Loading...
*  Swine brucellosis
The acidic pH is actually essential for replication of the bacteria by inducing major virulence genes of the virB operon and ... is able to endure the rapid acidificiation in the phagosome to pH 4.0-4.5 by expressing metabolism genes mainly for amino acid ... In addition, the B. suis gene for nickel transport, nikA, is activated by metal ion deficiency and is expressed once in the ... Phagocytes are an essential component of the host's innate immune system with various antimicrobial defense mechanisms to clear ...
*  Vesicular monoamine transporter
Scientists have used these tools to analyze DNA and amino acid sequences, discovering that transporters in bacteria and humans ... In the 1970s, scientists such as Arvid Carlsson recognized the need to understand how transport systems and ion gradients work ... Acidic glutamate residues located upstream of the dileucine motif are known to be important for localization of VMAT2 to large ... Studies indicate that the amino acid residue His419, located on the domain between TMD X and XI of rat VMAT1, plays a role in ...
*  Endomembrane system
The ribosomes assemble amino acids into protein units, which are carried into the rough ER for further adjustments. These ... Importantly, the transport of lipids through the cytosol and lipid flow through a continuous endomembrane system are not ... The enzymes inside of lysosomes are acid hydrolases which require an acidic environment for optimal performance. Lysosomes ... In prokaryotes endomembranes are rare, although in many photosynthetic bacteria the plasma membrane is highly folded and most ...
*  Archean
Dehydration of amino acids during atmospheric transport has been suggested as a mechanism for activation and polymerization. ... Stanley, Steven M. (1999). Earth System History. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. pp. 297-301. ISBN 0-7167-2882-6. Walker, ... Carbonate rocks are rare, indicating that the oceans were more acidic due to dissolved carbon dioxide than during the ... In addition to the domain Bacteria (once known as Eubacteria), microfossils of the domain Archaea have also been identified. ...
*  Ecosystem
Substances like sugars and amino acids decompose readily and are considered labile. Cellulose and hemicellulose, which are ... In aquatic systems, the proportion of plant biomass that gets consumed by herbivores is much higher. In trophic systems ... Nitrogen fixing bacteria either live symbiotically with plants, or live freely in the soil. The energetic cost is high for ... These are then taken up by organisms in the soil, react with mineral soil, or are transported beyond the confines of the ...
*  Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
... from an amino acid-either tryptophan (Trp) in animals and some bacteria, or aspartic acid (Asp) in some bacteria and plants. ... These shuttle systems also have the same transport function in chloroplasts. Since both the oxidized and reduced forms of ... an ionic bond is formed between a basic amino acid side-chain and the acidic phosphate group of NADP+. On the converse, in NAD- ... In organisms, NAD can be synthesized from simple building-blocks (de novo) from the amino acids tryptophan or aspartic acid. In ...
*  Hydrolysis
... the hydrolysis can be suppressed by adding an acid such as nitric acid, making the solution more acidic. Hydrolysis may proceed ... The hydrolysis of peptides gives amino acids. Many polyamide polymers such as nylon 6,6 hydrolyse in the presence of strong ... This specificity preserves the integrity of other proteins such as hormones, and therefore the biological system continues to ... and the active transport of ions and molecules across cell membranes. The energy derived from the oxidation of nutrients is not ...
*  Protein phosphorylation
However, many other amino acids can also be phosphorylated in cells, including arginine, lysine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid ... The arginine phosphorylation system, which is widely distributed across Gram-positive bacteria, appears to be functionally ... It has been shown that a subset of serine phosphosites are often replaced by acidic residues such as aspartate and glutamate ... Regulatory roles of phosphorylation include: Phosphorylation of Na+/K+-ATPase during the transport of sodium (Na+) and ...
*  Alkaliphile
... gluconic acid, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and phosphoric acid. Together, these residues form an acidic matrix that helps ... "Studies on the Respiratory System in Alkaliphilic Bacillus; a Proposed New Respiratory System." Extremophiles 2 (1998): 83-92. ... subtilis has been observed to contain higher levels of hexosamines and amino acids as compared to its neutrophilic counterpart ... These bacteria can be further categorized as obligate alkaliphiles (those that require high pH to survive), facultative ...
