Biological warfare. The British used smallpox as a biological warfare agent at the Siege of Fort Pitt during the French and ... "Biological Warfare in Eighteenth-Century North America: Beyond Jeffery Amherst", The Journal of American History, Vol. 86, No. ... "Smallpox and biological warfare: a disease revisited". Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 18 (1): 13-20. doi:10.1080/08998280.2005. ... for use in biological warfare.[150] Insertion of the synthesized smallpox DNA into existing related pox viruses could ...
Appel, J. M. (2009), "Is all fair in biological warfare? The controversy over genetically engineered biological weapons", ... Biological warfare involving smallpox[edit]. One of the most infamous and well documented issues during Pontiac's War was the ... a b Fenn, Elizabeth A. Biological Warfare in Eighteenth-Century North America: Beyond Jeffery Amherst Archived 3 April 2015 at ... use of biological warfare against the Native Americans. The suggestion was posed by Amherst himself in letters to Colonel Henry ...
Biological warfare. Some of the earliest instances of biological warfare were said to have been products of the plague, as ... "Biological Warfare at the 1346 Siege of Caffa". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 8 (9). doi:10.3201/eid0809.010536 - via Centers ... one of the first known instances of biological warfare.[45] When spring arrived, the Italian merchants fled on their ships, ... May 2000). "Plague as a biological weapon: medical and public health management. Working Group on Civilian Biodefense". JAMA. ...
... a biological warfare unit of the Imperial Japanese Army. Ishii led the development and application of biological weapons at ... The Plague Makers: The Secret World of Biological Warfare, Frog Ltd, 1999. ISBN 978-1-883319-85-4 ISBN 978-0-7567-5698-7 ISBN ... The United States and Biological Warfare: Secrets from the Early Cold War and Korea, Indiana University Press, 1999. ISBN 978-0 ... A Higher Form of Killing: The Secret History of Chemical and Biological Warfare, Random House, 2002. ISBN 978-0-8129-6653-4 ...
a b c d Fenn, Elizabeth A. Biological Warfare in Eighteenth-Century North America: Beyond Jeffery Amherst Archived 3 April 2015 ... Biological warfare[edit]. When Old World diseases were first carried to the Americas at the end of the fifteenth century, they ... In the centuries that followed, accusations and discussions of biological warfare were common. Well-documented accounts of ... colonists had the knowledge and technology to attempt biological warfare with the smallpox virus. They well understood the ...
Biological warfare project[edit]. In 1932, he began his preliminary experiments in biological warfare as a secret project for ... In his travels, he did extensive research on the effects of biological warfare and chemical warfare developments from World War ... The United States and Biological Warfare: Secrets from the Early Cold War and Korea, Indiana University Press, 1999. ISBN 978-0 ... The Plague Makers: The Secret World of Biological Warfare, Frog Ltd, 1999. ISBN 978-1-883319-85-4 ISBN 978-0-7567-5698-7 ISBN ...
Frischknecht F (June 2003). "The history of biological warfare". EMBO Rep. 4 Spec No (Supp1): S47-52. doi:10.1038/sj.embor. ... Agent Orange Red rain in Kerala Sverdlovsk anthrax leak Aral smallpox incident Allegations of biological warfare in the Korean ... RW Wannemacher; SL Wiener (1997). "Trichothecene mycotoxins: in Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare" (PDF). U.S ... Christopher GW, Cieslak TJ, Pavlin JA, Eitzen EM (August 1997). "Biological warfare. A historical perspective". JAMA. 278 (5): ...
His topics have included nanotechnology, transhumanism and biological warfare. His articles have appeared in several scientific ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Tucker, Jonathan B. (Winter 1999). "Biological warfare". Issues in Science and ... The Biology of Doom: America's Secret Germ Warfare Project. Henry Holt & Co. 1999. ISBN 0-8050-5765-X. The Info Mesa: Science, ...
LANGMUIR, A D; ANDREWS J M (March 1952). "Biological warfare defense. 2. The Epidemic Intelligence Service of the Communicable ... Dembek, ZF (2005). "3 Epidemiology of biowarfare and bioterrorism". Biological Warfare (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) ... due to biological warfare concerns arising from the Korean War, it has become a hands-on two-year postgraduate training program ... Golovchenko, N. N.; Korotkin, L.M. (eds.). "ANTI-EPIDEMIC MEASURES AT THE LIQUIDATION OF BIOLOGICAL TERRORIST ATTACK ...
