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*  Translational frameshift
A protein is translated from one end of the mRNA to the other, from the 5' to the 3' end. Normally a protein is translated from ... It has been described mainly in viruses (especially retroviruses), retrotransposons and bacterial insertion elements, and also ... Proteins are translated unidirectionally by reading tri-nucleotides on the mRNA strand also known as codons. Therefore, a shift ... These mechanisms emerge from the fact that ribosomes do not translate proteins at a steady rate, regardless of the sequence. ...
*  Plasmid partition system
ParA proteins from different plasmids and bacterial species show 25 to 30% of sequence identity to the protein ParA of the ... StbA protein is a DNA-binding protein (identical to ParM) and is strictly required for the stability and intracellular ... A centromere-like DNA site Centromere binding proteins (CBP) The motor protein The centromere-like DNA site is required in cis ... StbB protein has a Walker-type ATPase motif (ParA-like), it favors for conjugation but is not required for plasmid stability ...
*  5S ribosomal RNA
Several important proteins which interact with 5S rRNA are listed below. Interaction of 5S rRNA with the La protein prevents ... Translation machineries of mitochondria and plastids (organelles of endosymbiotic bacterial origin), and their bacterial ... Crystallographic studies indicate that 5S rRNA-binding proteins and other proteins of the central protuberance of the LSU plays ... along with numerous associated proteins. In eukaryotes, the LSU contains 5S, 5.8S, and 28S rRNAs and even more proteins. The ...
*  Transfer-messenger RNA
In trans-translation, tmRNA and its associated proteins bind to bacterial ribosomes which have stalled in the middle of protein ... In other bacterial species, a permuted ssrA gene produces a two-piece tmRNA in which two separate RNA chains are joined by base ... Depending on the bacterial species, the 3'-CCA is either encoded or added by tRNA nucleotidyltransferase. Similar processing at ... In 2007, the crystal structure of the Thermus thermophilus TLD bound to the SmpB protein was obtained at 3 Å resolution. This ...
*  LdrD-RdlD toxin-antitoxin system
RdlD RNA (regulator detected in LDR-D) is a family of small non-coding RNAs which repress the protein LdrD in a type I toxin- ... Van Melderen L, Saavedra De Bast M (March 2009). "Bacterial toxin-antitoxin systems: more than selfish entities?". PLoS Genet. ... The LdrD protein causes growth inhibition, loss of cell viability, nucleoid condensation and alteration in purine metabolism ... Fozo EM, Hemm MR, Storz G (December 2008). "Small toxic proteins and the antisense RNAs that repress them". Microbiol. Mol. ...
*  Clostridium difficile toxin A
Due to its homology with other proteins of similar function, as well as the location of the gene between tcdA and tcdB, tcdE is ... TcdA is one of the largest bacterial toxins known. With a molecular mass of 308 kDa, it is usually described as a potent ... The protein contains three domains. The amino N-terminal domain contains the active site, responsible for the glucosylating ... Just I, Selzer J, von Eichel-Streiber C, Aktories K (March 1995). "The low molecular mass GTP-binding protein Rho is affected ...
*  Molecular cloning
Many useful proteins are currently available as recombinant products. These include--(1) medically useful proteins whose ... When bacterial cells are used as host organisms, the selectable marker is usually a gene that confers resistance to an ... Modern bacterial cloning vectors (e.g. pUC19 and later derivatives including the pGEM vectors) use the blue-white screening ... Obtaining the molecular clone of a gene can lead to the development of organisms that produce the protein product of the cloned ...
*  Listeriolysin O
The alterations of the histones cause the down regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in the inflammatory response. ... "Histone modifications induced by a family of bacterial toxins". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104 (33): 13467-72. doi:10.1073/ ... However, contrary to PEST's supposed role in protein degradation, evidence suggests that the PEST-like sequence may regulate ... Listeriolysin O is a non-enzymatic, cytolytic, thiol-activated, cholesterol-dependent, pore-forming toxin protein; hence, it is ...
