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*  Bilaminar blastocyst
... the peripheral outer cell layer, the trophoblast, and the central inner cell mass, the embryoblast. The trophoblast goes on to ... Therefore, the blastocyst cavity serves as a nutrient center and the fluid is able to reach and feed cells so that they can ... During gastrulation, cells of the epiblast, a layer of the bilaminar blastocyst, migrate towards the primitive streak, enter it ... The inner cell mass, the embryoblast, begins to transform into two distinct epithelial layers just before implantation occurs. ...
*  Embryoid body
The pluripotent cell types that comprise embryoid bodies include embryonic stem cells (ESCs) derived from the blastocyst stage ... whereby cell specification of the inner cell mass results in the formation of the visceral endoderm and epiblast. As the ... "Mass Transfer Limitations in Embryoid Bodies during Human Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation". Cells Tissues Organs. 196 (1): ... including somatic cell nuclear transfer or the reprogramming of somatic cells to yield induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS). ...
*  Immunosurgery
"Efficient isolation inner cell mass from blastocysts by improved microsurgical technique". Cell Research (2008) 18:s39. doi: ... This technique is used to isolate the inner cell mass of the blastocyst. The trophoectoderm's cell junctions and tight ... "Laser-assisted blastocyst dissection and subsequent cultivation of embryonic stem cells in a serum/cell free culture system: ... Immunosurgery is a method of selectively removing the external cell layer (trophoblast) of a blastocyst through a cytotoxicity ...
*  Craniopagus parasiticus
However, the egg can split into two, but still have one blastocyst. This will lead to one inner cell mass and one blastocyst. ... The egg will then completely split into two, normally at the two-cell stage. If the egg splits in the early blastocyst stage, ... two inner cell masses will be present, eventually leading to the twins sharing the same chorion and placenta, but with separate ...
*  Pregnancy (mammals)
The inner cell mass of the blastocyst divides rapidly, forming two layers. The top layer becomes the embryo, and cells from ... The presence of the blastocyst means that two types of cells are forming, an inner-cell mass growing on the interior of the ... The cells surrounding the blastocyst now destroy cells in the uterine lining, forming small pools of blood, which in turn ... The cells on the exterior of the blastocyst begin excreting an enzyme which erodes epithelial uterine lining and creates a site ...
*  Hypoblast
Enders A. C., Lantz K. C., Schlafke S. (1990). Differentiation of the inner cell mass of the baboon blastocyst. Anat. Rec. 226 ... The hypoblast is a tissue type that forms from the inner cell mass. It lies beneath the epiblast and consists of small cuboidal ... Cell 6, 167-181. Duval M. (1891). The rodent placenta. Third part. The placenta of the mouse and of the rat. J. Anat. Physiol. ... Cell 3, 735-744. Perea-Gomez A., Vella F. D., Shawlot W., Oulad-Abdelghani M., Chazaud C., Meno C., Pfister V., Chen L., ...
*  CARM1
It is responsible for moving cells toward the inner cell mass in developing blastocysts. CARM1 plays an important role in ... CARM1-mediated MDH1 methylation reduces cellular NADPH level and sensitizes cells to oxidative stress, thereby suppressing cell ... Cancer Cell. 30 (1): 179-180. doi:10.1016/j.ccell.2016.06.013. PMID 27479032. Wang YP, Zhou W, Wang J, Huang X, Zuo Y, Wang TS ... Ma H, Hong H, Koh SS, Huang SM, Schurter BT, Aswad DW, Stallcup MR (1999). "Regulation of transcription by a protein ...
*  Stem cell laws and policy in the United States
Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst. These stem cells can ... stem cell advocate Stem cell laws Stem cell controversy John Ydstie and Joe Palca, "Embryonic Stem Cells Made Without Embryos ... Stem cell laws and policy in the United States have had a complicated legal and political history. Stem cells are cells found ... Cloning also might be done with stem cells. Pluripotent stem cells can also be derived from Somatic cell nuclear transfer which ...
*  Blastocyst
The blastocyst is made up of cells from the inner cell mass and the blastocoel. There are two types of blastomere cells: The ... The inner cell mass of blastocysts is also a source of embryonic stem cells. During human embryogenesis, the blastomeres of the ... It possesses an inner cell mass (ICM) which subsequently forms the embryo. The outer layer of the blastocyst consists of cells ... This removes the constraint on the physical size of the embryonic mass and exposes the outer cells of the blastocyst to the ...