... and train laboratory workers for rapid recognition of biological warfare germs. It arose from biological warfare concerns ... Langmuir said that it was of utmost importance to planning of appropriate defense measures against biological warfare germs, ... Langmuir, Alexander D.; Andrews, Justin M. (March 1952). "Biological Warfare Defense". American Journal of Public Health and ... Popham, John (March 31, 1951). "Langmuir Warns of Germ Warfare". New York Times News Service. Chattanooga Daily Times ( ...
Judson, Chemical and Biological Warfare, p. 68 "Bert Stokes remembers Passchendaele". New Zealand History Online. New Zealand ... Evidence exists that the Germans used horses in their experimentations with chemical and biological warfare. German agents in ... ISBN 978-0-275-98726-8. Judson, Karen (2003). Chemical and Biological Warfare. Open for Debate. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 0-7614 ... generally the mode of warfare changed. Tanks were beginning to take over the role of shock combat. The use of trench warfare, ...
One of the challenges of preventing the proliferation of biological warfare capability is verifying that a legitimate ... Croddy, Eric (5 November 1999). "Chinese Chemical and Biological Warfare (CBW) Capabilities". Conference report: China and ... Chemical Biological Warfare Review. van Westerhoven 2007. Archived from the original on 2006-05-09. Retrieved 2007-10-17. ... biological, and radiological threats (CBR), or nuclear-biological-chemical (NBC), as well as more general safety and public ...
Wheelis, Mark (1999). "Biological warfare before 1914". In Geissler, E.; Moon, J. (eds.). Biological and Toxin Weapons: ... This event is best known as an early instance of biological warfare, where the British gave items from a smallpox infirmary as ... This event is usually described as an early attempt at biological warfare. However the plan's effectiveness is generally ... Mann 2009, p. 9. Barras, V.; Greub, G. (June 2014). "History of biological warfare and bioterrorism". Clinical Microbiology and ...
The United States ended its biological warfare program in 1969. When it did, C. burnetii was one of seven agents it had ... Croddy, Eric C.; Hart, C. Perez-Armendariz J. (2002). Chemical and Biological Warfare. Springer. pp. 30-31. ISBN 0-387-95076-1 ... standardized as biological weapons. At least five completely sequenced genomes of Coxiella burnetii exist, which contain about ...
146-. ISBN 978-1-85109-490-5. "Biological Warfare: Dark Harvest". Time. 9 November 1981. Drainey, Nick (2002-03-04). "SNLA ... Biological and Radiological Agent Threats. IOS Press. pp. 55-. ISBN 978-1-58603-744-4. Weapons of Mass Destruction. ABC-CLIO. ...
Leo M. van Westerhoven (2007). "The Fuchs NBC reconnaissance system is getting a makeover". Chemical Biological Warfare Review ... Detecting shallow-water and beach mines remains a challenge, since mine warfare is a deadly "poor man's weapon." While initial ... Magnetic Anomaly Detection (MAD) is used in antisubmarine warfare, for final localization before attack. The existence of the ... Navies use a variety of acoustic systems, especially passive, in antisubmarine warfare, both tactical and strategic. For ...
Wright, Susan (2002). Biological Warfare and Disarmament. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 272. ISBN 0-7425-2469-8. Varadarajan ... The al-Hakam germ warfare center, headed by the British-educated Iraqi biologist Dr. Rihab Rashid Taha, was blown up by UNSCOM ... Between 1991 and 1995, UN inspectors uncovered a massive program to develop biological and nuclear weapons. A large amount of ... In June 1999, Ritter said: When you ask the question, "Does Iraq possess militarily viable biological or chemical weapons?" the ...
Watstein, Sarah; Jovanovic, John (2003). "Bioterrorism and Biological Warfare". Statistical Handbook on Infectious Diseases. An ...
... biological warfare entities; formulation of [global] problems, threats and treaties entities; ethical committees for vaccine ... Bartfai is an expert on the detection, destruction and decontamination of chemical and biological weapons, and the immediate ...
