*  Antigen-antibody interaction
... of the concentration of bound ligand to total antibody concentration and n is the maximum number of binding sites per antibody ... The strength of an individual interaction between a single binding site on an antibody and its target epitope is termed the ... Since the antibody necessarily has two paratopes, and in many circumstances complex binding occurs, the multiple binding ... In the blood, the antigens are specifically and with high affinity bound by antibodies to form an antigen-antibody complex. The ...
*  CD2
Peterson A, Seed B (1987). "Monoclonal antibody and ligand binding sites of the T cell erythrocyte receptor (CD2)". Nature. 329 ... Hahn WC, Menu E, Bothwell AL, Sims PJ, Bierer BE (1992). "Overlapping but nonidentical binding sites on CD2 for CD58 and a ... Bell GM, Fargnoli J, Bolen JB, Kish L, Imboden JB (January 1996). "The SH3 domain of p56lck binds to proline-rich sequences in ... ISBN 1-84110-100-1. Nishizawa K, Freund C, Li J, Wagner G, Reinherz EL (December 1998). "Identification of a proline-binding ...
*  ELISA
The steps are: A surface is prepared to which a known quantity of capture antibody is bound. Any nonspecific binding sites on ... Enzyme-linked secondary antibodies are applied as detection antibodies that also bind specifically to the antibody's Fc region ... By using an enzyme-linked antibody that binds the Fc region of other antibodies, this same enzyme-linked antibody can be used ... A specially prepared "secondary antibody" - an antibody that binds to other antibodies - is then applied to the plate, followed ...
*  Envelope glycoprotein GP120
Many neutralizing antibodies bind to sites located in variable regions of gp120, so mutations in these regions will be selected ... The presence of large carbohydrate chains extending from gp120 might obscure possible antibody binding sites. The boundaries of ... "Fine mapping of the interaction of neutralizing and nonneutralizing monoclonal antibodies with the CD4 binding site of human ... "Global Shape and Ligand Binding Efficiency of the HIV-1-neutralizing Antibodies Differ from Those of Antibodies That Cannot ...
*  Immunosignature
... or antibody binding sites, of pathogens. When a sample of diluted blood serum (containing antibodies) is applied to the surface ... This collection of antibodies will bind to regions of some of the random sequence peptides. The antibodies in the serum sample ... This secondary antibody binds to the patient antibody already on the array from the diluted serum sample, and since this ... and an unknown number of antibodies bound to some of those peptides. To detect those human antibodies, the array is covered ...
*  Meir Wilchek
Using this method, Wilchek collaborated with a team who proved that the binding site of antibodies lies in the Fv portion of ... "A homologous series of affinity labeling reagents and their use in the study of antibody binding sites". Biochemistry. 10 (13 ... "The covalent binding of daunomycin and adriamycin to antibodies, with retention of both drug and antibody activities". Cancer ... These molecules covalently modify active site residues in order to elucidate the structure of the active site. ...
*  Agglutinin
... s can be antibodies that cause antigens to aggregate by binding to the antigen-binding sites of antibodies. ... Agglutinins can also be any substance other than antibodies such as sugar-binding protein lectins. Agglutinins work by clumping ... When an agglutinin is added to a uniform suspension of particles such as bacteria or blood, agglutinin binds to the agglutinin- ... When erythrocytes are exposed to hemagglutinins (anti-A and Anti-B antibodies), those expressing antigen A or B coagulate upon ...
*  CD117
"Soluble c-kit proteins and antireceptor monoclonal antibodies confine the binding site of the stem cell factor". J. Biol. Chem ... CD117 antibodies can also be used in the diagnosis of mast cell tumours and in distinguishing seminomas from embryonal ... CD117 is a receptor tyrosine kinase type III, which binds to stem cell factor (a substance that causes certain types of cells ... Antibodies to CD117 are widely used in immunohistochemistry to help distinguish particular types of tumour in histological ...
