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*  Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II
"Postsynaptic CAMP pathway gates early LTP in hippocampal CA1 region". Neuron. 15 (6): 1403-14. doi:10.1016/0896-6273(95)90018-7 ... "Mice Expressing Activated CaMKII Lack Low Frequency LTP and Do Not Form Stable Place Cells in the CA1 Region of the Hippocampus ... It is possible with viral vector delivery to inject a specific gene of choice into a particular region of the brain in an ... Researchers speculate these results could be due to lack of stable hippocampal place cells in these animals. However, because ...
*  Phosphoinositide 3-kinase
... for the expression but not for the induction or the maintenance of long-term potentiation in the hippocampal CA1 region". The ... In mouse hippocampal CA1 neurons, PI3K is complexed with AMPA receptors and compartmentalized at the postsynaptic density of ... Furthermore, PI3K inhibitors abolished the expression of LTP in rat hippocampal CA1, but do not affect its induction. Notably, ... of LTP in mouse hippocampal CA1. The PI3K pathway also recruits many other proteins downstream, including mTOR, GSK3β, and PSD- ...
*  Silent synapse
"Activation of postsynaptically silent synapses during pairing-induced LTP in CA1 region of hippocampal slice". Nature. 375 ( ... However, recent research on hippocampal silent synapses shows that while they may indeed be a developmental landmark in the ... 193-5. Kullmann, D. M. (1994). "Amplitude fluctuations of dual-component EPSCs in hippocampal pyramidal cells: implications for ... mediated by AMPARs and NMDARs in hippocampal neurons. More direct evidence came from experiments where only a few axons were ...
*  Cathepsin E
The enzyme was also expressed at high levels in the activated microglia of the hippocampal CA1 region and in degenerating ... "Assignment of cathepsin E (CTSE) to human chromosome region 1q31 by in situ hybridization and analysis of somatic cell hybrids ... to human chromosome region 1q31 by in situ hybridization and analysis of somatic cell hybrids". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics ... and all 3 have almost identical active site regions. The differences between them lie in the microenvironments that surround ...
*  Place cell
The CA3 hippocampal region is affected differently by decreased plasticity than the CA1 region just discussed. Decreased ... In the CA1 region, there is an increased reliance on self-motion inputs as opposed to visual inputs compared to the CA1 region ... This form of mRNA is decreased in both the CA1 and CA2 hippocampal regions, these reduced levels causing spatial learning ... Place field properties are similar between young and aged rats in the CA1 hippocampal region: rate of firing and spike ...
*  Epigenetics in learning and memory
TSA treatments in the hippocampal CA1 region of mice increased acetylation levels and enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP), a ... Studies done on Acetylation of histone H3 in the CA1 region of the hippocampus show that the activation of NMDA receptors ... Long term potentiation in CA1 neurons was not observed in HDAC2 OE mice but was easily induced in HDAC2 KO mice. LTP was not ... increased the acetylation of H3 and conversely inhibition of the ERK pathway in the CA1 region resulted in a decrease in ...
*  Plasticity product
They induced LTP in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices by 2 100 Hz 1s trains, 20 s apart. Then they homogenized the slices, ... CA1 homogenates were probed with an antibody specific for Thr286 - phosphorylated CaMKII and an antibody detecting total CaMKII ... There is fast-acting, local translation of proteins in the dendritic region near the spines when an inducing high-frequency ... discovered that the calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II is required for hippocampal long-term potentiation. When they ...
*  Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy
... particularly the hippocampal CA1 region, pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex, and Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. There ... The CLCN2 gene encodes a chloride channel protein that is heavily expressed in brain regions inhibited by GABA. It is believed ... Causative genes in this region, however, have not been shown. Until recently, the medical literature did not indicate a ...
*  Alcino J. Silva
... that now has definitively implicated stable changes in synaptic plasticity in the hippocampal CA1 region in hippocampal ... This early work with hippocampal mutations that affected long term potentiation and learning & memory became the basis for a ... Frankland and colleagues also used a combination of genetic, imaging and reversible lesion approaches to search for regions in ... Silva, A.J.; Stevens, C.F.; Tonegawa, S.; Wang, Y. (1992). "Deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation in alpha-calcium- ...