*  Stem cell
... cells are the cells of the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage embryo. Human embryos reach the blastocyst stage 4-5 ... embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells, which are found in ... mesenchymal stem cell, adipose-derived stem cell, endothelial stem cell, dental pulp stem cell, etc.). Muse cells (multi- ... Such cells can construct a complete, viable organism. These cells are produced from the fusion of an egg and sperm cell. Cells ...
*  Cell potency
... the totipotent cells of the morula differentiate into cells that will eventually become either the blastocyst's Inner cell mass ... Cell potency is a cell's ability to differentiate into other cell types. The more cell types a cell can differentiate into, the ... In cell biology, a unipotent cell is the concept that one stem cell has the capacity to differentiate into only one cell type. ... these totipotent cells begin to specialize. The inner cell mass, the source of embryonic stem cells, becomes pluripotent. ...
*  Amniotic stem cells
... the placenta or possibly the inner cell mass of the blastocyst. Comparison of amniotic fluid-derived MSCs to bone-marrow- ... There is some debate whether c-Kit is a suitable marker to distinguish amniotic stem cells from other cell types because cells ... Evidence in favour of their embryonic stem cell nature is the cells' ability to produce clones. The use of amniotic stem cells ... the cells were able to exert a protective effect on tubular cells in mice with acute tubular necrosis. Amniotic stem cells can ...
*  Laura Hewitson
Hewitson, L.C., Leese, H.J. (1993) Energy metabolism of the trophectoderm and inner cell mass of the mouse blastocyst. J Exp ... Schatten G, Hewitson L, Simerly C, Sutovsky P and Huszar G. (1998) Cell and Molecular Biological Challenges of ICSI: A.R.T. ... Hewitson L, Takahashi D, Dominko T, Simerly C, and Schatten G. (1998) Fertilization and embryo development to blastocysts after ... 1999) Births of ICSI monkeys: unique checkpoints during the first cell cycle of fertilization. Nature Medicine 5:431-433. ...
*  Embryonic stem cell
Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) are pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage pre ... The resulting inner cell mass cells are plated onto cells that will supply support. The inner cell mass cells attach and expand ... The following day, she removed the inner cell mass from the late blastocyst using microsurgery. The extracted inner cell mass ... The inner cell mass (cells of interest), from the blastocyst stage of the embryo, is separated from the trophectoderm, the ...
*  Interspecific pregnancy
Such envelopment can be created by first isolating the inner cell mass of blastocysts of the species to be reproduced by ... The remaining inner cell mass can be injected into a blastocele of the recipient species to acquire its trophoblastic cells. It ... Goat fetuses have likewise been successfully grown in sheep wombs by enveloping the goat inner cell mass in sheep trophoblast. ... They may also be created by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) into an egg cell of another species, creating a cloned embryo ...
*  Epiblast
In mammalian embryogenesis, differentiation and segregation of cells composing the inner cell mass of the blastocyst yields two ... is one of two distinct layers arising from the inner cell mass in the mammalian blastocyst or from the blastodisc in reptiles ... During gastrulation, migrating epiblast cells undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition in order to lose cell-cell adhesion (E- ... the remaining cells of the inner cell mass, situated between the hypoblast and the polar trophoblast, become the epiblast and ...
*  Richard Gardner (scientist)
... ectoplacental cone and secondary giant cells in mouse blastocysts reconstituted from isolated trophoblast and inner cell mass ... Gardner, R.L. and Lyon, M.F. (1971). X-chromosome inactivation studied by injection of a single cell into the mouse blastocyst ... Gardner, R. L. (9 November 1968). "Mouse Chimaeras obtained by the Injection of Cells into the Blastocyst". Nature. 220 (5167 ... Gardner pioneered the transplantation of cells and tissues between blastocyst stage mouse embryos and their reconstruction from ...
*  Implantation (human embryo)
... the apposition on the blastocyst is not dependent on if it is on the same side of the blastocyst as the inner cell mass. Rather ... The decidual cells originate from the stromal cells that are always present in the endometrium. However, the decidual cells ... the inner cell mass rotates inside the trophoblast to align to the apposition. In short, the entire surface of the blastocyst ... refers to the transformation that occurs as the boundaries between these cells disappear to form a single mass of many cell ...