*  Stem cell factor
"Soluble c-kit proteins and antireceptor monoclonal antibodies confine the binding site of the stem cell factor". J. Biol. Chem ... "Soluble c-kit proteins and antireceptor monoclonal antibodies confine the binding site of the stem cell factor". J. Biol. Chem ... In adult mice, the injection of the ACK2 anti-KIT antibody, which binds to the c-Kit receptor and inactivates it, leads to ... The soluble form of SCF contains a proteolytic cleavage site in exon 6. Cleavage at this site allows the extracellular portion ...
*  Pepsin
This generates two separate monovalent (containing a single antibody binding site) Fab fragments and an intact Fc fragment. The ... containing two antibody binding sites), hence the designation F(ab')2. The light chains remain intact and attached to the heavy ... Use of F(ab')2 or Fab fragments ensures that the antibodies are binding to the antigen and not Fc receptors. These fragments ... In some assays, it is preferable to use only the antigen-binding (Fab) portion of the antibody. For these applications, ...
*  Precipitin
... only antigens that have multiple antibody-binding sites epitopes. This allows for the formation of large antigen:antibody ... As the amount of antigen added: In the zone of antibody excess, each molecule of antigen is bound extensively by antibody and ... A precipitin is an antibody which can precipitate out of a solution upon antigen binding. The precipitin reaction provided the ... The average size of antibody-antigen complex is small; cross-linking between antigen molecules by antibody is rare. In the zone ...
*  Integrin
Nevertheless, these so-called LIBS (Ligand-Induced-Binding-Sites) antibodies unequivocally show that dramatic changes in ... The structure poses many questions, especially regarding ligand binding and signal transduction. The ligand binding site is ... Those integrins that don't carry this inserted domain also have an A-domain in their ligand binding site, but this A-domain is ... It showed the molecule to be folded into an inverted V-shape that potentially brings the ligand-binding sites close to the cell ...
*  Radioimmunoassay
... for antibody binding sites. As the concentration of "cold" antigen is increased, more of it binds to the antibody, displacing ... and reducing the ratio of antibody-bound radiolabeled antigen to free radiolabeled antigen. The bound antigens are then ... unlabeled antibody being allowed to interact and bind to the target molecule in solution. Preferably, this unlabeled antibody ... After extensive washing, the direct amount of radioactive antibody bound is measured and the amount of target molecule ...
*  Leonard Lerman
Lerman discovered that antibodies have two binding sites. Later, perhaps his most important discovery was that certain ... molecules bind to DNA by intercalation. This discovery has shaped much of science's understanding about how drugs and mutagens ...
*  Fragment crystallizable region
Fc fragments with engineered HER2/neu-binding sites and antibody properties". Protein Eng Des. 23 (4): 289-297. doi:10.1093/ ... with both Fab and Fcab regions containing distinct binding sites). These bispecific monoclonal antibodies are sometimes ... the Fc region of immunoglobulins has been engineered to contain an antigen-binding site. This type of antigen-binding fragment ... This property allows antibodies to activate the immune system. In IgG, IgA and IgD antibody isotypes, the Fc region is composed ...
*  Fcab
In naturally occurring antibodies (such as IgGs), the antigen-binding sites are located at the variable regions (Fab). Fcabs ... Fc fragments with engineered HER2/neu-binding sites and antibody properties.". Protein Eng Des. 23 (4): 289-297. PMID 20150180 ... hence the name of bispecific antibodies. This antibody fragment is part of the modular antibody technology of F-star ... Fcabs are antibodies fragments engineered from the constant region of an antibody (Fc). ...
*  Epitope mapping
... of antibodies on their target antigens. Identification and characterization of the binding sites of antibodies can aid in the ... and tested for antibody binding. Target protein amino acids that are required for antibody binding can be identified by a loss ... Knowledge of the specific binding sites of antibodies strengthens patents and regulatory submissions by distinguishing between ... Characterization of epitopes can also help elucidate the mechanism of binding for an antibody and facilitate the prediction of ...