Biological warfare against crops. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-333-92085-5. Hiro, Dilip (2001). Neighbors, not friends ... biological, chemical, nuclear weapons or military equipment). The Council also required the Secretary-General and IAEA Director ...
K. Bhushan, G. Katyal (2002). Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Warfare. APH Publishing. p. 204. ISBN 978-81-7648-312-4. Kalim ...
K. Bhushan; G. Katyal (1 January 2002). Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Warfare. APH Publishing. p. 191. ISBN 978-81-7648-312- ...
ISBN 978-0-683-04481-2. K. Bhushan; G. Katyal (2002). Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Warfare. APH Publishing. p. 125. ISBN ... A radiation burn is a damage to the skin or other biological tissue and organs as an effect of radiation. The radiation types ... Wagner, L. K.; Eifel, P. J.; Geise, R. A. (1994). "Potential biological effects following high X-ray dose interventional ...
Bowcott, Owen; Evans, Rob (16 May 2010). "British secret biological warfare testing". The Guardian. London. Spinage, Clive A. ( ... "Chemical and Biological Weapons: Possession and Programs Past and Present" (PDF). James Martin Center for Nonproliferation ... Rinderpest is of concern as a biological weapon for the following reasons: The disease has high rates of morbidity and ... Rinderpest was one of more than a dozen agents the United States researched as potential biological weapons before terminating ...
Sakhalin Biological engineering Development of biological warfare has been widely carried out by many countries. During the ... Nishamara was genetically converting the mosquitos into deadly agents of biological warfare, and Tanlin became a victim of his ... Frischknecht, Friedrich (2003). "The history of biological warfare". EMBO Reports. 4 (Suppl 1): S47-S52. doi:10.1038/sj.embor. ... Germany and Japan were engaged in developing biological warfare. The author, Premendra Mitra, was aware of the latest ...
ISBN 0-375-40642-5. Barras, V; Greub, G (2014). "History of biological warfare and bioterrorism". Clinical Microbiology and ... 2007). Medical Aspects of Biological Warfare. Government Printing Office. ISBN 978-0-16-087238-9. Dixon, David (2005). Never ... Warfare on the North American frontier was brutal, and the killing of prisoners, the targeting of civilians, and other ... ISBN 0-8018-7079-8. Fenn, Elizabeth A. (2000). "Warfare in Eighteenth-Century North America: Beyond Jeffery Amherst". The ...
disease [caused by tropical conditions and the use of biological warfare by the Portuguese, according to the Spanish commander ... They also used biological warfare. The Spaniards withdrew - after losing half of their men from hunger, disease and desertion ... PRIMERA GUERRA DEL III PACTO DE FAMILIA (1762-1763) Sandler, Stanley- Ground Warfare: An International Encyclopedia, Volume 1, ... The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: Renaissance to Revolution, 1492-1792, 1996. ISBN 9780521470339 Dumouriez, Charles- ...
Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Warfare. The DSCSC library comprises 3 sections; the Reference Library, Lending Library and ... Maritime Warfare. Strategic Studies and International Affairs. ICRC Workshop on International Humanitarian Law (IHL). Term 4 - ... Term 2 - Operations of War (17 Weeks) Air Warfare. Military Assistance to Civil Authorities. Operations of War. Strategic ...
ISBN 978-1-250-01649-2. Bhushan, K.; G. Katyal (2002). Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Warfare. India: APH Publishing. pp. 75 ... a section titled radiological warfare addressed the issue. The Operation Antler/Round 1 test by the British at the Tadje site ... thermonuclear weapon is thus automatically a weapon of radiological warfare, but its fallout decays much more rapidly than that ...
"After the War: Biological Warfare; Subject of Anthrax Inquiry Tied to Anti-Germ Training". New York Times. July 2, 2003. ... James Hamblin, 21 Days: An expert in biological warfare warns against complacency in public measures against Ebola, The ... Hamblin, James,21 Days: An expert in biological warfare warns against complacency in public measures against Ebola, The ... "Biological Warfare Experts Questioned in Anthrax Probe", Washington Post, June 28, 2002 (UCLA copy); Brian Ross, "Blueprint for ...
Of those going on active duty, most enter the Navy as Naval Aviators, Naval Flight Officers, Surface Warfare Officers, ... former Deputy Director Expeditionary Warfare; Commander, Joint Task Force, Guantanamo; Commanding Officer USS Carney (DDG-64) ...