*  Moraxella catarrhalis
This protein was also present in all of the strains tested. The large size of the exposed protein macromolecule makes it ... Additionally, it causes bacterial pneumonia, especially in adults with a compromised immune system. It has also been known to ... This UspA (the designated antigen) protein is the first surface-exposed protein on M. catarrhalis that can be a target for ... The outer membrane protein (OMP) profiles of different strains of M. catarrhalis are extremely similar to each other. Analyses ...
*  Primary transcript
For example, some prokaryotic bacterial mRNAs serve as templates for synthesis of proteins at the same time they are being ... Transcription factors, proteins that bind to DNA elements to either activate or repress transcription, bind to enhancers and ... Signals for polyadenylation, which include several RNA sequence elements, are detected by a group of proteins which signal the ... Alternate splicing is regulated so that each mature mRNA may encode a multiplicity of proteins. The effect of alternative ...
*  Encapsulin
The encapsulins are a family of bacterial proteins that serve as the main structural components of encapsulin nanocompartments ... There are several different encapsulin proteins, including EncA, which forms the shell, and EncB, EncC, and EncD, which form ...
*  Lyme disease microbiology
It is a two-strain, multiantigen vaccine which induces an antibody response to bacterial proteins OspA and OspC. Samuels DS, ... The OspA and OspB genes encode the major outer membrane proteins of B. burgdorferi. The two Osp proteins show a high degree of ... "Outer-surface protein C of the Lyme disease spirochete: a protein induced in ticks for infection of mammals". Proc. Natl. Acad ... although not all studies agree on such a role for the protein. OspC attaches to the tick salivary protein Salp15, which ...
*  Vaccine
Targeting of identified bacterial proteins that are involved in complement inhibition would neutralize the key bacterial ... Other proteins may be present. Formaldehyde is used to inactivate bacterial products for toxoid vaccines. Formaldehyde is also ... Some cells of the immune system that recognize the proteins expressed will mount an attack against these proteins and cells ... By linking these outer coats to proteins (e.g., toxins), the immune system can be led to recognize the polysaccharide as if it ...
*  Chaperone (protein)
1988). "Homologous plant and bacterial proteins chaperone oligomeric protein assembly". Nature. 333 (6171): 330-4. doi:10.1038/ ... proteins have been studied in vivo and in vitro for their ability to target and unfold tagged and misfolded proteins. Proteins ... The Hsp70 proteins are aided by Hsp40 proteins (DnaJ in E. coli), which increase the ATP consumption rate and activity of the ... New functions for chaperones continue to be discovered, such as assistance in protein degradation, bacterial adhesin activity, ...
*  Single particle analysis
This bacterial protein complex is a machine for folding other proteins, which get trapped within the shell. Fatty acid synthase ... Proteins in vitreous ice usually adopt a random distribution of orientations (or viewing angles), allowing a fairly isotropic ... Important information on protein synthesis, ligand binding and RNA interaction can be obtained using this novel technique at ... These often enable the user to manually dock in protein coordinates (structures from X-ray crystallography or NMR) of subunits ...
*  Virtual screening
"A shape-based 3-D scaffold hopping method and its application to a bacterial protein-protein interaction". Journal of Medicinal ... Li H, Leung KS, Ballester PJ, Wong MH (2014-01-24). "istar: a web platform for large-scale protein-ligand docking". PLoS One. 9 ... Structure-based virtual screening involves docking of candidate ligands into a protein target followed by applying a scoring ... Kroemer RT (August 2007). "Structure-based drug design: docking and scoring". Current Protein & Peptide Science. 8 (4): 312-28 ...
*  Clindamycin
It is a bacterial protein synthesis inhibitor by inhibiting ribosomal translocation, in a similar way to macrolides. It does so ... Coyle EA, Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists (2003). "Targeting bacterial virulence: the role of protein synthesis ... It is of the lincosamide class and works by blocking bacteria from making protein. Clindamycin was first made in 1967. It is on ... Clindamycin is formulated in a vaginal cream and as vaginal ovules for treatment of bacterial vaginosis. It is also available ...
*  GalNAc-alpha-(1-4)-GalNAc-alpha-(1-3)-diNAcBac-PP-undecaprenol alpha-1,4-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase
"Genetic and molecular analyses reveal an evolutionary trajectory for glycan synthesis in a bacterial protein glycosylation ...
