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*  Cell-free system
A cell-free system is an in vitro tool widely used to study biological reactions that happen within cells apart from a full ... where a cell-free translation system based on Escherichia coli (E. coli), of the cell extract-based type, had the mRNA template ... Cell-free systems may be divided into two primary classifications: cell extract-based, which remove components from within a ... Notably, in work leading to a Nobel prize the Nirenberg and Matthaei experiment used a cell-free system, of the cell extract- ...
*  Prion
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.02.011. PMID 15851027. Karapetyan YE (Feb 2012). "Viruses do replicate in cell-free systems". ... "Stimulation of poliovirus synthesis in a HeLa cell-free in vitro translation-RNA replication system by viral protein 3CDpro". ... Studies propagating TSE infectivity in cell-free reactions and in purified component chemical reactions is thought to strongly ... However, some viruses, such as Poliovirus, have the ability to replicate in cell-free reactions. The 'virino hypothesis' ...
*  History of RNA biology
Schweet R, Lamfrom H, Allen E (1958). "THE SYNTHESIS OF HEMOGLOBIN IN A CELL-FREE SYSTEM". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 44 (10 ... LAMFROM H (1961). "Factors determining the specificity of hemoglobin synthesized in a cell-free system". J. Mol. Biol. 3: 241- ... An experimental system was developed in which an intron-containing rRNA precursor from the nucleus of the ciliated protozoan ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.01.035. PMC 2675692 . PMID 19239886. Bonasio, R.; Tu, S.; Reinberg, D. (2010). "Molecular Signals of ...
*  Aerobactin synthase
Appanna DL, Grundy BJ, Szczepan EW & Viswanatha T (1984). "Aerobactin synthesis in a cell-free system of Aerobacter aerogenes ...
*  N2-citryl-N6-acetyl-N6-hydroxylysine synthase
Appanna, D.L.; Grundy, B.J.; Szczepan, E.W.; Viswanatha, T. (1984). "Aerobactin synthesis in a cell-free system of Aerobacter ...
*  Promega
"Functional protein expression from a DNA based wheat germ cell-free system". J. Struct. Funct. Genomics. 8 (4): 199-208. doi: ... The company was an early supplier in the cell-free protein synthesis field and is continuing to develop its portfolio in this ... The company also sells its own Maxwell 16 System, a bench-top automated purification system for lower throughput research and ... The luminometers with injection systems are available for use with dual-reporter assays like the Dual-Luciferase systems. The Y ...
*  Robert G. Roeder
1980: The development of cell-free systems leads to the identification of complex sets of proteins called accessory factors ... 1977-1979: Roeder develops cell-free systems to better study transcription. Composed of the purified RNA polymerases and ... the first cell-specific coactivator, discovered by Roeder in 1992, is unique to immune system B cells. 1996: Roeder's ... or specific to one particular cell type. Roeder and colleagues introduce the concept of cell specificity after they demonstrate ...
*  Adenylate dimethylallyltransferase
Chen CM, Melitz DK (1979). "Cytokinin biosynthesis in a cell-free system from cytokinin-autotrophic tobacco tissue cultures". ...
*  GM2A
Jinnai H, Nakamura S (2000). "Characterization of phospholipase D activation by GM2 activator in a cell-free system". Kobe ... 1]. In melanocytic cells GM2A gene expression may be regulated by MITF. Mutations in this gene, inherited in an autosomal ... GM2A is a lipid transfer protein that stimulates the enzymatic processing of gangliosides, and also T-cell activation through ... 2008). "Novel MITF targets identified using a two-step DNA microarray strategy". Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 21 (6): 665-76. doi ...
*  Extrachromosomal DNA
"Replication of Independent Formation of Extrachromosomal Circular DNA in Mammalian Cell-Free System". PLOS ONE. 4 (7): 1-8. doi ... For example, muscle and liver cells contain more copies of mtDNA per mitochondrion than blood and skin cells do. Due to the ... Chloroplasts contain multiple copies of cpDNA and the number can vary not only from species to species or cell type to cell ... For this virus to persist, the circular genome must be replicated and inherited during cell division. Cells can recognize ...
*  Aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+)
Reduction of aromatic acids to aldehydes and alcohols in the cell-free system. 2. Purification and properties of aryl-alcohol: ...
*  GPLD1
Jinnai H, Nakamura S (2000). "Characterization of phospholipase D activation by GM2 activator in a cell-free system". Kobe ... Cell Biol. 80 (2): 253-60. doi:10.1139/o02-004. PMID 11989719. Xiaotong H, Hannocks MJ, Hampson I, Brunner G (2002). "GPI- ... The GPI-anchor is a glycolipid found on many blood cells. The protein encoded by this gene is a GPI degrading enzyme. ... 1994). "Release of GPI-anchored membrane proteins by a cell-associated GPI-specific phospholipase D". EMBO J. 13 (7): 1741-51. ...
*  Aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenase (NADP+)
Gross GG, Zenk MH (1969). "[Reduction of aromatic acids to aldehydes and alcohols in the cell-free system. 1. Purification and ...
*  CLSPN
Clarke CA, Clarke PR (2005). "DNA-dependent phosphorylation of Chk1 and Claspin in a human cell-free system". Biochem. J. 388 ( ... Cell. 23 (3): 319-29. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2006.06.013. PMID 16885022. Mamely I, van Vugt MA, Smits VA, et al. (2006). "Polo- ... Cell. Biol. 26 (16): 6056-64. doi:10.1128/MCB.00492-06. PMC 1592810 . PMID 16880517. Mailand N, Bekker-Jensen S, Bartek J, ... Cell. 23 (3): 307-18. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2006.06.016. PMID 16885021. Peschiaroli A, Dorrello NV, Guardavaccaro D, et al. ( ...
