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*  Local anesthetic nerve block
The amides include lidocaine, mepivacaine, prilocaine, bupivacaine, ropivacaine, and levobupivacaine. Chloroprocaine is a short ... bupivacaine, and mepivacaine. These drugs are often combined with adjuvants (additives) with the end goal of increasing the ... drug (45-90 minutes), lidocaine and mepivacaine are intermediate duration (90-180 minutes), and bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, ...
*  Spinal anaesthesia
In another study this time with 0.5% bupivacaine the mean maximum extent of sensory block was significantly higher with 8% ... Bupivacaine (Marcaine) is the local anaesthetic most commonly used, although lidocaine (lignocaine), tetracaine, procaine, ... Usually, the hyperbaric, (for example, hyperbaric bupivacaine) is chosen, as its spread can be effectively and predictably ... Bupivacaine Corning J. L. N.Y. Med. J. 1885, 42, 483 (reprinted in 'Classical File', Survey of Anesthesiology 1960, 4, 332) ...
*  Levobupivacaine
Compared to bupivacaine, levobupivacaine is associated with less vasodilation and has a longer duration of action. It is ... It is the S-enantiomer of bupivacaine. Levobupivacaine hydrochloride is commonly marketed by AbbVie under the trade name ... ISBN 0-9757919-2-3 Gulec D (Apr 2014). "Intrathecal bupivacaine or levobupivacaine: which should be used for elderly patients ... Systemic exposure to excessive quantities of bupivacaine mainly result in central nervous system (CNS) and cardiovascular ...
*  Local anesthetic
Weinberg G, Ripper R, Feinstein DL, Hoffman W (2003). "Lipid emulsion infusion rescues dogs from bupivacaine-induced cardiac ... Although all local anesthetics potentially shorten the myocardial refractory period, bupivacaine avidly blocks the cardiac ... Examples include: Prilocaine hydrochloride and epinephrine (trade name Citanest Forte) Lidocaine, bupivacaine, and epinephrine ... bupivacaine in 1957, and prilocaine in 1959. Shortly after the first use of cocaine for topical anesthesia, blocks on ...
*  Ropivacaine
As for bupivacaine, Celepid, a commonly available intravenous lipid emulsion, can be effective in treating severe ... Ropivacaine was developed after bupivacaine was noted to be associated with cardiac arrest, particularly in pregnant women. ... Weinberg, G; Ripper, R; Feinstein, DL; Hoffman, W (2003). "Lipid emulsion infusion rescues dogs from bupivacaine-induced ... Ropivacaine was found to have less cardiotoxicity than bupivacaine in animal models. Ropivacaine is contraindicated for ...
*  Bupivacaine
... is available as a generic medication and is not very expensive. The wholesale cost of a vial of bupivacaine is ... Bupivacaine is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity reactions to bupivacaine or amino-amide anesthetics. It ... Additionally, bupivacaine can cause chondrolysis after continuous infusion into a joint space. Bupivacaine has caused several ... Bupivacaine is excreted in breast milk. Risks of discontinuing breast feeding versus discontinuing bupivacaine should be ...
*  Management of strabismus
... thereby providing about twice the alignment correction of bupivacaine alone. The effectiveness of a bupivacaine injection may ... After bupivacaine injection the muscle is inactivated by the drug's anesthetic effect for a day, and weakened by myofiber ... If bupivacaine injection is combined with a small dose of botulinum toxin in the antagonist muscle, eye deviation during ... Bupivacaine injection is not effective in paralyzed or atrophic muscles, or where there are restrictions to movement elsewhere ...
*  Ugi reaction
Examples include lidocaine and bupivacaine. Passerini reaction Ugi, I; Meyr, R.; Fetzer, U.; Steinbr├╝ckner, C. (1959). " ...
*  Lidocaine
Bupivacaine is a safe alternative in this case. Impaired liver function - people with lowered hepatic function may have an ... Longer-acting substances such as bupivacaine are sometimes given preference for spinal and epidural anaesthesias; lidocaine, ...
