracing. The first attempts at fate mapping ... from the single-cell zygote to the multicellular adult worm by John Sulston and colleagues in 1982. This cell lineage map was ... to follow movements of individual cells or groups of cells over time in Xenopus frog embryos. The tissue(s) to which the cells ... "Cell Lineage Analysis by Intracellular Injection of a Tracer Enzyme." Science 202 (1978):1295-8. Weisblat, David A., Saul L. ...
*  Memory T cell
March 2003). "Lineage relationship and protective immunity of memory CD8 T cell subsets". Nature Immunology. 4 (3): 225-234. ... Memory T cells may be either CD4+ or CD8+ and usually express CD45RO. Memory T cell subtypes: Central memory T cells (TCM cells ... cells, stem memory TSCM cells, and virtual memory T cells. The single unifying theme for all memory T cell subtypes is that ... Such T cells can recognize foreign invaders, such as bacteria or viruses, as well as cancer cells. Memory T cells have become " ...
*  Gynandromorphism
"Cell lineage analysis of germ cells of Drosophila melanogaster". Nature. 265: 729-731. 1977. doi:10.1038/265729a0. " ... Usually this cell would divide into two XY cells, but in rare occasions the cell may divide into an X cell and an XYY cell. If ... While the organism contains only a few cells, one of the dividing cells does not split its sex chromosomes typically. This ... "Gynandromorphs of Drosophila suggest one common primordium for the somatic cells of the female and male gonads in the region of ...
*  John Graham White
He studied the role of cell-cell interaction in determining the lineage pattern, stimulating a wide field of research. In more ... Sulston, J.; Schierenberg, E.; White, J. G.; Thomson, J. (1983). "The embryonic cell lineage of the nematode Caenorhabditis ... White's research investigates cell division in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. With collaborators Sydney Brenner, John ... O'Connell, K. F.; Leys, C. M.; White, J. G. (1998). "A genetic screen for temperature-sensitive cell-division mutants of ...
*  Immunological Genome Project
Some lineage specific reports described hematopoietic stem cells, natural killer cells, neutrophiles, B and T cells, natural ... dendritic cells, alpha beta T cells, gamma delta T cells, activated CD8 T cells, innate lymphoid cells, and lymph node stromal ... Each of the laboratories brings a unique expertise in a particular cell lineage, and all are employing standardized procedures ... T cell response to infection and memory T cell formation." Nat Immunol 14(4): 404-412. Malhotra, N., K. Narayan, O. H. Cho, K. ...
*  Adrenal gland
Huber K (2006). "The sympathoadrenal cell lineage: Specification, diversification, and new perspectives". Developmental Biology ... Cells of the adrenal medulla are called chromaffin cells because they contain granules that stain with chromium salts, a ... Its small cells form irregular cords and clusters, separated by capillaries and connective tissue. The cells contain relatively ... ACTH acts on the adrenal cells first by increasing the levels of StAR within the cells, and then of all steroidogenic P450 ...
*  Black yeast
Presence of 1,8-dihydroxynaphtalene melanin in the cell wall confers to the microfungi their characteristic olivaceous to dark ... "A rock-inhabiting ancestor for mutualistic and pathogen-rich fungal lineages". Studies in Mycology. 61: 111-9. doi:10.3114/sim. ... Morphological plasticity, incrustation of the cell wall with melanins and presence of other protective substances like ... Black yeasts share some distinctive characteristics, in particular melanisation of their cell wall. ...
*  Marine Biological Laboratory
... embryonic cell lineage (important in modern stem cell research); and evolutionary developmental biology (today called 'evo devo ... considered by many to be a founder of modern cell biology due to his pioneering work on the fine structure of cells, including ... The MBL has long been a center for the world's experts in cell division. In the early 1980s, Tim Hunt, Joan Ruderman and others ... Cell, developmental, and reproductive biology have been a central part of the MBL's programs since the 1890s. Important ...