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*  Aerosol mass spectrometry
The particle sizing chamber is made up of a flight tube maintained at (~ 10-5 torr). The entrance of the flight tube is a ... The analysis of particles in atmosphere is a topic that can be traced back to early literature, in ancient Rome there are ... Over the years aerosols mass spectrometers have been used for anything from determining emissions sources, human exposure to ... Once in the chamber the sample goes through aerodynamic focusing lens system, which consist of several orifice lenses that are ...
*  Cryopump
Water vapor is the hardest natural element to remove from vacuum chamber walls upon exposure to the atmosphere due to monolayer ... Most production equipment utilizing a cryopump have a means to isolate the cryopump from the vacuum chamber so regeneration ... a solid state to a gaseous state and thereby be released from the cryopump through a pressure relief valve into the atmosphere ...
*  List of International Organization for Standardization standards
Characterization of nanoparticles in inhalation exposure chambers for inhalation toxicity testing ISO/TS 10811 Mechanical ... Standard atmosphere for conditioning and testing and procedure for monitoring the atmosphere and conditioning of samples ISO ... Colour fastness to ozone in the atmosphere ISO 105-G04:2016 Part G04: Colour fastness to oxides of nitrogen in the atmosphere ... Corrosivity of atmospheres - Measurement of environmental parameters affecting corrosivity of atmospheres ISO 9226 Corrosion of ...
*  American foulbrood
... the structure of the hive or the stores of honey and pollen it contains by sufficiently lengthy exposure to an atmosphere of ... Nectar stored in contaminated cells will contain spores and soon the brood chamber becomes filled with contaminated honey. As ... ethylene oxide gas, as in a closed chamber, as hospitals do to sterilize equipment that cannot withstand steam sterilization. ...
*  Metre sea water
... diver pressure exposure used in decompression tables and the unit of calibration for pneumofathometers and hyperbaric chamber ... or two atmospheres absolute. For every additional 33 feet of depth, another atmosphere of pressure accumulates. Therefore at ... One atmosphere is approximately equal to 33 feet of sea water or 14.7 psi, which gives 4.9/11 or about 0.445 psi per foot. ... The pressure of seawater at a depth of 33 feet equals one atmosphere. The absolute pressure at 33 feet depth in sea water is a ...
*  Flash-gas (petroleum)
The contribution of VOCs to the levels of SOA in the atmosphere have been modeled using simulation chamber experiments to gain ... In particular, exposure to the VOC benzene during crude oil production could pose potentially serious health risks to workers. ... Thief hatches are also used in gauge tanks and in transport vehicles where they must be opened to the atmosphere to take ... Greenhouse gases are necessary for keeping our atmosphere warm enough to sustain life but also serve as a medium for over- ...
*  Ethylene oxide
It was caused by workers skipping a crucial step in removing ethylene oxide from a sterilization chamber. Exposure to ethylene ... High-temperature pyrolysis (830-1,200 K (557-927 °C; 1,034-1,700 °F)) at elevated pressure in an inert atmosphere leads to a ... Positive exposure-response trends for lymphoid tumors were found for males only. Reasons for the sex specificity of this effect ... Chronic exposure to ethylene oxide is also mutagenic. The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies ethylene oxide ...
*  Saturation diving
The hyperbaric atmosphere in the accommodation chambers and the bell are controlled to ensure that the risk of long term ... which is near the upper limit for long term exposure. Carbon dioxide is removed from the chamber gas by recycling it through ... The entire system is managed from a control room ("van"), where depth, chamber atmosphere and other system parameters are ... The transfer chamber is where the bell is mated to the surface saturation system. It is a wet surface chamber where divers ...
*  Colonization of the Moon
Due to the lack of any atmosphere on the Moon, plants would need to be grown in sealed chambers, though experiments have shown ... Exposure to weightlessness over month-long periods has been demonstrated to cause deterioration of physiological systems, such ... Due to the lack of atmosphere, the location is also suitable for an array of optical telescopes, similar to the Very Large ... Mag-Lev systems are particularly attractive as there is no atmosphere on the surface to slow down the train, so the vehicles ...
