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*  Azotemia
... such as urea, creatinine, various body waste compounds, and other nitrogen-rich compounds) in the blood. It is largely related ... This results in lower levels of urea in the blood and higher levels of urea in the urine as compared to creatinine. Creatinine ... Orthostatic blood pressure (fluctuates depending on body position) Uremic frost, a condition that occurs when urea and urea ... Azotemia (azot, "nitrogen" + -emia, "blood condition") is a medical condition characterized by abnormally high levels of ...
*  DNASE1L2
Females also had an increased blood urea nitrogen level while males had a decreased leukocyte cell number. GRCh38: Ensembl ...
*  Blood urea nitrogen
... (BUN) is a medical test that measures the amount of urea nitrogen found in blood. The liver produces urea ... mg/dL of nitrogen] x 10 [dL/L] / 14x2 [mg N/mmol urea] (the mass of nitrogen within urea is used) convert BUN to urea in mg/dL ... 0.3571 To convert from mg/dL of blood urea nitrogen to mmol/L of urea, multiply by 0.357 (each molecule of urea having two ... 2 moles N per mole of urea): BUN [mmol/L]= urea [mmol/L] Kt/V Urea reduction ratio Urine urea nitrogen Standardized Kt/V Last ...
*  Urine urea nitrogen
Blood urea nitrogen Gerber GS, Brendler CB. Evaluation of the urologic patient: history, physical examination, and urinalysis. ... Urine urea nitrogen (UUN) refers to a test that measures the urine urea to assess nitrogen balance. Urea nitrogen is the end ... Nitrogen Balance = Protein intake/6.25- (UUN + 4* + 6 for every L output) * For average loss via sweat. Nitrogen balance value ... By testing for UUN, clinicians can assess one's nitrogen balance. Calculating nitrogen balance is a useful tool in assessing ...
*  Vincent DePaul Lynch
Torre, Gregory M.; Lynch, Vincent D.; Jarowski, Charles I. (1981-01-01). "Lowering blood urea nitrogen with amino acid ...
*  Glossary of diabetes
Blood-sampling device Blood sugar A (misnomer) name for blood glucose. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) A measurement of a metabolic ... Self-monitoring of blood glucose A way as person can test how much glucose (sugar) is in the blood. Also called home blood ... High blood pressure The pressure of blood in the arteries has normal values in a population. Blood pressure in an individual ... Postprandial blood glucose Blood taken 1-2 hours after eating to see the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Prediabetes A ...
*  Toxic epidermal necrolysis
Blood Urea Nitrogen >28 mg/dL Glucose >252 mg/dL (14 mmol/L) Bicarbonate ...
*  Grape and raisin toxicity in dogs
A blood test may reveal increases in blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, phosphorus, and calcium. Emesis (induction of ... Dialysis of the blood (hemodialysis) and peritoneal dialysis can be used to support the kidneys if anuria develops. Oliguria ( ... increased blood calcium levels). "ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center Issues Nationwide Update: Raisins and Grapes Can Be Toxic ...
*  BUN-to-creatinine ratio
... of the blood urea. The normal range of urea nitrogen in blood or serum is 5 to 20 mg/dl, or 1.8 to 7.1 mmol urea per liter. The ... whereas in the United States only the nitrogen component of urea (the blood or serum urea nitrogen, i.e., BUN or SUN) is ... In medicine, the BUN-to-creatinine ratio is the ratio of two serum laboratory values, the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (mg/dL) and ... Feinfeld DA, Bargouthi H, Niaz Q, Carvounis CP (2002). "Massive and disproportionate elevation of blood urea nitrogen in acute ...
*  Ureterostomy
... blood, urea, nitrogen (BUN); and creatinine. Blood tests, complete blood count (CBC) and electrolytes. Imaging studies of the ... development of blood clots (thrombosis), blocking of arteries (embolism), and injury to adjacent structures, such as bowel or ... and disease progression in a case of inflammation of blood vessels, or vasulitis (one patient). One patient died of sepsis ( ...
*  Leptospirosis
Kidney function tests (blood urea nitrogen and creatinine) as well as blood tests for liver functions are performed. The latter ... Diagnosis is typically by looking for antibodies against the bacterium or finding its DNA in the blood. Efforts to prevent the ... In dogs, penicillin is most commonly used to end the leptospiremic phase (infection of the blood), and doxycycline is used to ... On infection the microorganism can be found in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for the first 7 to 10 days (invoking ...
*  Renal function
However, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine will not be raised above the normal range until 60% of total kidney function ... A more elaborate version of the MDRD equation also includes serum albumin and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels: eGFR = 170 × ... The original MDRD used six variables with the additional variables being the blood urea nitrogen and albumin levels. The ... where the creatinine and blood urea nitrogen concentrations are both in mg/dL. The albumin concentration is in g/dL. These MDRD ...
