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*  Photosynthesis
James Bassham and a score of students and researchers utilizing the carbon-14 isotope and paper chromatography techniques. The ... The fixation or reduction of carbon dioxide is a process in which carbon dioxide combines with a five-carbon sugar, ribulose 1, ... When the concentration of carbon dioxide is high, RuBisCO will fix carbon dioxide. However, if the carbon dioxide concentration ... Carbon dioxide is converted into sugars in a process called carbon fixation; photosynthesis captures energy from sunlight to ...
*  Isotopic signature
The ratio of carbon-13 and carbon-12 isotopes in these types of plants is as follows: C4 plants: -16 to -10 ‰ CAM plants: -20 ... Carbon isotopes: you are what you eat Hair-rising research Ayacucho Archaeo Isotope Project The pursuit of isotopic and ... The ratios of isotopes in a sample material are measured by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. This process is called isotope ... In addition, there are two types of plants with different biochemical pathways; the C3 carbon fixation, where the isotope ...
*  Steptoean positive carbon isotope excursion
The Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE) was a geological event which occurred about 500 million years ago at ...
*  Isotopes of carbon
The least stable isotope is 8C, with a half-life of 2.0 x 10−21 s. Carbon-11 or 11C is a radioactive isotope of carbon that ... Stable carbon isotopes in carbon dioxide are utilized differentially by plants during photosynthesis.[citation needed] Grasses ... Carbon (6C) has 15 known isotopes, from 8C to 22C, of which 12C and 13C are stable. The longest-lived radioisotope is 14C, with ... Plants find it easier to use the lighter isotopes (12C) when they convert sunlight and carbon dioxide into food. So, for ...
*  Evolutionary history of plants
C3 plants preferentially use the lighter of two isotopes of carbon in the atmosphere, 12C, which is more readily involved in ... O'Leary, Marion (May 1988). "Carbon Isotopes in Photosynthesis". BioScience. 38 (5): 328-336. doi:10.2307/1310735. JSTOR ... but the carbon isotope record suggests that they were too scarce to impact the atmospheric composition until around 850 million ... being closer to C3 plants if they fix most carbon in the day and closer to C4 plants if they fix all their carbon at night. ...
*  Evolution of photosynthesis
C3 plants preferentially use the lighter of two isotopes of carbon in the atmosphere, 12C, which is more readily involved in ... O'Leary, Marion (May 1988). "Carbon Isotopes in Photosynthesis". BioScience. 38 (5): 328-336. doi:10.2307/1310735. JSTOR ... being closer to C3 plants if they fix most carbon in the day and closer to C4 plants if they fix all their carbon at night. It ... The enzyme RuBisCO is responsible for "fixing" CO2 - that is, it attaches it to a carbon-based molecule to form a sugar, which ...
*  Δ13C
ISBN 978-1-4443-3301-5. Mook, W. G., & Tan, F. C. (1991). Stable carbon isotopes in rivers and estuaries. Biogeochemistry of ... This signal is also a function of the amount of carbon burial; when organic carbon is buried, more 12C is locked out of the ... O'Leary, M. H. (1988). "Carbon Isotopes in Photosynthesis". BioScience. 38 (5): 328-336. doi:10.2307/1310735. JSTOR 1310735. ... δ18O δ15N δ34S Isotopic signature Isotope analysis Isotope geochemistry Isotopic labeling Libes, Susan M. (1992). Introduction ...
*  Hațeg Island
Carbon isotopes indicate "dry woodland" conditions. This seeming contradiction between the seasonally dry climate and tropical ...
*  Pleistocene human diet
Klein, R.G. (2013). "Stable carbon isotopes and human evolution". PNAS. 110: 10470-2. doi:10.1073/pnas.1307308110. Semaw, S.; ... More direct stable isotope evidence from Neanderthal bodies also indicate indicates a heavy, though by no means exclusive ... This is corroborated by stable carbon isotopic evidence indicating the consumption of plants found along riversides and under ... More recent techniques have been introduced such as Carbon Isotopic Analysis of recovered bones, which can be used as direct ...
