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*  Beta-lactam
A beta-lactam (β-lactam) ring is a four-membered lactam. (A lactam is a cyclic amide.) It is named as such because the nitrogen ... The Breckpot synthesis The synthesis of substituted β-lactams from the cyclization of beta amino acid esters using the Grignard ... The simplest β-lactam possible is 2-azetidinone. The β-lactam ring is part of the core structure of several antibiotic families ... being the most reactive of the β-lactams toward hydrolysis. A new study has suggested that β-lactams can undergo ring-opening ...
*  Beta-lactam Ring Records
... Interview; King of Clank; November 9, 2005; accessed online Textura Review: Three Beta-lactam Ring ... Beta-lactam Ring Records is an American independent record label founded by Chris McBeth in 2000. The label relocated from its ... Heathen Harvest Interview: Beta-lactam Ring Records Interview; King of Clank; November 9, 2005; accessed online Heathen Harvest ...
*  carboxyethyl)arginine beta-lactam-synthase
In enzymology, a (carboxyethyl)arginine beta-lactam-synthase (EC 6.3.3.4) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP ... Miller, M. T.; Bachmann, B. O.; Townsend, C. A.; Rosenzweig, A. C. (2002). "The catalytic cycle of beta -lactam synthetase ... Bachmann BO, Li R, Townsend CA (1998). "β-Lactam synthetase: A new biosynthetic enzyme". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 95 (16): 9082-6 ...
*  Lectka enantioselective beta-lactam synthesis
Unlike the Staudinger β-lactam synthesis, the umpolung ketene in the Lectka β-lactam synthesis behaves as the nucleophile ... asymmetric synthesis of beta-lactams". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124 (23): 6626-6635. doi:10.1021/ja0258226. PMID 12047183. France, S ... Mechanistic evidence for imine activation working in tandem with chiral enolate formation in the synthesis of beta-lactams". J ... Achiral ketenes and imines, in the presence of a chiral nucleophilic catalyst, are allowed to react to make β-lactams in high ...
*  Sultamicillin
Singh, G.S. (2004). "Beta-lactams in the new millennium. Part-II: Cephems, oxacephems, penams and sulbactam". Mini Reviews in ... Ampicillin, a semi-synthetic orally active broad spectrum antibiotic, is linked via a methylene group with a beta-lactamase ... The inclusion of sulbactam extends ampicillin's spectrum of action to beta-lactamase producing strains of bacteria. Oral ... Gynecological infections - Caused by beta-lactamase producing strains of E. coli and Bacteroides sp. (including B. fragilis). ...
*  Streptomyces cattleya
1979). "Thienamycin, a new beta-lactam antibiotic. I. Discovery, taxonomy, isolation and physical properties". J. Antibiot. 32 ... a new beta-lactam antibiotic. I. Discovery, taxonomy, isolation and physical properties". The Journal of Antibiotics. 32 (1): 1 ... "Definition of the common and divergent steps in carbapenem β-lactam antibiotic biosynthesis". Chembiochem : a European journal ...
*  Sulbactam
Singh GS (January 2004). "Beta-lactams in the new millennium. Part-II: cephems, oxacephems, penams and sulbactam". Mini Rev Med ... This drug is given in combination with β-lactam antibiotics to inhibit β-lactamase, an enzyme produced by bacteria that ... August 2007). "Sulbactam forms only minimal amounts of irreversible acrylate-enzyme with SHV-1 beta-lactamase". Biochemistry. ...
*  Streptomyces clavuligerus
Reading C, Cole M (1977). "Clavulanic Acid: a Beta-Lactamase-Inhibiting Beta-Lactam from Streptomyces clavuligerus". Antimicrob ... Non-β-lactam antibiotics include holomycin and an antibiotic complex, MM 19290, related to tunicamycin; a beta-lactamase- ... nov., a beta-lactam antibiotic producer". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 21 (4): 326-31. doi:10.1099/ ... S. clavuligerus produces over 20 secondary metabolites, including many beta-lactam antibiotics such as clavulanic acid, ...
*  Ketene
... or carbonyl groups to form beta-lactones. With imines beta-lactams are formed. This is the Staudinger synthesis, a facile route ...
*  QIAGEN Silicon Valley
"New Products: Randox Laboratories' Beta-Lactams Array; Ingenuity Systems' iReport". BioArray News. GenomeWeb. January 24, 2012 ... "Ingenuity Preps New NGS Variant Analysis Tool, Signs Translational Oncology Group as Beta Tester". BioInform. GenomeWeb. ...
*  Cephalosporin
Beta-lactam antibiotics mimic the D-Ala-D-Ala site, thereby irreversibly inhibiting PBP crosslinking of peptidoglycan. ... Overall, the research shows that all beta lactams have the intrinsic hazard of very serious hazardous reactions in susceptible ... "5.1.2 Cephalosporins and other beta-lactams". British National Formulary (56 ed.). London: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd and Royal ... Cephalosporins are bactericidal and have the same mode of action as other β-lactam antibiotics (such as penicillins), but are ...
*  MecA (gene)
The latter of these factors is an enzymatic reaction that can be targeted to improve the ability of beta-lactams to prevent ... for example, Epicatechin gallate, a compound found in green tea, has shown signs of lowering the resistance to beta-lactams, to ... Severin A, Wu SW, Tabei K, Tomasz A (October 2005). "High-level (beta)-lactam resistance and cell wall synthesis catalyzed by ... The gene encodes the protein PBP2A (penicillin binding protein 2A). PBP2A has a low affinity for beta-lactam antibiotics such ...
