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*  L-ascorbate oxidase
... ascorbate oxidase, ascorbic oxidase, ascorbate dehydrogenase, L-ascorbic acid oxidase, AAO, L-ascorbate:O2 oxidoreductase, and ... In enzymology, a L-ascorbate oxidase (EC 1.10.3.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 2 L-ascorbate + O2 ⇌ {\ ... This enzyme participates in ascorbate metabolism. It employs one cofactor, copper. The systematic name of this enzyme class is ... L-ascorbate:oxygen oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include ascorbase, ascorbic acid oxidase, ...
*  Multicopper oxidase
Messerschmidt A, Huber R (January 1990). "The blue oxidases, ascorbate oxidase, laccase and ceruloplasmin. Modelling and ... Ascorbate oxidase EC 1.10.3.3, a 3-domain enzyme found in higher plants. Nitrite reductase EC 1.7.2.1, a 2-domain enzyme ... Multicopper oxidases include: Ceruloplasmin EC 1.16.3.1 (ferroxidase), a 6-domain enzyme found in the serum of mammals and ... In addition to the above enzymes there are a number of other proteins that are similar to the multi-copper oxidases in terms of ...
*  Hephaestin
... and bacterial ascorbate oxidase, among others. While hephaestin shares 50% amino acid sequence identity with its serum ... a multicopper oxidase with ferroxidase activity". Biochemistry. 44 (45): 14725-31. doi:10.1021/bi051559k. PMID 16274220. Jiri ... 610 nm consistent with other blue multicopper oxidases such as ceruloplasmin. By using ferrous ammonium sulfate as a substrate ... Hephaestin is a member of the family of copper oxidases that includes mammalian ceruloplasmin, yeast fet3 and fet5, ...
*  Iron/lead transporter
... oxygen oxidoreductase or ligninolytic phenol oxidase), as well as L-ascorbate oxidase, ceruloplasmin and dihydrogeodin oxidase ... Two gene products are required for high affinity Fe2+ transport, Fet3p which is the oxidase, and Ftr1p which is the permease ... Fet3p of S. cerevisiae is a multicopper oxidase (636 amino acyl residues) which spans the plasma membrane once (residues 561- ... It is a member of the multicopper oxidase family and is therefore homologous to laccase (benzenediol: ...
*  Glucuronic acid
These species require external ascorbate supply, because they lack the biosynthetic enzyme L-gulonolactone oxidase. The ... Glucuronic acid is a precursor of ascorbic acid (vitamin C, formerly called as L-hexuronic acid). Ascorbate can be ...
*  L-galactonolactone oxidase
Bleeg HS, Christensen F (1982). "Biosynthesis of ascorbate in yeast. Purification of L-galactono-1,4-lactone oxidase with ... In enzymology, a L-galactonolactone oxidase (EC 1.3.3.12) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-galactono-1,4- ... This enzyme is also called L-galactono-1,4-lactone oxidase. This enzyme participates in ascorbic acid and aldaric acid ... lactone + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } L-ascorbate + H2O2 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are L-galactono-1 ...
*  Ascorbate 2,3-dioxygenase
White GA, Krupka RM (1965). "Ascorbic acid oxidase and ascorbic acid oxygenase of Myrothecium verrucaria". Arch. Biochem. ... Ascorbate 2,3-dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.13) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ascorbate + O2 + H2O ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is ascorbate:oxygen 2,3-oxidoreductase (bond-cleaving). This enzyme is also called ... This enzyme participates in ascorbate and aldarate metabolism. It employs one cofactor, iron. ...
*  L-gulonolactone oxidase
In its patently pathological form, the effects of ascorbate deficiency are manifested as scurvy. It is likely that some level ... L-gulonolactone oxidase (EC 1.1.3.8) is an enzyme that produces vitamin C, but is non-functional in Haplorrhini (including ... L-gulonolactone oxidase deficiency is called "hypoascorbemia" and is described by OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) as ... Nishikimi M, Kawai T, Yagi K (October 1992). "Guinea pigs possess a highly mutated gene for L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase, the ...