*  Aciduliprofundum boonei
Therefore, some peptides and amino acids would be entering the cell to be used for energy, while others will be incorporated ... In other bacteria and archaea vesicles such as these are produced to remove misfolded proteins or toxins during periods of ... Isolated from acidic hydrothermal vent environments, A. boonei is the first cultured representative of a biogeochemically ... Based on ecological studies of deep-sea hydrothermal vent systems, it is believed that the anoxic reduced environments in which ...
*  Methylmercury
The methylmercuric-cysteinyl complex is recognized by amino acid transporting proteins in the body as methionine, another ... aquatic systems and because it is not readily eliminated from organisms it is biomagnified in aquatic food chains from bacteria ... Fish that develop in water bodies that are more acidic also tend to have higher levels of methylmercury. Ingested methylmercury ... "Methylmercury transport across the blood-brain barrier by an amino acid carrier". Am. J. Physiol. 262: R761-5. PMID 1590471. ...
*  Natural product
Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) is a constituent of coenzyme A, a basic component of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism as ... Bilateral symmetry refers to a molecule or system that contains a C2, Cs, or C2v point group identity. C2 symmetry tends to be ... In enormous numbers, bacteria and marine microorganisms remain unexamined. As of 2008, the field of metagenomics was proposed ... Because many Archaea have adapted to life in extreme environments such as polar regions, hot springs, acidic springs, alkaline ...
*  Yeast assimilable nitrogen
Yeast transport amino acids and small peptides (less than 5 amino acid residues) into the cell via an active transport process ... Ammonia is not used by bacteria such as Acetobacter and the lactic acid bacteria used in malolactic fermentation. Assimilable ... The proteins used in the main glucose transport system have been show to have a half-life of 12 hours. In the studies that put ... that utilizes specialized membrane proteins and the difference in the pH gradient of the acidic wine solution (pH between 3-4) ...
*  Extracellular fluid
Interstitial fluid consists of a water solvent containing sugars, salts, fatty acids, amino acids, coenzymes, hormones, ... When the blood from all the veins in body mixes in the heart and lungs, the differing compositions cancel out (e.g. acidic ... The lymphatic system returns protein and excess interstitial fluid to the circulation. The ionic composition of the ... The lymph flows through lymph capillaries to lymph nodes where bacteria and tissue debris are removed from the lymph, while ...
*  Actin
It contains 374 amino acid residues. Its N-terminus is highly acidic and starts with an acetyled aspartate in its amino group. ... Actin-myosin systems act as molecular motors that permit the transport of vesicles and organelles throughout the cytoplasm. It ... The bacteria have previously been surrounded by ABPs from the host, and as a minimum the covering contains Arp2/3 complex, Ena/ ... an analysis based on the amino acid sequence of the amino-terminal tryptic peptide". Journal of Molecular Biology. 126 (4): 783 ...
*  Bile acid
... are reabsorbed by active transport in the ileum and recycled back to the liver for further secretion into the biliary system ... Conjugating bile acids with amino acids lowers the pKa of the bile-acid/amino-acid conjugate to between 1 and 4. Thus ... Chenodeoxycholic acid is made by many species, and is the prototypic functional bile acid. An alternative (acidic) pathway of ... and aiding in motility and the reduction of the bacteria flora found in the small intestine and biliary tract. Bile acids have ...
*  Vegetarian/vegan dog diet
L-Carnitine is an amino acid that plays a key role in energy production, and facilitates the transport of fatty acids into the ... Animal protein has a high acidic amino acid content (glutamic and aspartic acid), therefore, its nitrogenous metabolites that ... The largest and most complex of all the vitamins, vitamin B12, is synthesized only by bacteria and some archaea species, as ... It is integral to the health and function of the nervous system, key in hematopoiesis, as well as required to synthesize ...