*  Metabolism
Thykaer J, Nielsen J (2003). "Metabolic engineering of beta-lactam production". Metab Eng. 5 (1): 56-69. doi:10.1016/S1096-7176 ... The glycerol enters glycolysis and the fatty acids are broken down by beta oxidation to release acetyl-CoA, which then is fed ... Steroids are also broken down by some bacteria in a process similar to beta oxidation, and this breakdown process involves the ...
*  Streptomyces violaceus
Antibiotics Containing the Beta-Lactam Structure. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. ISBN 3-642-81966-4. CS1 maint ...
*  Streptomyces olivaceus
Solomon, edited by Arnold L. Demain, Nadine A. (1983). Antibiotics Containing the Beta-Lactam Structure. Berlin, Heidelberg: ... a new fused β-lactam antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces olivaceus; a mild β-lactam degradation reaction". J. Chem. Soc., ...
*  Penicillin
Molecular Biotechnolgy of Fungal beta-Lactam Antibiotics and Related Peptide Synthetases. pp. 45-90. doi:10.1007/b99257. ISBN 3 ... The β-lactam ring is itself fused to a five-membered thiazolidine ring. The fusion of these two rings causes the β-lactam ring ... "Cross-reactivity of beta-lactam antibiotics". Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings. Dallas, Texas: Baylor University ... β-Lactam antibiotics inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan cross-links in the bacterial cell wall; this is achieved through ...
*  Peptostreptococcus
... species are susceptible to beta-lactam antibiotics. They are isolated with high frequency from all specimen ...
*  PASTA domain
The PASTA domain is a small protein domain that can bind to beta-lactam rings found in antibiotics. The domain was initially ... Yeats C, Finn RD, Bateman A (September 2002). "The PASTA domain: a beta-lactam-binding domain". Trends Biochem. Sci. 27 (9): ... The PASTA domain adopts a structure composed of an alpha-helix followed by three beta strands. Recent structural studies show ...
*  Cephamycin
... s are a group of beta-lactam antibiotics. They are very similar to cephalosporins, and the cephamycins are sometimes ... an in-vitro comparison with other beta-lactam antibiotics". J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 11. Suppl: 67-72. doi:10.1093/jac/11. ... In addition, cephamycins have been shown to be stable against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing organisms, ...
*  Thienamycin
Núñez LE, Méndez C, Braña AF, Blanco G, Salas JA (2003). "The biosynthetic gene cluster for the beta-lactam carbapenem ... A β-lactam synthetase (ThnM) is thought to catalyze the formation of the β-lactam ring fused to the five-membered ring. How the ... The β-lactam is then formed by a β-lactam synthetase, which makes use of ATP, providing a carbapenam. At some later point, ... 1979). "Thienamycin, a new beta-lactam antibiotic. I. Discovery, taxonomy, isolation and physical properties". J. Antibiot. 32 ...
*  Carbapenem
Beta lactam resistance in these pathogens is most commonly due to the expression of beta lactamase enzymes. Between 2007 and ... Pseudomonas produces an inducible broad spectrum beta lactamase, AmpC, that is produced in response to beta lactam exposure. ... Like other beta lactam antibiotics, they lack activity against atypical bacteria, which do not have a cell wall and are thus ... ISBN 978-0-471-89980-8. Birnbaum J, Kahan FM, Kropp H, MacDonald JS (June 1985). "Carbapenems, a new class of beta-lactam ...
*  Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae
Independent risk factors for CRE infection include use of beta-lactam antibiotics and the use of mechanical ventilation. ... Martin, SI; Kaye, KM (2004). "Beta-lactam antibiotics: newer formulations and newer agents". Infectious Disease Clinics of ... These enzymes cleave the β-lactam ring, an essential component of β-lactam antibiotics that are recognized by and bound to PBPs ... A serine at position 70 at the active site of this class of enzymes is required for hydrolysis of β-lactams to occur. Class D ...
*  Cefalexin
... is a beta-lactam antibiotic of the cephalosporin family. It is bactericidal and acts by inhibiting synthesis of the ... Cefalexin is a beta-lactam antibiotic within the class of first-generation cephalosporins. It works similarly to other agents ... However, some bacterial cells have the enzyme β-lactamase, which hydrolyzes the beta-lactam ring, rendering the drug inactive. ... Fisher JF, Meroueh SO, Mobashery S (Feb 2005). "Bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics: compelling opportunism, ...
*  Ceftiofur
"BetaStar Plus / For beta-lactam antibiotics / Product information sheet" (PDF). Neogen. Retrieved 9 September 2014. Official ... It is resistant to the antibiotic resistance enzyme beta-lactamase, and has activity against both Gram-positive and Gram- ...
*  Antibiosis
KF, Kong (January 2010). "Beta-lactam antibiotics: from antibiosis to resistance and bacteriology". PubMed.gov. 118 (1): 1-36. ... have become better understood through the study of how antibiotics affect beta-lactam development through the antibiosis ...
*  New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1
... (NDM-1) is an enzyme that makes bacteria resistant to a broad range of beta-lactam ... Carbapenems are a class of beta-lactam antibiotics that are capable of killing most bacteria by inhibiting the synthesis of one ... The NDM-1 enzyme is one of the class B metallo-beta-lactamase; other types of carbapenemase are class A or class D beta- ... All the isolates were resistant to multiple different classes of antibiotics, including beta-lactam antibiotics, ...