Benzene and heterocycle linked through a non-carbon[edit]. *Olanzapine. References[edit]. *^ Benzhydryl+Compounds at the US ... Benzenes linked by a non-carbon atom[edit]. *Nitrogen: promethazine, imipramine, acepromazine, chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, ... This does not include compounds where these benzenes are fused to other rings.[1] Benzhydryl can be abbreviated to CHPh2 or Bzh ... Benzhydryl compounds are compounds that are "diphenylmethane"-containing, i.e. containing two benzene rings adjoining a single ...
Benzene[edit]. Main article: Benzene. One VOC that is a known human carcinogen is benzene, which is a chemical found in ... Benzene evaporates into the air quickly and the vapor of benzene is heavier than air allowing the compound to sink into low- ... Benzene also has natural sources such as volcanoes and forest fires. It is frequently used to make other chemicals in the ... Benzene has also been known to contaminate food and water and if digested can lead to vomiting, dizziness, sleepiness, rapid ...
Mesoporous aerogel - selective oxidation of benzene[edit]. Silver nanoparticles supported on aerogel are advantageous due to ... "Silver Nanoparticles in Mesoporous Aerogel Exhibiting Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Benzene in CO2 Free Air". Catalysis ... the higher number of active sites.[64] The highest selectivity for oxidation of benzene to phenol was observed at low weight ... benzene, carbon monoxide, and likely other compounds. ... 3.1.2 Mesoporous aerogel - selective oxidation of benzene. *3.1 ...
... (brand name Parkinsan) is an antiparkinson agent marketed for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.[2][3][1] While its exact mechanism of action is not well characterized,[2] it is believed to be an NMDA receptor antagonist,[4][5] but also promoting the synthesis of dopamine.[6] Because it provides additional benefits relative to existing treatments, it probably does not precisely mimic the mechanism of an existing known treatment.[6][7] ...
Benzene. Dichloromethane. Chloroform. Ether (anhydrous). Ethyl Acetate (anhydrous). Acetone (anhydrous). methanol. ethanol. ...
... (CHF-3381, V-3381) is a drug which was formerly being investigated as an anticonvulsant and neuroprotective and is now under development for the treatment of neuropathic pain and chronic cough in Europe by Vernalis and Chiesi.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8] It acts as a competitive, reversible, and non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor,[5][6][9] and as a low affinity, non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist.[1][2][10] A pilot study of indantadol for chronic cough was initiated in October 2009 and in April 2010 it failed to achieve significant efficacy in neuropathic pain in phase IIb clinical trials.[7][8][11][12] ...
In 2001, the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung, BfR) objected to the addition of isolated theanine to beverages.[39][40] The institute stated the amount of theanine consumed by regular drinkers of tea or coffee is virtually impossible to determine. While it was estimated the quantity of green tea consumed by the average Japanese tea drinker per day contains about 20 mg of the substance, there are no studies measuring the amount of theanine being extracted by typical preparation methods, or the percentage lost by discarding the first infusion. Therefore, with the Japanese being exposed to possibly much less than 20 mg per day, and Europeans presumably even less, it was the opinion of the BfR that pharmacological reactions to drinks typically containing 50 mg of theanine per 500 milliliters could not be excluded-reactions such as impairment of psychomotor skills and amplification of the sedating effects of alcohol and hypnotics.[41] In 2006, a study ...
... is generally considered a non-polar solvent. Owing to the good polarizability of the chlorine atoms, it is a superior solvent for organic compounds that do not dissolve well in hydrocarbons such as hexane. It is an excellent solvent for many organic materials and also one of the least toxic of the chlorinated hydrocarbons. Prior to the Montreal Protocol, it was widely used for cleaning metal parts and circuit boards, as a photoresist solvent in the electronics industry, as an aerosol propellant, as a cutting fluid additive, and as a solvent for inks, paints, adhesives, and other coatings. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane is also used as an insecticidal fumigant. It was also the standard cleaner for photographic film (movie/slide/negatives, etc.). Other commonly available solvents damage emulsion, and thus are not suitable for this application. The standard replacement, Forane 141 is much less effective, and tends to leave a residue. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane was used as a thinner in ...
Transcrocetinate sodium can be prepared by reacting saffron with sodium hydroxide and extracting the salt of the trans crocetin isomer from the solution.[10] John L. Gainer and colleagues have investigated the effects of transcrocetinate sodium in animal models.[10][11] They discovered that the drug could reverse the potentially fatal decrease in blood pressure produced by the loss of large volumes of blood in severe hemorrhage, and thereby improve survival.[11] Early investigations of transcrocetinate sodium suggested that it had potential applications in battlefield medicine, specifically in treatment of the many combat casualties with hemorrhagic shock.[8][11] Additional studies, carried out in animal models and in clinical trials in humans, indicated that transcrocetinate sodium might prove beneficial in the treatment of a variety of conditions associated with hypoxia and ischemia (a lack of oxygen reaching the tissues, usually due to a disruption in the circulatory system), including ...
