*Arcuate nucleus

The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (also known as ARH, ARC, or infundibular nucleus) is an aggregation of neurons in the ... The arcuate nucleus also contains a population of specialized ependymal cells, called tanycytes. Astrocytes in the arcuate ... NPY/AgRP neurons and POMC/CART neurons make up two groups of neurons in the arcuate nucleus that are centrally involved in the ... "The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus: A key site for mediating leptin's effects on glucose homeostasis and locomotor activity". ...

*Arcuate nucleus (medulla)

... the arcuate nucleus is a group of neurons located on the anterior surface of the medullary pyramids. These nuclei are the ... Arcuate nuclei are capable of chemosensitivity and have a proven role in controlling respiratory frequency. Diagram showing the ... They receive fibers from the corticospinal tract and send their axons through the anterior external arcuate fibers and striae ... course of the arcuate fibers. The formatio reticularis of the medulla oblongata, shown by a transverse section passing through ...

*Pathophysiology of obesity

Both groups of arcuate nucleus neurons are regulated in part by leptin. Leptin inhibits the NPY/AgRP group while stimulating ... The arcuate nucleus contains two distinct groups of neurons. The first group coexpresses neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti- ... The circuit begins with an area of the hypothalamus, the arcuate nucleus, that has outputs to the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and ...

*Nesfatin-1

Nesfatin/NUCB2 is expressed in the appetite-control hypothalamic nuclei such as paraventricular nucleus (PVN), arcuate nucleus ... Nesfatin-1 immunopositive neurons are also located in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). Nesfatin-1 immunoreactive neurons in the ARC ... Price, Christopher J.; Samson, Willis K.; Ferguson, Alastair V. (2008). "Nesfatin-1 inhibits NPY neurons in the arcuate nucleus ... Nesfatin-1 immunoreactivity was also found in the brainstem nuclei such as nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and Dorsal ...

*Neuropeptide

For example, in one subpopulation of about 3000 neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, three anorectic peptides ... in the arcuate nucleus) Acetylcholine VIP Substance P Dopamine Cholecystokinin Neurotensin Glucagon-like peptide-1 (in the ... These are not the only peptides in the arcuate nucleus; β-endorphin, dynorphin, enkephalin, galanin, ghrelin, growth-hormone ... Vasopressin co-exists with dynorphin and galanin in magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus ...

*Eating

Leptin targets the receptors on the arcuate nucleus and suppresses the secretion of MCH and orexin. The arcuate nucleus also ...

*Michael Warren Schwartz

Leptin increases proopimelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expression in the rostral arcuate nucleus. Diabetes. 46:2119-2123, 1997. Hahn T ...

*Astrocyte

Gömöri-positive astrocytes are much more abundant within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and in the hippocampus than in ... "Composition of Gomori-positive inclusions in astrocytes of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus". Anatomical Record. 240 (3): 407- ... Modulation of synaptic transmission: In the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus, rapid changes in astrocyte morphology have ...

*Proopiomelanocortin

... α-MSH produced by neurons in the arcuate nucleus has important roles in the regulation of appetite (POMC neuron stimulation ... "Leptin activates anorexigenic POMC neurons through a neural network in the arcuate nucleus". Nature. 411 (6836): 480-4. doi: ... the anterior pituitary gland Melanotrope cells of the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland Neurons in the arcuate nucleus ...

*Neurokinin B

It has been found that in brain of females, the arcuate nucleus contains twice as many connections to NKB neurons than males. ... Neurokinin b is expressed along with the peptides kisspeptin and dynorphin A in the neuronal cells of the arcuate nucleus. Five ... NKB found mostly in the arcuate nucleus in humans, is found mostly in the monkey hypothalamus. By injecting NKB analogs ... Studies show that in postmenopausal woman there is an increased expression of tachykinin neurons in the arcuate nucleus. In ...

*Puberty

... with de-inhibition of the pulse generator in the arcuate nucleus. This inhibition of the arcuate nucleus is an ongoing active ... The arcuate nucleus is affected and controlled by neuronal input from other areas of the brain and hormonal input from the ... The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus is the driver of the reproductive system. It has neurons which generate and release ... Neurons of the arcuate nucleus secrete gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) into the blood of the pituitary portal system. An ...

*Chromatolysis

... particularly in the pontine nuclei and the cerebellar dentate nuclei. Nuclei of cranial nerves, arcuate nuclei, and posterior ... The event of chromatolysis is also characterized by a prominent migration of the nucleus towards the periphery of the cell and ... The loss of staining begins near the nucleus and spreads toward the axon hillock. The basophilic rim is formed as chromatolysis ... In neurons receiving axonal transection, central chromatolysis is observed in the area between the nucleus and the axon hillock ...