*  Theta wave
Hyman, JM; Wyble BP; Goyal V; Rossi CA; Hasselmo ME (December 17, 2003). "Stimulation in hippocampal region CA1 in behaving ... from electrophysiological studies showing that both synaptic plasticity and strength of inputs to hippocampal region CA1 vary ... Later, hippocampal oscillations of the same type were observed in rats; however, the frequency of rat hippocampal EEG ... Theta oscillations index human hippocampal activation during a working memory task Ekstrom, Arne D. (2005). "Human hippocampal ...
*  Inhibitory postsynaptic potential
When interneurons are activated by metabotropic acetylcholine receptors in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices, a theta ... "Direct depolarization and antidromic action potentials transiently suppress dendritic IPSPs in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells ... DSIs can be blocked by ionotropic receptor calcium ion channel antagonists on the somata and proximal apical dendrites of CA1 ... in CA1 pyramidal cells and cerebellar Purkinje cells. In a laboratory setting step depolarizations the soma have been used to ...
*  Hippocampus proper
There are four regions in the hippocampus proper which form a neural circuit. CA1 is the first region in the hippocampal ... The pyramidal cells in CA3 send some axons back to the dentate gyrus hilus, but they mostly project to regions CA2 and CA1 via ... CA4 is often called the hilus or hilar region if considered as a part of the dentate gyrus. Unlike the pyramidal neurons in CA1 ... CA2 is a small region located between CA1 and CA3. It receives some input from layer II of the entorhinal cortex via the ...
*  Hippocampus anatomy
The hippocampal sulcus (sulc.) or fissure is a cell-free region that separates the CA1 field from the dentate gyrus. Because ... A weak commissural projection connects both CA1 regions together. Subiculum has no commissural inputs or outputs. Hippocampal ... They pass through hippocampal commissures to reach contralateral regions of hippocampus. Hippocampal commissures have dorsal ... from CA4 through CA1 (only CA3 and CA1 are labeled). The CA regions are also structured depthwise in clearly defined strata (or ...
*  Long-term potentiation
... blocks late phases of LTP phenomena in the hippocampal CA1 region in vitro". Brain Res. 452 (1-2): 57-65. doi:10.1016/0006-8993 ... An analysis of CA1 hippocampal synapses revealed that inhibitory avoidance training induced in vivo AMPA receptor ... Tonegawa found that by impairing the NMDA receptor, specifically by genetically removing the NR1 subunit in the CA1 region, the ... McHugh T, Blum K, Tsien J, Tonegawa S, Wilson M (1996). "Impaired hippocampal representation of space in CA1-specific NMDAR1 ...
*  Trisynaptic circuit
... and region CA2. The CA1 is separated from the dentate gyrus by the hippocampal sulcus. Cells within the CA1 are mostly ... The Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) is the region within the hippocampus between the subiculum, the innermost area of the hippocampal ... and CA1 ("Cornu Ammonis" area 1) pyramidal cells. The hippocampal relay involves 3 main regions within the hippocampus which ... Florian, C.; Roullet, P. (2004). "Hippocampal CA3-region is crucial for acquisition and memory consolidation in Morris water ...
*  Adult neurogenesis
... others hypothesize that AD patients have increased neurogenesis in the CA1 region of Ammon's horn (the principal region of AD ... increase hippocampal neurogenesis. It has been theorized that decreased hippocampal neurogenesis in individuals with major ... As discussed above, hippocampal cells are sensitive to stress which can lead to decreased neurogenesis. This area is being ... Thus, it is not the addition of new neurons into the hippocampus that seems to be linked to hippocampal functions, but rather ...
*  Prenatal memory
More specifically, only the CA1 region of the hippocampus seemed to demonstrate a significant reduction in size. The CA1 ... Because the region of the hippocampus affected by protein malnutrition is so specific, global hippocampal function is not ... Rats with the CA1 volume deficit were found to perform poorly in a tasks requiring behavioural inhibition and accurate response ... In another study using rats, it was found that the size of the hippocampus (the central region in memory functioning) was ...