... producing algal blooms are associated with the phenomenon of amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP). Domoic acid can bioaccumulate in marine organisms such as shellfish, anchovies, and sardines that feed on the phytoplankton known to produce this toxin. It can accumulate in high concentrations in the tissues of these plankton feeders when the toxic phytoplankton are high in concentration in the surrounding waters. Domoic acid is a neurotoxin that inhibits neurochemical processes, causing short-term memory loss, brain damage, and, in severe cases, death in humans. In marine mammals, domoic acid typically causes seizures and tremors. Studies have shown that there are no symptomatic effects in humans at levels of 0.5 mg/kg of body weight. In the 1987 domoic acid poisoning on Prince Edward Island concentrations ranging from 0.31-1.28 mg/kg of muscle tissue were noted in people that became ill (three of whom died). Dangerous levels of domoic acid have been calculated based on cases such as the ...
Talyzin, A.V. (1997). "Phase Transition C60−C60*4C6H6 in Liquid Benzene". Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 101 (47): 9679-9681 ... Talyzin, A.V.; Engström, I. (1998). "C70 in Benzene, Hexane, and Toluene Solutions". Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 102 (34 ... Like other solvates, this one readily releases benzene to give the usual fcc C60. Millimeter-sized crystals of C60 and C. 70 ... 60 crystallises with some solvents in the lattice ("solvates"). For example, crystallization of C60 in benzene solution yields ...
Each AMPAR has four sites to which an agonist (such as glutamate) can bind, one for each subunit.[5] The binding site is believed to be formed by the N-terminal tail and the extracellular loop between transmembrane domains three and four.[16] When an agonist binds, these two loops move towards each other, opening the pore. The channel opens when two sites are occupied,[17] and increases its current as more binding sites are occupied.[18] Once open, the channel may undergo rapid desensitization, stopping the current. The mechanism of desensitization is believed to be due to a small change in angle of one of the parts of the binding site, closing the pore.[19] AMPARs open and close quickly (1ms), and are thus responsible for most of the fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system.[17] The AMPAR's permeability to calcium and other cations, such as sodium and potassium, is governed by the GluA2 subunit. If an AMPAR lacks a GluA2 subunit, then it will be permeable to sodium, ...
Benzene is a raw material for dyes and synthetic detergents, and benzene and toluene for isocyanates MDI and TDI used in making ... benzene - the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon *ethylbenzene - made from benzene and ethylene *styrene made by dehydrogenation of ... Benzene. Butadiene. Ethylene. p-Xylene. Propylene Intermediates. 2-Ethylhexanol (2-EH). Acetic acid. Acrylonitrile (AN). ... Linear alkyl benzene (LAB). Methanol. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) Phenol. Propylene oxide. Purified terephthalic acid (PTA) ...
William T. G. Morton participated in a public demonstration of ether anesthesia on October 16, 1846 at the Ether Dome in Boston, Massachusetts. However, Crawford Williamson Long, M.D., is now known to have demonstrated its use privately as a general anesthetic in surgery to officials in Georgia, as early as March 30, 1842, and Long publicly demonstrated ether's use as a surgical anesthetic on six occasions before the Boston demonstration.[14][15][16] British doctors were aware of the anesthetic properties of ether as early as 1840 where it was widely prescribed in conjunction with opium.[17] Diethyl ether largely supplanted the use of chloroform as a general anesthetic due to ether's more favorable therapeutic index, that is, a greater difference between an effective dose and a potentially toxic dose.[18] Diethyl ether depresses the myocardium and increases tracheobronchial secretions.[19] Diethyl ether could also be mixed with other anesthetic agents such as chloroform to make C.E. mixture, or ...
Benzene. *Benzonitrile. *Buckminsterfullerene (C60, C60+, fullerene, buckyball). *C70 fullerene ...
... s are a small family of helical peptides that are derived from the venom of predatory marine snails of the genus Conus. Conantokins act as potent and specific antagonists of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR).[1] They are the only naturally-derived peptides to do so.[2] The subtypes of conantokins exhibit a surprising variability of selectivity across the NMDAR subunits, and are therefore uniquely useful in developing subunit-specific pharmacological probes.[3][4][5] Chemically, conantokins are unique in that they possess a number (generally 4 or 5) of gamma-carboxyglutamyl (Gla) residues, generated by the post-translational modification of glutamyl (Glu) residues. These Gla residues induce a conformational change from a 3 10 helix to an alpha helix on binding to Calcium.[6] In the broader scheme of genetic conotoxin classification, Conanotokins are also known as "Conotoxin Superfamily B."[7] The word "conantokin" is derived from the Filipino word antokin, meaning sleepy.[8] ...
Benzene 10μg/l 1.0 μg/l 5 μg/l " " Benzo(a)pyrene " 0.010 μg/l 0.2 μg/l 0.0028 μg/l " ...