*  Forming gas
It is used in chambers for gas hypersensitization, a process in which photographic film is heated in forming gas to drive out ... It is sometimes called a "dissociated ammonia atmosphere" due to the reaction which generates it: 2 NH3 → 3 H2 + N2 It can also ... requires long exposure times, and is thus particularly sensitive to contaminants in the film. Forming gas is also used to ... Forming gas is used as an atmosphere for processes that need the properties of hydrogen gas. Typical forming gas formulations ( ...
*  Nephelescope
To observe this in a dry atmosphere, air would have needed to first be moistened by exposure to water. The nephelescope enabled ... The nephelescope has been described as an "early cloud-chamber". Espy, James Pollard (1841). The philosophy of storms. Draper, ... As it warms up, pressure inside the container once again increases above atmosphere. This increase in pressure can be used to ... The stopclock is then opened, allowing the pressure of the container to equilibriate the atmosphere, and then closed again. The ...
*  Haldane's decompression model
If the pressure is rapidly diminished to normal after exposure to saturation in compressed air, the venous blood will give off ... In 1907 Haldane made a decompression chamber to help make deep-sea divers safer and produced the first decompression tables ... Schrötter, Heller and Mager framed rules for safe decompression and believed that the decompression rate of one atmosphere (atm ... Results showed that a certain minimum pressure is required to give symptoms on goats and that duration of exposure to high ...
*  Gaetano Bedini
When Lodovico Altieri was named cardinal, Bedini gained exposure to the diplomatic atmosphere, and he was subsequently called ... His work led the Chamber of Deputies of Rio de Janeiro to improve the living conditions of the German immigrants. Giuseppe ...
*  Diving medicine
... monitoring and therapeutic devices in chambers Risk assessment, incidents monitoring and safety plan in HBO chambers HBO Safety ... A more useful grouping is conditions that are associated with exposure to variations of ambient pressure. These conditions are ... The ambient pressure underwater increases by 1 standard atmosphere (100 kPa) for every 10 metres (33 ft) of depth. The ... Hyperbaric medicine is a corollary field associated with diving, since recompression in a hyperbaric chamber is used as a ...
*  Carbon dioxide
Methods to administer CO2 include placing animals directly into a closed, prefilled chamber containing CO2, or exposure to a ... Carbon dioxide has no liquid state at pressures below 5.1 standard atmospheres (520 kPa). At 1 atmosphere (near mean sea level ... Toxicity of Carbon Dioxide Gas Exposure, CO2 Poisoning Symptoms, Carbon Dioxide Exposure Limits, and Links to Toxic Gas Testing ... have rapidly increased its concentration in the atmosphere, leading to global warming. The CO2 released into the atmosphere as ...
*  Mixed flowing gas
The purpose of this test is to simulate corrosion phenomenon due to atmospheric exposure. The electronic product is exposed to ... to evaluate resistance to corrosion due to gases in the atmosphere. Mixed Flowing Gas (MFG) test is a laboratory test in which ... in a controlled environmental chamber. Test samples that have been exposed to MFG testing have ranged from bare metal surfaces ... Flowing Gas Tests for Electrical Contacts ASTM B810-01a-Standard Method for Calibration of Atmospheric Corrosion Test Chambers ...
*  Package testing
Many products degrade with exposure to the atmosphere: foods, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, etc. The ability of a package to ... This can be in a conditioned room or in a chamber enclosing the test. With some testing, the package is conditioned to a ... Exposures to expected and elevated temperatures and humidities are commonly used for shelf life testing. The ability of ... Exposure to elevated temperatures accelerates some degradation mechanisms. An Arrhenius equation is often used to correlate ...
*  United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine
Beginning in 1991 all astronauts were trained for G-exposure at USAFSAM. Multiple altitude chambers of various sizes including ... And much of the work in space food, radiation studies, space cabin atmospheres, and pressure suits were adopted by NASA during ... Training Altitude Chambers The USAFSAM operates two training altitude chambers to provide initial hypoxia training to all ... "Altitude chamber training begins at the new 711th Human Performance Wi". Air Force Medical Service. Retrieved 2016-03-01. ...