*  Botulinum toxin therapy of strabismus
In some interventions bupivacaine has been used alone. In others, a botulinum toxin injection into an extraocular muscle is ... The thickening of bupivacaine-injected extraocular muscle has been demonstrated by means of magnetic resonance imaging and by ... Bupivacaine is a local anaesthetic known to cause considerable myotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Its injection into muscle tissue ... Scott, AB; Miller, JM; Shieh, KR (April 2009). "Bupivacaine injection of the lateral rectus muscle to treat esotropia". J AAPOS ...
*  Potassium channel
Punke MA, Licher T, Pongs O, Friederich P (Jun 2003). "Inhibition of human TREK-1 channels by bupivacaine". Anesthesia and ...
*  Neosaxitoxin
And last but not least, some degree of improving in therapeutic index of NSTX can be observed when is mixed with bupivacaine ... Padera R, Bellas E, Tse JY, Hao D, Kohane DS (May 2008). "Local Myotoxicity from Sustained Release of Bupivacaine from ... Beilin Y, Halpern S (August 2012). "Focused review: ropivacaine versus bupivacaine for epidural labor analgesia". Anaesthesia ... Additionally, two human reports demonstrated strong potentiation between NSTX anesthetic effect, bupivacaine and epinephrine. ...
*  Pipecolic acid
Bupivacaine Plecko B, Hikel C, Korenke GC, et al. (2005). "Pipecolic acid as a diagnostic marker of pyridoxine-dependent ...
*  DNA vaccination
This can be assisted by electroporation; by temporarily damaging muscle fibres with myotoxins such as bupivacaine; or by using ...
*  Epidural administration
For example, 0.1% bupivacaine may provide adequate analgesia for a woman in labour, but would likely be insufficient for ... Bupivacaine has caused several deaths by cardiac arrest when epidural anaesthetic has been accidentally inserted into a vein ... Conversely, 0.5% bupivacaine would provide a more intense block, likely sufficient for surgery. Removing the catheter The ... Bupivacaine is markedly toxic if inadvertently given intravenously, causing excitation, nervousness, tingling around the mouth ...
*  Lipid emulsion
Weinberg G, Ripper R, Feinstein DL, Hoffman W (2003). "Lipid emulsion infusion rescues dogs from bupivacaine-induced cardiac ... "Pretreatment or resuscitation with a lipid infusion shifts the dose-response to bupivacaine-induced asystole in rats". ... treating experimental models of severe cardiotoxicity from intravenous overdose of local anaesthetic drugs such as bupivacaine ...
*  2,6-Xylidine
Commercially significant derivatives are the anesthetics lidocaine, bupivacaine, mepivacaine, and etidocaine. Many xylidines ...
*  Sameridine
Hypercarbic and hypoxic ventilatory responses after intrathecal administration of bupivacaine and sameridine. Anesthesia and ...
*  Combined spinal and epidural anaesthesia
A small dose of local anaesthetic (e.g. bupivacaine) is then instilled. An opioid such as fentanyl may also be given if desired ... It further recommends the use of bupivacaine and fentanyl to establish the block. Cautions and contraindications are very ...
*  Anaesthesia for ocular surgery
Paracaine, tetracaine, bupivacaine, lidocaine etc. may also be used in place of xylocaine. Cataract surgery by ...
*  Ion trapping
... like bupivacaine, pyrimethamine) are more charged inside the cell than outside. The cell membrane is permeable to non-ionized ( ...
*  Bryan L. Reuss
"Efficacy of Continuous Subacromial Bupivacaine Infusion for Pain Control After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair". The Journal ...
*  Childbirth
"Placental transfer and neonatal effects of epidural sufentanil and fentanyl administered with bupivacaine during labor". ...
*  Veterinary surgery
Lidocaine, mepivacaine, and bupivacaine are the most commonly used local anesthetics used in veterinary medicine. Sedation ...