*  F-star
Fc fragments with engineered HER2/neu-binding sites and antibody properties". Protein Eng Des. 23 (4): 289-297. doi:10.1093/ ... "Introducing antigen-binding sites in structural loops of immunoglobulin constant domains: ... is a biotechnology company, founded in Vienna in 2006, with a current main research site in Cambridge, UK. The company is ... a modular combinatorial approach that engineers the Fc constant region of an immunoglobulin into a novel antigen-binding site ...
*  Single-chain variable fragment
... the common binding sites (e.g., protein G) cannot be used to purify antibodies. These fragments can often be purified or ... "Protein engineering of antibody binding sites: recovery of specific activity in an anti-digoxin single-chain Fv analogue ... Peterson, Eric; Owens, SM; Henry, RL (2006). "Monoclonal Antibody Form and Function: Manufacturing the Right Antibodies for ... "Expression and purification of monospecific and bispecific recombinant antibody fragments derived from antibodies that block ...
*  Bispecific monoclonal antibody
The most common types are called trifunctional antibodies, as they have three unique binding sites on the antibody: the two Fab ... Fc fragments with engineered HER2/neu-binding sites and antibody properties". Protein Engineering Design and Selection. 23 (4 ... A bispecific monoclonal antibody (BsMAb, BsAb) is an artificial protein that can simultaneously bind to two different types of ... Bispecific antibodies also have a higher cytotoxic potential, and bind to antigens that are expressed relatively weakly. The ...
*  Lateral flow test
The test line contains antibodies to the target/its analogue. Unlabeled analyte in the sample will block the binding sites on ... If the target analyte is detected within the sample the conjugate antibodies will bind and subsequently reach the test line ... A widely spread and well known application is the home pregnancy test. The technology is based on a series of capillary beds, ... In this way, the analyte binds to the particles while migrating further through the third capillary bed. This material has one ...
*  Immunoprecipitation
... non-specific binding is not limited to the antibody-binding sites on the immobilized support; any surface of the antibody or ... must remain bound to each other (in the case of co-IP) and bound to the antibody during the wash steps to remove non-bound ... irrelevant antibody of the same antibody subclass as the IP antibody is used instead of the IP antibody itself. This approach ... The beads with bound antibodies are then added to the protein mixture, and the proteins that are targeted by the antibodies are ...
*  Protein M
... has a C-terminal domain with 115 amino acid residues that probably protrudes over the antibody binding site. It binds ... It is presumably a universal antibody-binding protein, as it is known to be reactive against all antibody types tested so far. ... It is capable of preventing the antigen-antibody interaction due to its high binding affinity to any antibody. The Scripps ... "A Unique Mycoplasma Protein Generically Binds All Types of Antibodies and Blocks Antigen Binding". biotechdaily. Globetech ...
*  Antigenic drift
... for variation in viruses that involves the accumulation of mutations within the genes that code for antibody-binding sites. ... If one of these new forms of an antigen is sufficiently different from the old antigen, it will no longer bind to the receptors ... Sites recognized on the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins by host immune systems are under constant selective pressure. ... This results in a new strain of virus particles which cannot be inhibited as effectively by the antibodies that were originally ...
*  Protein L
Also, Protein L does not interfere with the antigen-binding site of the antibody, making it useful for immunoprecipitation ... Each of these immunoglobulin-binding proteins has a different antibody binding profile in terms of the portion of the antibody ... Unlike Protein A and Protein G, which bind to the Fc region of immunoglobulins (antibodies), Protein L binds antibodies through ... Protein L binds a wider range of antibody classes than Protein A or G. Protein L binds to representatives of all antibody ...
*  Phage display
This initial study described the rapid isolation of human antibody Fab that bound tetanus toxin and the method was then ... targeting the integrin ligand binding site". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90 (21): 10003-7. Bibcode:1993PNAS...9010003B. doi: ... Antibody phage display was later used by Carlos F. Barbas at The Scripps Research Institute to create synthetic human antibody ... HUMIRA, an antibody to TNF alpha, was the world's first fully human antibody, which achieved annual sales exceeding $1bn. Below ...