*  Gaia hypothesis
Karhu, J.A.; Holland, H.D. (1 October 1996). "Carbon isotopes and the rise of atmospheric oxygen". Geology. 24 (10): 867-870. ... The flow of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to the soil is therefore regulated with the help of living beings. When CO2 ... Carbon precipitation, solution and fixation are influenced by the bacteria and plant roots in soils, where they improve gaseous ... The Ukrainian geochemist was one of the first scientists to recognize that the oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide in the ...
*  Howard Griffiths (scientist)
His work uses stable isotopes of carbon (carbon-13 and oxygen (Δ18O) to integrate carbon and hydrological cycles for individual ... Seibt, Ulli; Rajabi, Abazar; Griffiths, Howard; Berry, Joseph A. (2008). "Carbon isotopes and water use efficiency: sense and ... Measurements of gas exchange and of carbon isotope ratio and their ecological implications". Oecologia. 53 (1): 68-78. doi: ... He has investigated carbon concentrating mechanisms (see photosynthesis) in algae and hornworts, focusing on the molecular ...
*  Edward Smith Deevey Jr.
Distribution of natural isotopes of carbon in Linsley Pond and other New England lakes. Limnol. Oceanogr. 9:1-11. 1964 With M. ... Fractionation of sulfur and carbon isotopes in a meromictic lake. Science 139:407-408. 1964 With M. Stuiver. ... Carbon 13 in lake waters, and its possible bearing on paleolimnology. Am. J. Sci. 258-A:253-72. 1963 With N. Nakai and M. ... He was a creative pioneer in several areas, including quantitative palynology, cycling of natural isotopes, biogeochemistry, ...
*  Barosaurus
"A 400 million year carbon isotope record of pedogenic carbonate; implications for paleoatmospheric carbon dioxide" (PDF). ... Very high atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide in the Late Jurassic led to high temperatures around the globe, due to ...
*  Isotope geochemistry
Carbon has two stable isotopes, 12C and 13C, and one radioactive isotope, 14C. The stable carbon isotope ratio, δ13C, is ... ISBN 0-13-272790-0. "USGS -- Isotope Tracers -- Resources -- Isotope Geochemistry". Retrieved 2009-01-18. "Carbon isotope (d13C ... National Isotope Development Center Reference information on isotopes, and coordination and management of isotope production, ... USGS Tritium/Helium-3 Dating Hydrologic Isotope Tracers - Helium Cosmogenic isotopes Environmental isotopes Geochemistry ...
*  Diamondoid
This was determined by comparing the ratios of carbon isotopes present. The optical absorption for all diamondoids lies deep in ... In chemistry, diamondoids are variants of the carbon cage molecule known as adamantane (C10H16), the smallest unit cage ... A review by Mello and Moldowan in 2005 showed that although the carbon in diamonds is not biological in origin, the diamondoids ... "Evidence of diamond nanowires formed inside carbon nanotubes from diamantane dicarboxylic acid". Angewandte Chemie ...
*  Kanapoi
access-date= requires ,url= (help) Wynn, Jonathan (2000). "Paleosols, stable carbon isotopes, and paleoenvironmental ...
*  Desulfobacter hydrogenophilus
Kathleen L. Londry & David J. Des Marais (2003). "Stable carbon isotope fractionation by sulfate-reducing bacteria". Applied ... Using H2 as an electron donor and CO2 as a carbon source, D. hydrogenophilus reduces sulfate, SO42− (and also sulfite, SO32−, ... The δ13C values of individual fatty acids can be useful for interpreting carbon utilization by D. hydrogenophilus in natural ... and can grow using H2 as an electron donor and CO2 as a carbon source. D. hydrogenophilus is also unique because it is ...