*  Lactoferrin
N-lobe corresponds to amino acid residues 1-333 and C-lobe to 345-692, and the ends of those domains are connected by a short α ... Lactoferrin belongs to the innate immune system. Apart from its main biological function, namely binding and transport of iron ... Its binding to the bacteria wall is associated with the specific peptide lactoferricin, which is located at the N-lobe of ... The affinity increases in weakly acidic medium. This facilitates the transfer of iron from transferrin to lactoferrin during ...
*  Human digestive system
... amino acids and fatty acids into the bloodstream. The circular folds also slow the passage of food giving more time for ... where the environment is slightly acidic. Some vitamins, such as biotin and vitamin K produced by bacteria in the gut flora of ... Chyle is then transported through the lymphatic system to the rest of the body. The suspensory muscle marks the end of the ... The pharynx is a part of the conducting zone of the respiratory system and also a part of the digestive system. It is the part ...
*  Proteolysis
... acid hydrolysis). The standard way to hydrolyze a protein or peptide into its constituent amino acids for analysis is to heat ... In bacteria, a similar strategy of employing an inactive zymogen or prezymogen is used. Subtilisin, which is produced by ... The complement system of the immune response also involves a complex sequential proteolytic activation and interaction that ... The precursor of pepsin, pepsinogen, is secreted by the stomach, and is activated only in the acidic environment found in ...
*  Potassium uptake permease
"Defining membrane spanning domains and crucial membrane-localized acidic amino acid residues for K⁺ transport of a Kup/HAK/KT- ... coli and homologues in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. High affinity (20 μM) K+ uptake systems (Hak1, TC# 2.A. ... The generalized transport reaction for members of the KUP family is: K+ (out) + energy → K+ (in). Nieves-Cordones, Manuel; ... The yeast high affinity (KM = 1 µM) K+ transporter Hak1 is 762 amino acyl residues long with 12 putative TMSs. Like the E. coli ...
*  Vimentin
In addition, there is a periodic distribution of acidic and basic amino acids that seems to play an important role in ... With the blocking of transport of LDL-derived cholesterol inside the cell, cells were found to store a much lower percentage of ... IF proteins are found in all metazoan cells as well as bacteria. IF, along with tubulin-based microtubules and actin-based ... once again implying a relationship between the two systems. On the other hand, wounded mice that lack the vimentin gene heal ...
*  Hypochlorous acid
"Human neutrophils employ the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system to oxidize alpha-amino acids to a family of ... Dichlorine monoxide: the corresponding acidic oxide Hypofluorous acid Perchloric acid Harris, Daniel C. (2009). Exploring ... When bacteria are exposed to HOCl, there is a precipitous decline in DNA synthesis that precedes inhibition of protein ... One way of addressing the loss of oxygen uptake was by studying the effects of HOCl on succinate-dependent electron transport. ...
*  Branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase
This allows the bacteria to survive in the acidic conditions of the human oral cavity from the breakdown of carbohydrates. ... BCATs play a role in synthesizing the branched-chain amino acids that act as electron donors in the electron transport chain. ... found in the cytoplasm of mammalian cells almost exclusively throughout the nervous system. Although BCATc are expressed only ... forming both α-ketoacids and branched chain amino acids. Bacteria growing on a medium lacking the right amino acid ratios for ...
*  Magnetotactic bacteria
Apart from these amino acids, the remainder of the structure is found to be specialised in relation to its functional ... This step is strictly controlled by a cytochrome-dependent redox system, which is not yet fully explained and appears to be ... During the final stage of the process, the magnetite crystal nucleation is by action of transmembrane proteins with acidic and ... Furthermore, the complex is a H+/Fe2+ antiporter, which transports ions via the proton gradient. These transmembrane ...
*  Halobacterium salinarum
Amino acids are the main source of chemical energy for H. salinarum, particularly arginine and aspartate, though they are able ... However, his findings date the crystal surrounding the bacteria, and DNA analysis suggests the bacteria themselves are likely ... These highly acidic proteins are overwhelmingly negative in charge and are able to remain in solution even at high salt ... H. salinarum is as easy to culture as E. coli and serves as an excellent model system. Methods for gene replacement and ...