*  List of EC numbers (EC 1)
... catechol oxidase EC 1.10.3.2: laccase EC 1.10.3.3: L-ascorbate oxidase EC 1.10.3.4: o-aminophenol oxidase EC 1.10.3.5: 3- ... D-aspartate oxidase EC 1.4.3.2: L-amino-acid oxidase EC 1.4.3.3: D-amino-acid oxidase EC 1.4.3.4: amine oxidase (flavin- ... glycine oxidase EC 1.4.3.20: L-lysine 6-oxidase EC 1.4.3.21: primary-amine oxidase EC 1.4.3.22: diamine oxidase EC 1.4.3.23: 7- ... malate oxidase EC 1.1.3.4: glucose oxidase EC 1.1.3.5: hexose oxidase EC 1.1.3.6: cholesterol oxidase EC 1.1.3.7: aryl-alcohol ...
*  Vitamin C megadosage
Pauling argued that, due to a non-functional form of L-gulonolactone oxidase, an enzyme required to make vitamin C that is ... Vitamin C megadosage is a term describing the consumption or injection of vitamin C (ascorbate) in doses comparable to the ... Rath M, Pauling L (1990). "Hypothesis: lipoprotein(a) is a surrogate for ascorbate". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 87 (16): 6204- ... Jenness R, Birney E, Ayaz K (1980). "Variation of l-gulonolactone oxidase activity in placental mammals". Comparative ...
*  D-arabinono-1,4-lactone oxidase
D-erythro-ascorbate + H2O2 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are D-arabinono-1,4-lactone and O2, whereas its two products ... In enzymology, a D-arabinono-1,4-lactone oxidase (EC 1.1.3.37) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction D-arabinono-1, ... Huh WK, Kim ST, Yang KS, Seok YJ, Hah YC, Kang SO (1994). "Characterisation of D-arabinono-1,4-lactone oxidase from Candida ... are D-erythro-ascorbate and H2O2. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-OH ...
*  Aminocyclopropanecarboxylate oxidase
The oxygen incorporated need not be derived from O2 with reduced ascorbate as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of ... In enzymology, an aminocyclopropanecarboxylate oxidase (EC 1.14.17.4) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 1- ... ascorbate, and O2, whereas its 5 products are ethylene, cyanide, dehydroascorbate, CO2, and H2O. This enzyme belongs to the ... Other names in common use include ACC oxidase, and ethylene-forming enzyme. As of late 2007, two structures have been solved ...
*  Dopamine beta-hydroxylase
4-dihydroxyphenethylamine beta-oxidase 4-(2-aminoethyl) pyrocatechol beta-oxidase dopa beta-hydroxylase dopamine beta-oxidase ... DBH is a 290 kDa copper-containing oxygenase consisting of four identical subunits, and its activity requires ascorbate as a ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine, ascorbate:oxygen oxidoreductase (beta-hydroxylating). ... ascorbate, and O2, whereas its three products are noradrenaline, dehydroascorbate, and H2O. ...
*  Conserved non-coding sequence
An example of a pseudogene is the gene for L-gulonolactone oxidase, a liver enzyme necessary for biosynthesis of L-ascorbic ... including humans which require ascorbic acid or ascorbate from food. The remains of this non-functional gene with many ... Nishikimi M, Kawai T, Yagi K (October 1992). "Guinea pigs possess a highly mutated gene for L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase, the ...
*  Vitamin C
Ascorbate salts such as sodium ascorbate and calcium ascorbate are used in some dietary supplements. These release ascorbate ... These animals all lack the L-gulonolactone oxidase (GULO) enzyme, which is required in the last step of vitamin C synthesis. ... However, taking vitamin C in the form of sodium ascorbate and calcium ascorbate may minimize this effect. Other symptoms ... In plants, vitamin C is a substrate for ascorbate peroxidase. This enzyme utilizes ascorbate to neutralize toxic hydrogen ...
*  Cupin superfamily
Amazingly, oxalate is a metabolite of ascorbate (vitamin C), and it is worth emphasizing that ascorbate is a direct precursor ... Many years later it was found to have oxalate oxidase activity generating 'antimicrobial' hydrogen peroxide from a substrate of ... Transgenic American chestnut seedlings have been produced and field tested carrying the wheat germin gene for oxalate oxidase ... oxalate oxidase 'one-very-tough-little- protein' as such an ancestor. This hypothesis stimulated a search for the evolutionary ...