*  Secretion
Bacterial effector protein Bacterial outer membrane vesicles Host-pathogen interface Membrane vesicle trafficking Secretomics ... Secretion in bacterial species means the transport or translocation of effector molecules for example: proteins, enzymes or ... Many secreted proteins are particularly important in bacterial pathogenesis. Type I secretion is a chaperone dependent ... 2009). Bacterial Secreted Proteins: Secretory Mechanisms and Role in Pathogenesis. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-42 ...
*  PSORTdb
As of the second release, ePSORTdb contained over 12,000 entries for bacterial proteins and 800 entries for archaeal proteins; ... expanded prediction of bacterial protein subcellular localization and insights gained from comparative proteome analysis". ... PSORTdb is a database of protein subcellular localization (SCL) for bacteria and archaea. It is a member of the PSORT family of ... Protein targeting Rey, Sébastien; Acab Michael; Gardy Jennifer L; Laird Matthew R; deFays Katalin; Lambert Christophe; Brinkman ...
*  Bartonellosis
cultures in these liquid media, with no change in bacterial protein expressions or host interactions in vitro. Insect-based ... Western blot for protein detection of Bartonella-associated proteins has also been reported, but this method does not show ... Staying alive: bacterial inhibition of apoptosis during infection Archived July 8, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.. Trends in ... Isolation and culture of the bacterial agent". JAMA. 259 (9): 1347-52. doi:10.1001/jama.259.9.1347. PMID 3339840. Dolan MJ, ...
*  MOP flippase
The bacterial proteins are of about 450 amino acyl residues in length and exhibit 12 putative transmembrane segments (TMSs). ... The yeast protein, called the nuclear division Rft1 protein (TC# 2.A.66.3.1), is 574 aas with 12 putative TMSs. The homologue ... Another MVF protein, MurJ, functions as a peptidoglycan biosynthesis protein. A 3-d structureal model shows that MurJ contains ... Each Gram-positive bacterial PST system functions in conjunction with a homologous MPA1 + C pair of proteins equivalent to an ...
*  Divalent anion-sodium symporter
... the animal proteins are substantially smaller (539-616 residues), and the bacterial proteins are still smaller (461-612 ... a functionally uncharacterized protein from Ralstonia eutrophus; three E. coli proteins plus one from H. influenzae and one ... jannaschii protein that clusters loosely with an H. influenzae Orf. Distant homologues of DASS family proteins may include ... Solute carrier family Ion transporters Transport protein Membrane transport protein Transporter Classification Database Li, ...
*  FHIPEP protein family
"Homology between the HrpO protein of Pseudomonas solanacearum and bacterial proteins implicated in a signal peptide-independent ... An FHIPEP protein is located within the inner membrane, although it is unknown which component it constitutes. FHIPEP proteins ... In molecular biology, the FHIPEP protein family (Flagellar/Hr/Invasion Proteins Export Pore family)consists of a number of ... This mechanism translocates proteins lacking an N-terminal signal peptide across the cell membrane in one step, as it does not ...
*  Chromatophore (bacteria)
Salton, MR (1987). "Bacterial membrane proteins". Microbiological sciences. 4 (4): 100-5. PMID 3153178. Frigaard, NU; Bryant, ... In purple bacteria, such as Rhodospirillum rubrum, the light-harvesting proteins are intrinsic to the chromatophore membranes. ...
*  HSPA8
Heat shock 70 kDa protein 8 also known as heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein or Hsc70 or Hsp73 is a heat shock protein that in ... "Modification of two distinct COOH-terminal domains is required for murine p53 activation by bacterial Hsp70". The Journal of ... This protein binds to nascent polypeptides to facilitate correct protein folding. In order to properly fold non-native proteins ... This gene encodes a 70kDa heat shock protein which is a member of the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) family. As a Hsp70 protein ...
*  Catch bond
This is possible due to the bacterial protein FimH, which mediates high adhesion in response to high flow. The lectin domain is ... At larger applied forces, however, the protein is extended and the line of possible binding sites is aligned with the applied ... A single PSGL-1 and selectin binding is similar to conventional protein binding when the force is kept constant, with a ... Catch bonds also play a significant role in bacterial adhesion, most notably in Escherichia coli. E. coli and other bacteria ...