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*  ART4
"Two novel human members of an emerging mammalian gene family related to mono-ADP-ribosylating bacterial toxins". Genomics. 39 ( ... "The family of toxin-related ecto-ADP-ribosyltransferases in humans and the mouse". Protein Science. 11 (7): 1657-70. doi: ...
*  Toxin-antitoxin system
Toxin-antitoxin database Van Melderen L, Saavedra De Bast M (March 2009). Rosenberg, Susan M., ed. "Bacterial Toxin-Antitoxin ... Toxin-antitoxin systems are typically classified according to how the antitoxin neutralises the toxin. In a Type I toxin- ... One example is the ToxIN system from the bacterial plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora. The toxic ToxN protein is approximately ... Another example application involves both the CcdB toxin and CcdA antitoxin. CcdB is found in recombinant bacterial genomes and ...
*  LdrD-RdlD toxin-antitoxin system
Van Melderen L, Saavedra De Bast M (March 2009). "Bacterial toxin-antitoxin systems: more than selfish entities?". PLoS Genet. ... a 35 amino acid peptide toxin (ldrD) and a 60 nucleotide RNA antitoxin. The 374nt toxin mRNA has a half-life of around 30 ... RdlD RNA (regulator detected in LDR-D) is a family of small non-coding RNAs which repress the protein LdrD in a type I toxin- ... Toxin-antitoxin system Hok/sok system RatA Kawano M, Oshima T, Kasai H, Mori H (July 2002). "Molecular characterization of long ...
*  Enterotoxin
All of these toxins share a similar two-domain fold (N and C-terminal domains) with a long alpha-helix in the middle of the ... Enterotoxins are chromosomally encoded or plasmid encoded exotoxins that are produced and secreted from several bacterial ... These toxins share the ability to bind to the major histocompatibility complex proteins of their hosts. A more distant relative ... They are mostly pore-forming toxins (mostly chloride pores), secreted by bacteria, that assemble to form pores in cell ...
*  Necrosis
... can be activated by components of the immune system, such as the complement system; bacterial toxins; activated ... Toxins and pathogens may cause necrosis; toxins such as snake venoms may inhibit enzymes and cause cell death. Necrotic wounds ... In the example of a snake bite, the use of anti-venom halts the spread of toxins whilst receiving antibiotics to impede ... Necrosis is caused by factors external to the cell or tissue, such as infection, toxins, or trauma which result in the ...
*  AB5 toxin
In addition to some of these AB5 toxins being used to create vaccines to prevent bacterial infection, they are also being ... AB5 Toxins Biochemistry Cholera toxin Pertussis toxin Shiga toxin Subtilase Le Nours, J.; Paton, A. W.; Byres, E.; Troy, S.; ... Cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, and shiga toxin all have their targets in the cytosol of the cell. After their B subunit binds ... Cholera toxin, shiga toxin, and SubAB toxin all have B subunits that are made up of five identical protein components, meaning ...
*  Peripheral membrane protein
1999) Sea Anemone Toxins. The ASA Newsletter. Schmitt C, Meysick K, O'Brien A (1999). "Bacterial toxins: friends or foes?". ... Such transformations occur in pore forming toxins such as colicin A, alpha-hemolysin, and others. They may also occur in BcL-2 ... Many hormones, toxins, inhibitors, or antimicrobial peptides interact specifically with transmembrane protein complexes. They ... These include the cytoplasmic side of plasma membranes, the outer leaflet of outer bacterial membranes and mitochondrial ...
*  Rino Rappuoli
Pizza, Mariagrazia; Fontana, Maria Rita; Scarlato, Vincenzo; Rappuoli, Rino (1996). "Genetic Detoxification of Bacterial Toxins ... a non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin: Use as a conjugation protein in vaccines and other potential clinical applications". ... conjugate vaccine against meningococcal-C disease and the first recombinant bacterial vaccine against pertussis. Currently,[ ... an acellular pertussis vaccine containing a genetically detoxified pertussis toxin; the first conjugate vaccines against ...