*  Acute pancreatitis
The rate of fluid resuscitation should be adjusted based on clinical assessment, hematocrit and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) ... 55 years white blood cell count > 16000 cells/mm3 blood glucose > 11.1 mmol/L (> 200 mg/dL) serum AST > 250 IU/L serum LDH > ... Blood investigations - Full blood count, renal function tests, liver function, serum calcium, serum amylase and lipase, ... Blood studies are used to identify organ failure, offer prognostic information, determine if fluid resuscitation is adequate, ...
*  Max D. Liston
... glucose testing and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) analysis. He is an innovator in the area of chemical-luminescence instrumentation ... One instrument was designed to test blood samples for steroids and other drugs. Liston also developed specialty test ... particularly measurement of oxides of nitrogen. In addition, Liston and Lowell Edwards formed the Liston-Edwards company to ...
*  Neil H. Baum
Baum N, Dichoso C, and Carlton CE: Blood Urea Nitrogen and Serum Creatinine: Physiology and Interpretations, Urology 5:583, ...
*  Orotic aciduria
... by assessing blood ammonia levels and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). In OTC deficiency, hyperammonemia and decreased BUN are seen ... It can also arise secondary to blockage of the urea cycle, particularly in ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (or OTC ... Blood. 14 (6): 615-634. PMID 13651334. Winkler, JK; Suttle, DP (July 1988). "Analysis of UMP synthase gene and mRNA structure ... because the urea cycle is not functioning properly. 1) Detection of orotic acid in urine 2) Deficiency of Enzymes orotate ...
*  Clinical descriptions of chronic fatigue syndrome
... blood urea nitrogen, electrolytes, and creatinine; determination of thyroid-stimulating hormone; and urinalysis. Other ... The following routine tests are recommended: Complete blood count Blood chemistry (electrolytes, glucose, renal function, liver ... including complete blood count with leukocyte differential; erythrocyte sedimentation rate; serum levels of alanine ... enzymes, and protein levels). Thyroid function tests Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) Urinalysis for blood cells, protein ...
*  Mycophenolic acid
Other changes in blood chemistry such as hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, hyperkalemia, and an increase in blood urea nitrogen ( ... Among the most common effects of this drug is increased blood cholesterol levels. ...
*  Adipsia
Initial testing for adipsia involves electrolyte, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, serum and urine osmolality, blood ...
*  Creatinine
... concentration of creatinine along with that of urea. BUN-to-creatinine ratio (the ratio of blood urea nitrogen to creatinine) ... If the filtration in the kidney is deficient, creatinine blood levels rise. Therefore, creatinine levels in blood and urine may ... A rise in blood creatinine level is a late marker, observed only with marked damage to functioning nephrons. Therefore, this ... It is then transported through blood to the other organs, muscle, and brain, where, through phosphorylation, it becomes the ...
*  Animals and tobacco smoke
The Labrador vomited several times and had increased blood urea nitrogen, total protein, and albumin concentrations with ... Despite these variables, the doses of smoke administered to these animals can be determined by examining tissue and blood ...
*  Bridged nucleic acid
A moderate increase of aspartate aminotransferase, ALT, and blood urea nitrogen levels was observed whereas the ... in the sugar moiety was designed to have a nitrogen atom. This atom improves the formation of duplexes and triplexes by ...
*  Orotic acid
... increased serum and urinary orotic acid levels and a decreased serum blood urea nitrogen level. This also leads to an increased ... It may be a symptom of an increased ammonia load due to a metabolic disorder, such as a urea cycle disorder. In ornithine ... transcarbamoylase deficiency, an X-linked inherited and the most common urea cycle disorder, excess carbamoyl phosphate is ...
*  Polydipsia
... blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and sodium. Adipsia Human homeostasis Polydipsia in birds Polyphagia Potomania Primary polydipsia ... Blood serum tests can also provide useful information about the osmolality of the body's extracellular fluids. A decrease in ... It can also be caused by a change in the osmolality of the extracellular fluids of the body, hypokalemia, decreased blood ... osmolality caused by excess water intake will decrease the serum concentration of red blood cells, ...
*  Renal physiology
A simple means of estimating renal function is to measure pH, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and basic electrolytes ( ... The kidneys maintain acid-base homeostasis by regulating the pH of the blood plasma. Gains and losses of acid and base must be ... The major functions of these lining cells are the reabsorption of water and small molecules from the filtrate into the blood, ... 6: Proximal Reabsorption of Urea. lib.mcg.edu V. Excretion of Organic Molecules. lib.mcg.edu VI. Mechanisms of Salt & Water ...
*  Metabolism
Database for Drug-Cytochrome-Metabolism Metabolic pathways Metabolism reference Pathway The Nitrogen cycle and Nitrogen ... He discovered the urea cycle and later, working with Hans Kornberg, the citric acid cycle and the glyoxylate cycle. Modern ... Insulin is produced in response to rises in blood glucose levels. Binding of the hormone to insulin receptors on cells then ... The amino group is fed into the urea cycle, leaving a deaminated carbon skeleton in the form of a keto acid. Several of these ...
*  Hyperemesis gravidarum
Diagnoses to be ruled out include the following: Common investigations include blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and electrolytes, ... thromboembolic stockings or low-molecular-weight heparin may be used as measures to prevent the formation of a blood clot. ...