It has the potential to be weaponised for use in biological warfare,[226][227] and was investigated by Biopreparat for such use ... May 2002). "Hemorrhagic fever viruses as biological weapons: medical and public health management". Journal of the American ...
... and may have engaged in endemic warfare.[38][57] Some argue that there was no formal leadership during the Middle and Upper ... "Cooking as a biological trait" (PDF). Comp Biochem Physiol a Mol Integr Physiol. 136 (1): 35-46. doi:10.1016/S1095-6433(03) ...
Ledgard, Jared (2006). A Laboratory History of Chemical Warfare Agents. Lulu.com. ISBN 978-0615136455. .. p. 82. ... "Chemical Entities of Biological Interest. UK: European Bioinformatics Institute. 27 October 2006. Main. Retrieved 6 June 2012. ...
Chemical Warfare Secrets Almost Forgotton. A Personal Story of Medical Testing of Army Volunteers with Incapacitating Chemical ... Integrated Platform of Small Molecules and Biological Activities". Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry 4: 217-241. doi: ...
... mirip dengan pakaian dipakai oleh askar-askar moden untuk perlindungan terhadap senjata biological, kimia dan nukelar. Oleh ... memakai pakaian who fireproof untuk melindungi diri mereka dari api-api gunpowder dan juga kimia-kimia dalam gunpowder warfare ...
Biological warfare. *Carcinogen. *Food safety. *Hazard symbol. *List of extremely hazardous substances ...
Sonar interferes with the basic biological functions of whales-such as feeding and mating-by impacting their ability to ... This functions as an upward biological pump, reversing an earlier presumption that whales accelerate the loss of nutrients to ... Biological warfare. *Fermentation *In food processing. *Food microbiology. *List of microbes. *Microbial art ...
Endicott, S. L.; Hageman, E. (1998). The United States and Biological Warfare: Secrets from the Early Cold War and Korea. ... Yellow fever has been researched by several countries as a potential biological weapon.[105] ...
It permanently bans the use of all forms of chemical and biological warfare.[11] The agreement was signed after World War I, ... People were afraid that chemical and biological warfare could have terrible effects in any future war. The protocol was ... Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Surgeon General at TMM Publications. pp. ... extended by the Biological Weapons Convention (1972) and the Chemical Weapons Convention (1993). ...
Turing, A. M. (1952). "The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological ... remarkable during a century of near-constant warfare between the two nations. The work was written up in three papers in ... In 1887, the Transactions split into series "A" and "B", dealing with the physical and biological sciences respectively. In ... Biological Sciences). Both journals now publish themed issues and issues resulting from papers presented at the Discussion ...
Sexing skeletons is based on the observation that biological males and biological females differ most in the skull and pelvis; ... Andrushko, Valerie A.; Schwitalla, Al W.; Walker, Phillip L. (2010). "Trophy-Taking and Dismemberment as Warfare Strategies in ... Cambridge Studies in Biological and Evolutionary Anthropology: Cambridge University Press, 2008. Mays, Simon. The Archaeology ... Cambridge Studies in Biological and Evolutionary Anthropology: Cambridge University Press, 2008. 273-303. Buikstra, Jane E. " ...
... a shift in military interest in cyber warfare has motivated the creation of the first U.S. Cyber Warfare Intelligence Center.[ ... "US Air Force Prepares For Cyber Warfare". Space Daily.. *^ "US needs 'digital warfare force'". BBC News. 5 May 2009. Retrieved ... Reportedly, this is in response to North Korea's creation of a cyber warfare unit.[53] In addition, the British GCHQ has begun ... Others have also discussed the creation of a cyber-warfare branch.[40][41] Lieutenant Colonel Gregory Conti[42] and Colonel ...
Recruits are sent to the "gas chamber" during Phase I, as part of training for defensive chemical warfare. They are also ... including protection against biological and chemical attack, basic marksmanship on the M16 rifle as well as first aid). ... Drills, First aid and chemical warfare, PT and obstacle course, First weapon qualification (FAMAS, pistol and grenade), Signals ... warfare command and strategy, and associated technologies. ...