*  Diphtheria toxin
Beilhartz, Greg L.; Sugiman-Marangos, Seiji N.; Melnyk, Roman A. (2017-10-15). "Repurposing bacterial toxins for intracellular ... Diphtheria toxin is extraordinarily potent. The lethal dose for humans is about 0.1 μg of toxin per kg of body weight. Death ... Unusually, the toxin gene is encoded by a bacteriophage (a virus that infects bacteria). The toxin causes the disease in humans ... Diphtheria Toxin at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) How Diphtheria Toxin Works - Animation ...
*  Clostridium difficile toxin A
TcdA is one of the largest bacterial toxins known. With a molecular mass of 308 kDa, it is usually described as a potent ... is a toxin generated by Clostridium difficile. It is similar to Clostridium difficile Toxin B. The toxins are the main ... Kuehne SA, Cartman ST, Heap JT, Kelly ML, Cockayne A, Minton NP (October 2010). "The role of toxin A and toxin B in Clostridium ... "Cytokine response by human monocytes to Clostridium difficile toxin A and toxin B". Infection and Immunity. 59 (10): 3659-66. ...
*  Cholesterol-dependent cytolysin
In Alouf, J. E. & Popoff, M. R. (Eds.) The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins. 3rd ed., pp. 643-658, Oxford, ... "Bacterial pore-forming toxins: the (w)hole story?". Cellular and molecular life sciences: CMLS. 65 (3): 493-507. doi:10.1007/ ... "Structural Basis of Pore Formation by the Bacterial Toxin Pneumolysin". Cell. 121 (2): 247-56. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.02.033. ... "The Cholesterol-dependent Cytolysin Family of Gram-positive Bacterial Toxins". Subcell Biochem. 51: 551-77. doi:10.1007/978-90- ...
*  Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Proft, Thomas (2013). Bacterial Toxins: Genetics, Cellular Biology and Practical Applications. Horizon Scientific Press. ISBN ... These bacterial strains present a thickening of the cell wall, which is believed to reduce the ability of vancomycin to diffuse ...
*  Abrin
European mistletoe Ricin Gill DM (1982). "Bacterial toxins: a table of lethal amounts" (pdf). Microbiological Reviews. 46 (1): ... Abrin is a ribosome inhibiting protein like ricin, a toxin which can be found in the seeds of the castor oil plant. It is ... March 2009). "Quantification of L-Abrine in Human and Rat Urine: A Biomarker for the Toxin Abrin" (PDF). Journal of Analytical ...
*  Clostridium perfringens
Woerner, Amanda (29 January 2014). "Bacterial toxin may trigger multiple sclerosis, research finds". "Clostridium perfringens ... The toxin involved in gas gangrene is known as α-toxin, which inserts into the plasma membrane of cells, producing gaps in the ... One side of the plate contains anti-alpha-toxin, while the other side does not. A streak of suspect organism is placed through ... MS patients were found to be ten times more immune-reactive to the epsilon toxin than healthy people. C. perfringens can be ...
*  MON 810
The mechanism of pore formation by bacterial toxins. Curr Opin Struct Bio 16:230-236. Then, C. 2010. Risk assessment of toxins ... which are toxins that are very potent and provoke lesions in the cell membrane causing cell death These produced Bt toxins bind ... Proteins need specific receptors on cells in order to form the Cry proteins and become toxic, which is why the toxins are ... These genetically modified plants with Bt toxin are grown on a large scale around the world. Monsanto's corn line MON810 is ...
*  Western green mamba
"Bacterial Toxins: A Table of Lethal Amounts" (PDF). Microbiological Reviews. 46 (1): 86-94. Retrieved 17 March 2014. Chippaux, ... but differs from others in toxicity and the composition of the toxins. The venom consists mainly of both pre-synaptic and post- ...
*  Management of ulcerative colitis
Pitcher, M C; Cummings, J H (1996-07-01). "Hydrogen sulphide: a bacterial toxin in ulcerative colitis?". Gut. 39 (1): 1-4. doi: ...