*  United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine
Hypobaric Chamber Facility or HCF (altitude chambers) Two Class D chambers (man-rated) rarefied air atmosphere, non-oxygen ... 23,656 simulated altitude exposures of human volunteers over 33 years of studies 13 Environmental Chambers Temperatures from - ... ft.) Small Study Chamber: internal volume of 1100 cu. ft. (floor area 108 sq. ft.) Environmentally controlled (altitude, ... DeGroot DW, Devine JA, Fulco CS (September 2003). "Incidence of adverse reactions from 23,000 exposures to simulated ...
*  Space exposure
The key concerns for a human without protective clothing beyond Earth's atmosphere are the following, listed roughly in the ... consciousness after approximately 15 seconds of being accidentally depressurized in a ground-based depressurization chamber. If ... Space exposure is the subjection of a human to the conditions of outer space, without protective clothing and beyond the ... The only known humans to have died of space exposure are the three crew members of the Soyuz 11 spacecraft: Vladislav Volkov, ...
*  Vacuum
The pump's cavity is then sealed from the chamber, opened to the atmosphere, and squeezed back to a minute size. The above ... A study by NASA on eight chimpanzees found all of them survived two and a half minute exposures to vacuum. There is only a ... A submarine maintaining an internal pressure of 1 atmosphere submerged to a depth of 10 atmospheres (98 metres; a 9.8 metre ... Stars, planets, and moons keep their atmospheres by gravitational attraction, and as such, atmospheres have no clearly ...
*  RaLa Experiment
They were filled with a mixture of argon and carbon dioxide at 4.5 standard atmospheres (460 kPa). Eight chambers were arranged ... The sources posed a considerable radiation exposure risk; the exposure rate of a 1,000 Ci (37 TBq) source at 1 meter (3 ft 3 in ... The highest exposure to a person was 1.25 R of hard radiation and 4.7 roentgen equivalent physical of soft radiation. After ... The ionization chambers were cylindrical, 2 inches (51 mm) in diameter, 30 inches (760 mm) long, with a wire along the ...
*  Floyd Collins
Because his lamp was dying, he had to leave quickly before losing all light to the chamber, but became trapped in a small ... Vendors set up stalls to sell food and souvenirs, creating a circus-like atmosphere. The Sand Cave rescue attempt grew to ... Collins died of thirst and hunger compounded by exposure through hypothermia after being isolated for 14 days, just three days ... George Tucker Carmichael, determined the cave impassable and too dangerous and began to dig a shaft to reach the chamber behind ...
*  Photographic hypersensitization
This holds with exposures up to a second or so, but in general does not hold over exposure times of minutes or hours. Several ... Amateurs were able to buy hypersensitizing equipment and gas from Lumicon or build their own hypering chambers. Details of the ... plates were usually exposed at the telescope in an atmosphere of nitrogen. In the AAS Photo Bulletin Jack Marling describes the ... Most photographic materials are designed for snapshot exposure of much less than one second. In longer exposures, such as those ...
*  Physiology of underwater diving
Note: 1 atmosphere (atm) is 1.013 bars. Toxicity of Carbon Dioxide Gas Exposure, CO2 Poisoning Symptoms, Carbon Dioxide ... as hearing sensitivity is not significantly affected by the breathing gas or chamber atmosphere composition or pressure. ... Prolonged exposure to above-normal oxygen partial pressures, or shorter exposures to very high partial pressures, can cause ... The onset of seizure depends upon the partial pressure of oxygen in the breathing gas and exposure duration. However, exposure ...
*  Mary Astor
Hollywood Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on April 3, 2016. Retrieved December 1, 2016. Astor, Mary. A Life on ... She later said that, while working on the latter, she "absorbed and assumed something of the atmosphere and emotional climate ... Gary Merrill NBC series Justice in the role of a desperately poor and aging film star who attempts suicide to avoid exposure as ...
*  Plasma-activated bonding
Further, the plasma exposure times could be arranged longer than with, e.g. RIE method. The wafers are activated with short RIE ... Electrons of the atmosphere move towards the HF electrode during its positive voltage. The most established frequency of the HF ... The input gases enter the remote plasma source and are transported to the main process chamber to react. A scheme of the system ... The moving electrons of the atmosphere are banging into the plasma gas atoms and hit out electrons. Due to its positive ...