*  Speleothem
... oxygen isotopes primarily reflect rainfall temperature) and precipitation (carbon isotopes primarily reflect C3/C4 plant ... Stable isotopes of oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) are recorded well in speleothems, giving high-resolution data that can show ... The principal proxies measured are oxygen and carbon isotopes and trace cations. These indicators, alone and in conjunction ... "Cryogenic cave calcite from several Central European caves: age, carbon and oxygen isotopes and a genetic model". Speleogenesis ...
*  Brown algae
Fletcher, B. J.; Beerling, D. J.; Chaloner, W. G. (2004). "Stable carbon isotopes and the metabolism of the terrestrial ... Brown algae including kelp beds also fix a significant portion of the earth's carbon dioxide yearly through photosynthesis. ... They have environmental importance too through Carbon fixation. Brown algae belong to the group Heterokontophyta, a large group ...
*  Lichen
Fletcher, B. J.; Beerling, D. J.; Chaloner, W. G. (2004). "Stable carbon isotopes and the metabolism of the terrestrial ... they reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide into organic carbon sugars to feed both symbionts. Phycobionts (algae) produce sugar ... When the exciple is blackened like carbon it is called lecideine meaning similar to members of the genus Lecidea. When the ...
*  Spongiophyton
"Stable carbon isotopes and the metabolism of the terrestrial Devonian organism Spongiophyton". Geobiology. 2 (2): 107-119. doi: ...
*  Pyrenoid
Characterization of photobiont associations in lichens using carbon isotope discrimination techniques. Stable Isotopes and ... algal and cyanobacterial photobionts of lichen associations was also identified using gas exchange and carbon isotope isotopes ... In sea water for example, the pH is such that dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is mainly found in the form of HCO3−. The net ... From there on, the pyrenoid was studied in the wider context of carbon acquisition in algae, but has yet to be given a precise ...
*  Position-specific isotope analysis
CARBON ISOTOPE FRACTIONATION IN FORMATION OF AMINO ACIDS BY PHOTOSYNTHETIC ORGANISMS. Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Position-specific isotope analysis (PSIA), also called site-specific isotope analysis, is a branch of isotope analysis aimed at ... The difficulty of position-specific isotope analyses relies on the fact that isotopomers have the same mass and are thus ... For example, C3 plants are known to assimilate preferentially 12CO2 compared with C4 plants, leading to different 13C isotope ...
*  Isabel P. Montañez
"A 400 million year carbon isotope record of pedogenic carbonate; implications for paleoatomospheric carbon dioxide". American ... Tabor, Neil J.; Isabel P. Montañez (2005). "Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of Permian pedogenic phyllosilicates: ...
*  Tom Wigley
Wigley, Tom M.L.; L.N. Plummer; F.J. Pearson (1978). "Mass transfer and carbon isotope evolution in natural water systems". ... Wigley has also published a number of highly cited papers in aqueous geochemistry, including a now-standard method for carbon ... John Tierney (3 April 2008). "Are Carbon Cuts Just a Fantasy?". New York Times. Retrieved 28 August 2009. "What's up with the ... for his major contributions to climate and carbon cycle modeling and to climate data analysis, and because he is "one of the ...
*  Avid Radiopharmaceuticals
While the tool worked, Pittsburgh compound B relies on the use of carbon-11, a radioactive isotope with a half-life of 20 ... Once they found a candidate dye, they attached the positron-emitting fluorine-18, a radioactive isotope with a half-life of ...
*  Early Cambrian geochemical fluctuations
Carbon has 2 stable isotopes, carbon-12 (12C) and carbon-13 (13C). The ratio between the two is denoted δ13C, and represents a ... Other isotopes are only produced as a result of the radioactive decay of other elements, such as 87Sr, the daughter isotope of ... "Carbon-isotope events across the Precambrian/Cambrian boundary on the Siberian Platform". Nature. 320 (6059): 258-259. Bibcode: ... methane in the atmosphere breaks down into carbon dioxide and water; carbon dioxide reacts with minerals to form carbonate ...