*  Dendritic spike
Hippocampal CA1 neurons have been shown to produce reliable dendritic spike propagation through spatial summation of multiple ... In the hippocampus, the CA1 neurons contain two distinctive regions that receive excitatory synaptic inputs: the perforant path ... Nav1.6 has been identified in the dendrites of hippocampal CA1 neurons that generate dendritic spikes; the density of Nav1.6 in ... Dendritic sodium spikes are variable triggers of axonal action potentials in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Neuron 21:1189- ...
*  Memory
Glucocorticoids that are released during stress, damage neurons that are located in the hippocampal region of the brain. ... The CA1 neurons found in the hippocampus are destroyed due to glucocorticoids decreasing the release of glucose and the ... Hippocampal damage may also cause memory loss and problems with memory storage. This memory loss includes retrograde amnesia ... Amnesia can result from extensive damage to: (a) the regions of the medial temporal lobe, such as the hippocampus, dentate ...
*  Sharp waves and ripples
They are both produced as the response of CA1 region to inputs from CA3 region. Ripples are only present in the absence of ... The most famous human patient with hippocampal lesion is H.M., whose hippocampus has been removed from both sides of his brain ... Besides they are shown to be region dependent, ripples that are fastest oscillation are present in the CA1 region pyramidal ... Pyramidal cells of CA3 and CA1 dendritic layer region are important in generating these waves, and they affect the subiculum, ...
*  Episodic-like memory
... then CA1, and finally through to the subiculum. Information is then directed back to the para-hippocampal region and finally to ... that is projected from nearly all neocortical areas come together onto one or more subdivisions of the para-hippocampal region ... Similarly, hippocampal lesions severely impacted all three components (what, where, and when) suggesting that the hippocampus ... Eichenbaum, H. (2000). "A cortical-hippocampal system for declarative memory". Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 1: 41-50. doi: ...
*  Schaffer collateral
The Schaffer collateral is located between the CA3 region and CA1 region in the hippocampus. Schaffer collaterals are the axons ... 22:2451-2461 Christie JM and Jahr CE (2006). Multivesicular Release at Schaffer Collateral-CA1 Hippocampal synapses. The ... The contralateral CA3 region sends information through Schaffer collateral to the CA1 pyramidal neurons. Plastic changes ... The signals of information from the contralateral CA3 region leave via the Schaffer collateral pathways for the CA1 pyramidal ...
*  Effects of alcohol on memory
Particularly, damage to hippocampal CA1 cells adversely affects memory formation, and this disruption has been linked to dose- ... Zola-Morgan, S.; Squire, L. R.; Amaral, D. G. (1986). "Human amnesia and the medial temporal region: Enduring memory impairment ... Differential Ethanol Sensitivity of Subpopulations of GABAA Synapses Onto Rat Hippocampal CA1 Pyramidal Neurons. The Journal of ... At higher doses, alcohol significantly inhibits neuronal activity in the CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cell layers of the hippocampus. ...
*  Bursting
Jeffreys, JGR; HL Hass (1982-12-02). "Synchronized bursting of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells in the absence of synaptic ... Smith, JC; HH Ellenberger; K Ballanyi; DW Richter; JL Feldman (November 1991). "Pre-Botzinger complex: a brainstem region that ... The subiculum, a component of the hippocampal formation, is thought to perform relaying of signals originating in the ... "An autoradiographic study of the organization of the efferent connections of the hippocampal formation in the rat". Journal of ...
*  Hippocampal prosthesis
These subregions, CA1 and CA3, interact to create long-term memories. The rats were unable to remember which lever they needed ... Next, they had to determine whether a chip could be used as a prosthesis, or implant, for a damaged region in the hippocampus. ... successfully tested a hippocampal prosthesis on non-human primates. While the device does not yet consist of a fully ... Sam A. Deadwyler and Robert E. Hampson at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, a proof-of-concept hippocampal prosthesis was ...
*  Transgenerational stress inheritance
Evidence of decreased complexity in the CA1 and CA3 region of the hippocampus in terms of dendritic length and spine density ... Additionally, investigation of post mortem hippocampal tissue indicates decreased levels of neuron-specific glucocorticoid ... Stress can also result in inheritable changes DNA methylation in the promoter regions of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), ... Maternal separation and postnatal maternal abuse also increases DNA methylation at regulatory regions of BDNF genes in the ...