"A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology. New York: D. Appleton and Company.. ... including the risk of prion contamination of biological materials) are likely to be used more and more often. However, they are ...
Series B, Biological Sciences. 286 (1015): 483-505. JSTOR 2418066.. *^ Stadnicka, Julita; Schirmer, Kristin; Ashauer, Roman ( ... Biological warfare. *Carcinogen. *Food safety. *Hazard symbol. *List of extremely hazardous substances ... Thus, the longer the biological half-life of a toxic substance, the greater the risk of chronic poisoning, even if ...
Educated in the fundamentals of maneuver warfare, tactics, combined arms, and the time-tested principles of battle ... Marine Corps Chemical Biological Incident Response Force, Marine Corps Security Force Regiment, or the Marine Corps Embassy ...
Croddy, Eric (2002). Chemical and biological warfare: a comprehensive survey for the concerned citizen. Springer. p. 128. ISBN ... Sayers, W. (2006). "The Use of Quicklime in Medieval Naval Warfare". The Mariner's Mirror. Volume 92. Issue 3. pp. 262-269. ... Adrienne Mayor (2005), "Ancient Warfare and Toxicology", in Philip Wexler (ed.), Encyclopedia of Toxicology, 4 (2nd ed.), ... Quicklime may have been used in medieval naval warfare - up to the use of "lime-mortars" to throw it at the enemy ships.[24] ...
"Biological Warfare at the 1346 Siege of Caffa". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 8 (9): 971-975. doi:10.3201/eid0809.010536. ISSN ... they decided to use the infected corpses as a biological weapon. The corpses were catapulted over the city walls, infecting the ... "Numbers in Mongol Warfare". In Rogers, Clifford J.; DeVries, Kelly; France, John (eds.). Journal of Medieval Military History ...
Later, it was included in A. dorsata as a subspecies[1] based on the biological species concept, though authors applying a ... "Calcium-independent phospholipases A2 and their roles in biological processes and diseases". Journal of Lipid Research. 56 (9 ...
... biological and chemical warfare laboratories cooperated closely with Allied counterparts.[10] In 1944, Chalmers Mackenzie and ...
Four aircraft converted as Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare reconnaissance versions of the An-24B, carrying RR8311-100 ...
Biological dose units and quantities. *Wireless electronic devices and health. *Radiation Heat-transfer ...
British Association for Biological Anthropology and Osteoarchaeology. *Museum of Osteology. *v. *t ...
that in the second year after its launch, biological preprints hosted on bioRxiv repository were tweeted about on over 20,000 ...
Biological transmission requires a period of incubation of the trypanosomes within the tsetse host. The term 'biological' is ... Anti-Submarine Warfare: An Illustrated History, 2007, by David Owen. Page 170. Seaforth Publishing. ... Tsetse are biological vectors of trypanosomes, meaning that in the process of feeding, they acquire and then transmit small, ... The cycle of biological transmission of trypanosomiasis involves two phases, one inside the tsetse host and the other inside ...
The American Institute of Biological Sciences published a similar paper in support of this concept in 2009.[10] In addition, ... Nuclear warfare. *Electromagnetic pulse (EMP). *Safety of high-energy particle collision experiments *Micro black hole ...
"Biological Psychiatry. 66 (12): 1075-82. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.06.026. PMC 2787650. PMID 19748076.. ... warfare, traffic collisions, child abuse, or other threats on a person's life.[1][6] Symptoms may include disturbing thoughts, ... "Biological Psychiatry. 66 (12): 1072-4. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.09.023. PMC 2825567. PMID 19944792.. ... "Biological Psychiatry. 76 (4): 306-14. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.10.007. PMC 3984614. PMID 24231200.. ...
Rada B, Leto TL (2009). "Redox warfare between airway epithelial cells and Pseudomonas: Dual oxidase versus pyocyanin". Immunol ... Reiter B, Härnulv G (1984). "Lactoperoxidase antibacterial system natural occurrence, biological functions and practical ... Rada B, Leto TL (2009). "Redox warfare between airway epithelial cells and Pseudomonas: Dual oxidase versus pyocyanin". Immunol ...
In Africa, there are many socio-cultural and biological factors that have led to heightened psychological struggles, while also ... due to its dramatic mental health crisis after warfare, but not much was benefited. Aside from financial reasons, it is so ...