*  Cell-free protein synthesis
... is the production of protein using biological machinery in a cell-free system, that is, without the use of living cells. The in ... "High-Level Cell-Free Production of Membrane Proteins with Nanodiscs". Cell-Free Protein Synthesis. Methods in Molecular Biology ... They used a cell-free system to translate a poly-uracil RNA sequence (or UUUUU... in biochemical terms) and discovered that the ... Spirin, A.; Baranov, V.; Ryabova, L.; Ovodov, S.; Alakhov, Y. (1988). "A continuous cell-free translation system capable of ...
*  Genetic code
They used a cell-free system to translate a poly-uracil RNA sequence (i.e., UUUUU...) and discovered that the polypeptide that ... ISBN 0-465-09138-5. Nirenberg MW, Matthaei JH (Oct 1961). "The dependence of cell-free protein synthesis in E. coli upon ... It was a (single cell) bacterium with two synthetic bases (called X and Y). The bases survived cell division. In 2017 a mouse ... Biology of the Cell / Under the Auspices of the European Cell Biology Organization. 95 (3-4): 169-78. doi:10.1016/S0248-4900(03 ...
*  Nirenberg and Matthaei experiment
In order to decipher this biological mystery, Nirenberg and Matthaei needed a cell-free system that would build amino acids ... The experimentation with synthetic RNA in a cell-free system was a key technical innovation. In 1961, when they announced their ... Nirenberg, M.W. & Matthaei, H.J. (1961). "The Dependence Of Cell- Free Protein Synthesis In E. coli Upon Naturally Occurring Or ... In the experiment, an extract from bacterial cells that could make protein even when no intact living cells were present was ...
*  RNA-induced silencing complex
"Let-7 microRNA-mediated mRNA deadenylation and translational repression in a mammalian cell-free system". Genes & Development. ... S2 cells were then transfected with Drosophila cyclin E dsRNA. Cycline E is an essential gene for cell cycle progression into ... Bartel DP (2009). "MicroRNAs: target recognition and regulatory functions". Cell. 136 (2): 215-233. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.01. ... as suggested by data from other systems), Drosophila S2 cells were transfected with either Drosophila cyclin E dsRNAs or lacZ ...
*  Let-7 microRNA precursor
"Let-7 microRNA-mediated mRNA deadenylation and translational repression in a mammalian cell-free system". Genes Dev. 21 (15): ... Dröge P, Davey CA (2008). "Do cells let-7 determine stemness?". Cell Stem Cell. 2 (1): 8-9. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2007.12.003. ... "let-7 regulates self renewal and tumorigenicity of breast cancer cells". Cell. 131 (6): 1109-23. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.10.054 ... and IL6 links inflammation to cell transformation". Cell. 139 (4): 693-706. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.10.014. PMC 2783826 . PMID ...
*  L-lysine 6-monooxygenase (NADPH)
Goh CJ, Szczepan EW, Menhart N, Viswanatha T (1989). "Studies on lysine:N6-hydroxylation by cell-free systems of Aerobacter ...
*  Methylobacterium organophilum
"Hemisynthesis of deuteriated adenosylhopane and conversion into bacteriohopanetetrol by a cell-free system from ...
*  Nuclear pore
"Steps in the assembly of replication-competent nuclei in a cell-free system from Xenopus eggs". The Journal of Cell Biology. ... Interphase cells must also keep up a level of NPC generation to keep the levels of NPC in the cell constant as some may get ... For example, cycling mammalian and yeast cells double the amount of NPC in the nucleus between the G1 and G2 phase of the cell ... Some cells can even increase the NPC numbers due to increased transcriptional demand. There are several theories as to how NPCs ...
*  Super-resolution microscopy
"Coupling between clathrin-dependent endocytic budding and F-BAR-dependent tubulation in a cell-free system". Nature Cell ... Images of cell nuclei and mitotic stages recorded with 3D-SIM. Comparison confocal microscopy - 3D-SIM Cell nucleus in prophase ... Optical resolution of cellular structures in the range of about 50 nm can be achieved even in label-free cells using the ... Up to now, the best quality in a 4Pi microscope was reached in conjunction with the STED principle in fixed cells and RESOLFT ...
*  Selective progesterone receptor modulator
"Analysis of the mechanism of steroid hormone receptor-dependent gene activation in cell-free systems". Endocrine Reviews. 13 (3 ... Finally, the overall ratio of concentrations of coactivator to corepressor may differ in different cell types. At the turn of ... However, when an antagonist, e.g. mifepristone, interacts with this hydrogen bond system then its dimethylamine group clashes ... McKenna NJ, O'Malley BW (Feb 2002). "Combinatorial control of gene expression by nuclear receptors and coregulators". Cell. 108 ...
*  Luis Federico Leloir
... he produced an active cell-free system, a first in scientific research. It had initially been assumed that in order to study a ... I discovered (no, not me: my team) the function of sugar nucleotides in cell metabolism. I want others to understand this, but ... Along the way, Muñoz and Leloir, unable to procure the costly centrifuge needed to separate cell contents, improvised by ... cell, scientists could not separate it from its host organism, as oxidation could only occur in intact cells. ...
*  Ariosa v. Sequenom
6,258,540, which claims methods of using cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) circulating in maternal plasma (cell-free blood) to ... 101 progressively weakens the patent system, especially in the life sciences. And each case seems to present a new low in terms ... where development of useful new diagnostic and therapeutic methods is driven by investigation of complex biological systems. I ... he panel's decision striking down Sequenom's noninvasive prenatal test strikes at the very heart of the patent system. ...