*  Somatic cell nuclear transfer
The blastocyst stage is developed by the egg which helps to create embryonic stem cells from inner cell mass of the blastocyst. ... 1], Nature Stem Cell Blog. [2], The Scientist 19 June 2007 Human Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Using Adult Cells Cell Stem Cell ... The second being a somatic cell, referring to the cells of the human body. Skin cells, fat cells, and liver cells are only a ... There lies a problem in the human cell's ability to form a blastocyst; the cells fail to progress past the eight cell stage of ...
*  Brachyury
In mice T is expressed in the inner cell mass of the blastocyst stage embryo (but not in the majority of mouse embryonic stem ... J Cell Commun Signal. 2014; 12:76. doi:10.1186/s12964-014-0076-4. Yoshikawa T, Piao Y, Zhong J, Matoba R, Carter MG, Wang Y, ... Tissue-culture based techniques have demonstrated one of its roles may be in controlling the velocity of cells as they leave ... While brachyury is promoting EMT, it can also induce metastasis of HCC cells. Brachyury expression is a prognostic biomarker ...
*  DNA methylation
... such as the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, primordial germ cells or embryonic stem cells. Since DNA methylation appears to ... If the mismatch is not repaired and the cell enters the cell cycle the strand carrying the T will be complemented by an A in ... Although various human cell types may have the same genome, these cells have different methylomes. The systematic ... Furthermore, this study showed that there is a similarity between B cell tumors and long-lived B cells in their DNA methylation ...
*  Embryogenesis
Mammals at this stage form a structure called the blastocyst,[1] characterized by an inner cell mass that is distinct from the ... expansion of one cell sheet over other cells[2] Ingression - migration of individual cells into the embryo (cells move with ... On the deep surface of the inner cell mass, a layer of flattened cells, called the endoderm, is differentiated and quickly ... The fertilized egg cell is known as the zygote. Cell division with no significant growth, producing a cluster of cells that is ...
*  Induced pluripotent stem cell
Chimeric mice: hESCs naturally reside within the inner cell mass (embryoblast) of blastocysts, and in the embryoblast, ... 2 July 2010). "Reprogramming of human peripheral blood cells to induced pluripotent stem cells". Cell stem cell. 7 (1): 20-4. ... "iPS Cells Can Support Full-Term Development of Tetraploid Blastocyst-Complemented Embryos". Cell Stem Cell. 5 (2): 135-138. doi ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.11.019. PMID 18035408. Yu J, Vodyanik MA, et al. (2007). "Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines Derived ...
*  Prenatal nutrition
The fertilized egg or the zygote becomes a blastocyst where the outer layer and the inner cell mass differentiate to form ... It is also in this stage where the blastocyst develops into an embryo, where all major features of human are present and ... Maternal body weight is determined by the Body Mass Index (BMI) which is defined as the weight in kilograms divided by the ... The first column categorizes the type of body weight based on the Body Mass Index. The second column summarizes the total ...
*  Oct-4
... and are essential for maintaining the self-renewing undifferentiated state of the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, embryonic ... stem cell lines (which are cell lines derived from the inner cell mass), and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. While ... Yu J, Vodyanik MA, et al. (2007). "Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines Derived from Human Somatic Cells". Science. 318 (5858): ... "Oct4 expression is not required for mouse somatic stem cell self-renewal". Cell Stem Cell. 1 (4): 403-15. doi:10.1016/j.stem. ...
*  Mitochondrial DNA
... the onset of mtDNA replication is specific to the cells of the trophectoderm. In contrast, the cells of the inner cell mass ... exploiting cell-to-cell variability to ameliorate the inheritance of damaging mutations. At the blastocyst stage, ... The bottleneck exploits stochastic processes in the cell to increase in the cell-to-cell variability in mutant load as an ... Cell-level selection may then act to remove those cells with more mutant mtDNA, leading to a stabilisation or reduction in ...
*  Blastula
In mammals the blastula is referred to as a blastocyst. The blastocyst contains an embryoblast (or inner cell mass) that will ... Blastula-stage cells can behave as pluripotent stem cells in many species. Pluripotent stem cells are the starting point to ... The vegetal mass is composed of the blastocoel floor and primarily develops into endodermal tissue. In the mammalian blastocyst ... The addition of the two growth phases into the cell cycle allows for the cells to increase in size, as up to this point the ...