*  CagA
Lax, A. (2005). "Bacterial toxins and cancer - a case to answer?". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 3: 343-9. doi:10.1038/ ... Hatakeyama, M.; Higashi, H. (2005). "Helicobacter pylori CagA: a new paradigm for bacterial carcinogenesis". Cancer Science. 96 ...
*  Virulence factor
As with bacterial toxins, there is a wide array of fungal toxins. Arguably one of the more dangerous mycotoxins is aflatoxin ... A major group of virulence factors are bacterial toxins. These are divided into two groups: endotoxins and exotoxins. Endotoxin ... For the most part, the genetic approach is the most extensive way in identifying the bacterial virulence factors. Bacterial DNA ... These obtained bacterial virulence factors have two different routes used to help them survive and grow: The factors are used ...
*  Cytolysin
... s comprise more than 1/3 of all bacterial protein toxins. Bacterial protein toxins can be highly poisonous to human. ... "Pore-forming bacterial protein toxins: an overview." Pore-forming toxins. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2001. 1-14. Kaper J, ... recognized C. perfringens α-toxin's molecular mechanism in 1941, which marked the pioneering work on any bacterial protein ... "The cholesterol-dependent cytolysin family of gram-positive bacterial toxins." Cholesterol Binding and Cholesterol Transport ...
*  S.P. Beebe
1907). "THE TREATMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL TUMORS WITH BACTERIAL TOXINS." Publications of Cornell University Medical College: ...
*  Listeriolysin O
"Histone modifications induced by a family of bacterial toxins". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104 (33): 13467-72. doi:10.1073/ ... The toxin may be considered a virulence factor, since it is crucial for the virulence of L. monocytogenes. Listeriolysin O is a ... However, LLO differs from other thiol-activated toxins, since its cytolytic activity is maximized at a pH of 5.5. By maximizing ... Upon release from the phagosome, the toxin has reduced activity in the more basic cytosol. Hence, LLO permits L. monocytogenes ...
*  MACPF
Tilley SJ, Orlova EV, Gilbert RJ, Andrew PW, Saibil HR (2005). "Structural basis of pore formation by the bacterial toxin ... The sea anemone Actineria villosa uses a MACPF (AvTX-60A; TC# 1.C.39.10.1)protein as a lethal toxin. MACPF proteins are also ... Like CDC's MACPF proteins are thus β-pore forming toxins that act like a molecular hole punch. Other crystal structures for ... 2004). "A new membrane-attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domain lethal toxin from the nematocyst venom of the Okinawan sea ...
*  Pore-forming toxin
ADP-ribosylation is a common enzymatic methods used by various bacterial toxins from various species. These toxins (including C ... Binary toxins, such as anthrax lethal and edema toxins, C. perfringens iota toxin and C. difficile cyto-lethal toxins consist ... Tilley SJ, Orlova EV, Gilbert RJ, Andrew PW, Saibil HR (April 2005). "Structural basis of pore formation by the bacterial toxin ... Barth H, Aktories K, Popoff MR, Stiles BG (September 2004). "Binary bacterial toxins: biochemistry, biology, and applications ...
*  Diarrhea
In travelers, however, bacterial infections predominate. Various toxins such as mushroom poisoning and drugs can also cause ... Other infectious agents, such as parasites or bacterial toxins, may exacerbate symptoms. In sanitary living conditions where ... The most common cause of this type of diarrhea is a cholera toxin that stimulates the secretion of anions, especially chloride ... are a common cause of bacterial diarrhea, but infections by Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and some strains of Escherichia coli ...
*  Beaver dam
These bacterial populations face serious shortages of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds, and will absorb these nutrients as ... both by the breakdown of toxins such as pesticides and the retention of silt by beaver dams. Over the years, this collection of ...
*  Sepsis
PMC 3488423 . Ramachandran, G (January 2014). "Gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial toxins in sepsis: A brief review". ... to remove inflammatory mediators and bacterial toxins from the blood also does not demonstrate any survival benefit for septic ... muramyl dipeptide in the peptidoglycan of the gram-positive bacterial cell wall, and CpG bacterial DNA. These PAMPs are ... The two terms, "septicemia" and "blood poisoning", refer to the microorganisms or their toxins in the blood and are no longer ...