*  Preservative
Citric and ascorbic acids target enzymes that degrade fruits and vegetables, e.g., mono/polyphenol oxidase which turns surfaces ... The most common antioxidant additives are ascorbic acid (vitamin C ) and ascorbates. Thus, antioxidants are commonly added to ...
*  Ascorbic acid (molecular aspects)
L-ascorbate and not D-ascorbate). L-Ascorbic acid has a specific rotation of [α]20 D = +23°. The traditional way to analyze the ... Recent orders of birds and most mammals make ascorbic acid in their liver where the enzyme L-gulonolactone oxidase is required ... E301 sodium ascorbate (approved for use as a food additive in the EU USA and Australia and New Zealand) E302 calcium ascorbate ... The ascorbate ion is the predominant species at typical biological pH values. It is a mild reducing agent and antioxidant. It ...
*  Uric acid
Xanthine oxidase is a large enzyme whose active site consists of the metal molybdenum bound to sulfur and oxygen. Within cells ... Proctor, P. (November 1970). "Similar functions of uric acid and ascorbate in man?". Nature. 228 (5274): 868. Bibcode:1970Natur ... The enzyme xanthine oxidase catalyzes formation of uric acid from xanthine and hypoxanthine, which in turn are produced from ... Pacher, P; Nivorozhkin, A; Szabó, C (2006). "Therapeutic effects of xanthine oxidase inhibitors: Renaissance half a century ...
*  Transporter Classification Database
NADPH Oxidase Family 5.B.2 The Eukaryotic Cytochrome b561 (Cytb561) Family 5.B.3 The Geobacter Nanowire Electron Transfer (G- ... Family 4.A.7 The PTS L-Ascorbate (L-Asc) Family 4.B.1 The Nicotinamide Ribonucleoside (NR) Uptake Permease (PnuC) Family 4.C.1 ... Superfamily 3.D.4 Proton-translocating Cytochrome Oxidase (COX) Superfamily 3.D.5 The Na+-translocating NADH:Quinone ...
*  Peroxisome
... s contain oxidative enzymes, such as D-amino acid oxidase and uric acid oxidase. However the last enzyme is absent in ... the components of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, and the NADP-dehydrogenases of the pentose-phosphate pathway. It has been ...
*  Peroxidase
Cytochrome c peroxidase is used as a soluble, easily purified model for cytochrome c oxidase. The glutathione peroxidase family ... Animal heme-dependent peroxidases Ascorbate peroxidase Catalase Chloride peroxidase Cytochrome c peroxidase Glutathione ...
*  Cytochrome b5
2 ferrocytochrome b5 EC 1.10.2.1 L-ascorbate-cytochrome-b5 reductase L-ascorbate + ferricytochrome b5 → monodehydroascorbate + ... sulfite oxidase (EC 1.8.3.1), plant and fungal nitrate reductases (EC 1.7.1.1, EC 1.7.1.2, EC 1.7.1.3), and plant and fungal ...
*  Nitric oxide dioxygenase
Electron donors may include ascorbate, cytochrome b5 or ferredoxin reductase. The catalytic NO dioxygenation can be written in ... and cytochrome oxidase, the last enzyme in the respiratory electron transport chain of mitochondria. Additionally NO, with its ...
*  2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent dioxygenases
Myllylä R, Majamaa K, Günzler V, Hanauske-Abel HM, Kivirikko KI (May 1984). "Ascorbate is consumed stoichiometrically in the ... "Crystal structure and mechanistic implications of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase - the ethylene-forming enzyme ... The catalytic activity of many 2OG-dependent dioxygenases are dependent on reducing agents (especially ascorbate) although the ... on ascorbate and other reducing agents". Biochem. J. 427 (1): 135-142. doi:10.1042/BJ20091609. PMID 20055761. CS1 maint: Uses ...
*  List of food additives
... acidity regulator Glucose oxidase - antioxidant Glucose syrup - sweetener Glutamate - Glutamic acid - flavor enhancer Gluten - ... emulsifier Calcium ascorbate - antioxidant (water-soluble) Calcium aluminosilicate (calcium aluminium silicate) - anti-caking ... anti-caking agent Sodium ascorbate - antioxidant (water-soluble) Sodium benzoate - preservative Sodium bicarbonate - mineral ... anti-caking agent Potassium ascorbate - antioxidant (water-soluble) Potassium benzoate - preservative Potassium bicarbonate - ...