In coordination chemistry, it serves as a tridentate ligand forming complexes such as Co(dien)(NO2)3.[5] Like some related amines, it is used in oil industry for the extraction of acid gas. Like ethylenediamine, DETA can also be used to sensitize nitromethane, making a liquid explosive compound similar to PLX. This compound is cap sensitive with an explosive velocity of around 6200 m/s and is discussed in patent #3,713,915. Mixed with unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine it was used as Hydyne, a propellent for liquid-fuel rockets. DETA has been evaluated for use in the Countermine System under development by the U.S. Office of Naval Research, where it would be used to ignite and consume the explosive fill of land mines in beach and surf zones.[6] ...
... (ACC) is a disubstituted cyclic α-amino acid in which a three-membered cyclopropane ring is fused to the Cα atom of the amino acid. ACC plays an important role in the biosynthesis of the plant hormone ethylene.[2][3] It is synthesized by the enzyme ACC synthase ( EC 4.4.1.14) from methionine and converted to ethylene by ACC oxidase (EC 1.14.17.4).[4] ACC is also an exogenous partial agonist of the mammalian NMDA receptor.[5] ...
... is extracted from Huperzia serrata.[2] It is a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor[6][7][8][9] and NMDA receptor antagonist[10] that crosses the blood-brain barrier.[11] Acetylcholinesterase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and of some other choline esters that function as neurotransmitters. The structure of the complex of huperzine A with acetylcholinesterase has been determined by X-ray crystallography (PDB code: 1VOT; see the 3D structure).[12] For some years, huperzine A has been investigated as a possible treatment for diseases characterized by neurodegeneration, particularly Alzheimer's disease.[2][13] A 2013 meta-analysis found that huperzine A may be efficacious in improving cognitive function, global clinical status, and activities of daily living for individuals with Alzheimer's disease. However, due to the poor size and quality of the clinical trials reviewed, huperzine A should not be recommended as a treatment for ...
Benzene 1.1[1] Toxic, flammable. Liquid oxygen 2.4 Cryogenic. Highly flammable with combustible materials. ...
Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate nervous system.[21] At chemical synapses, glutamate is stored in vesicles. Nerve impulses trigger release of glutamate from the presynaptic cell. Glutamate acts on ionotropic and metabotropic (G-protein coupled) receptors.[21] In the opposing postsynaptic cell, glutamate receptors, such as the NMDA receptor or the AMPA receptor, bind glutamate and are activated. Because of its role in synaptic plasticity, glutamate is involved in cognitive functions such as learning and memory in the brain.[22] The form of plasticity known as long-term potentiation takes place at glutamatergic synapses in the hippocampus, neocortex, and other parts of the brain. Glutamate works not only as a point-to-point transmitter, but also through spill-over synaptic crosstalk between synapses in which summation of glutamate released from a neighboring synapse creates extrasynaptic signaling/volume transmission.[23] In addition, glutamate plays ...
... has been used since the 1970s in Australia as an emergency analgesic for short-term use, mostly by the Australian and New Zealand Defence Forces,[13] the Australian ambulance services,[10][35][36] and since 2018 by some Emergency medical services in Germany.[57] All of the currently used volatile anesthetic agents are organofluorine compounds. Aside from the synthesis of Freon (Thomas Midgley, Jr. and Charles F. Kettering, 1928)[58] and the discovery of Teflon (Roy J. Plunkett, 1938),[59] the field of organofluorine chemistry had not attracted a great deal of attention up to 1940 because of the extreme reactivity of elemental fluorine, which had to be produced in situ for use in chemical reactions. The development of organofluorine chemistry was a spin-off from the Manhattan Project, during which elemental fluorine was produced on an industrial scale for the first time. The need for fluorine arose from the need to separate the isotope 235U from 238U because the former, present in ...
benzene. 2.3. 298 diethyl ether. 4.3. 293 tetrahydrofuran (THF). 7.6. 298 dichloromethane. 9.1. 293 ...
NAAG is catabolized via NAAG peptidase activity. Two enzymes with NAAG peptidase activity have been cloned, glutamate carboxypeptidase II and glutamate carboxypeptidase III. These enzymes mediate the hydrolysis of NAAG to NAA and glutamate. Their inhibition can produce therapeutic benefits. Two main types of inhibitors of this enzyme are known: compounds related to 2-(phosphonomethyl)pentanedioic acid (2-PMPA) and urea-based analogs of NAAG, including ZJ43, ZJ17, and ZJ11. In rat models, ZJ43 and 2-PMPA reduce perception of inflammatory and neuropathic pain when administered systemically, intracerebrally, or locally, suggesting that NAAG modulates neurotrasmission in pain circuits via mGlu3 receptors. The inhibition of NAAG hydrolysis increases the concentration of NAAG in the synaptic space analogous to the effects of SSRIs in increasing the concentration of serotonin. This elevated NAAG gives greater activation of presynaptic mGluR3 receptors, which decrease release of transmitter (glutamate) ...