*Galanin-like peptide

It is a 60-amino acid polypeptide produced in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary gland. It is ... and dopamine-containing neurons in the rat arcuate nucleus". Regulatory Peptides. 145 (1-3): 165-8. doi:10.1016/j.regpep. ... "Galanin-like peptide stimulates food intake via activation of neuropeptide Y neurons in the hypothalamic dorsomedial nucleus of ...

*Ghrelin

Hewson AK, Tung LY, Connell DW, Tookman L, Dickson SL (December 2002). "The rat arcuate nucleus integrates peripheral signals ... "Novel insight in distribution of nesfatin-1 and phospho-mTOR in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus of rats". Peptides. 31 ... "Systemic administration of ghrelin induces Fos and Egr-1 proteins in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of fasted and fed rats". ... increase body weight and fat mass by triggering receptors in the arcuate nucleus that include the orexigenic neuropeptide Y ( ...

*Neuropeptide Y

... specifically in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and dentate gyrus. The arcuate nucleus has been found to have one of the highest ... Minor RK, Chang JW, de Cabo R (February 2009). "Hungry for life: How the arcuate nucleus and neuropeptide Y may play a critical ... Furthermore, in situ hybridization results from the study showed the highest cellular levels of NPY mRNA in the arcuate nucleus ... Pomonis JD, Levine AS, Billington CJ (July 1997). "Interaction of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and central nucleus ...

*Median preoptic nucleus

Although not only the SCN but also the arcuate nucleus (ARC), are involved in the Tb setting through afferents to the ... The median preoptic nucleus is located dorsal to the other three nuclei of the preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus. The ... Activation of the median preoptic nucleus leads to stimulation of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The afferents to this area ... When combined with lesions on other preoptic hypothalamic nuclei, however, damage to the median preoptic nucleus causes an ...

*Growth hormone-releasing hormone

It is a 44-amino acid peptide hormone produced in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. GHRH first appears in the human ... GHRH is released from neurosecretory nerve terminals of these arcuate neurons, and is carried by the hypothalamo-hypophyseal ... allowing the free catalytic subunits to translocate to the nucleus and phosphorylate the transcription factor cAMP response ...

*Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

"Kisspeptin immunoreactive cells of the ovine preoptic area and arcuate nucleus co-express estrogen receptor alpha". ...

*Melanocortin

The only neurons known to release melanocortins are located in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalmus. Accordingly, there is a ...

*Melanocyte-stimulating hormone

Some neurons in arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus make and secrete α-MSH in response to leptin; α-MSH is also made and ...

*Agouti-related peptide

It is synthesised only in neuropeptide Y (NPY)-containing cell bodies located in the ventromedial part of the arcuate nucleus ... This hormone acts in the arcuate nucleus and inhibits the AgRP/NPY neuron from releasing orexigenic peptides. Ghrelin has ... mRNA in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of hyperphagic and obese tub/tub mice". Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research. 125 ... mRNA in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of hyperphagic and obese tub/tub mice". Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research. 125 ...

*Hypophyseal portal system

Its main function is to quickly transport and exchange hormones between the hypothalamus arcuate nucleus and anterior pituitary ... Many of these branches are continuous between the proximal arcuate nucleus and anterior pituitary, enabling rapid hormone ... Other evidence indicates that capillary perivascular spaces of the median eminence and arcuate nucleus are contiguous, ... of these studies have shown that the neural hypophyseal stalk and ventromedial region of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus ...

*Growth hormone secretagogue receptor

In the brain, they are most highly expressed in the hypothalamus, specifically the ventromedial nucleus and arcuate nucleus. ...

*Anterior external arcuate fibers

This is named the arcuate nucleus, and is serially continuous above with the pontine nuclei in the pons; it contains small ... The anterior external arcuate fibers (ventral external arcuate fibers) vary as to their prominence: in some cases they form an ... As the fibers arch across the pyramid, they enclose a small nucleus which lies in front of and medial to the pyramid. ... fusiform (spindle-shaped) cells, around which some of the arcuate fibers end, and from which others arise. The reticular ...

*Pontine nuclei

Extension of these nuclei in the medulla oblongata are named arcuate nucleus (medulla) which has the same function. They ... The pontine nuclei (or griseum pontis) are the nuclei of the pons involved in motor activity. Corticopontine fibres carry ... information from the primary motor cortex to the ipsilateral pontine nucleus in the ventral pons, and the pontocerebellar ...

*Spinal cord

The collection of secondary axons that do this are known as internal arcuate fibers. The internal arcuate fibers decussate and ... From here, the information is brought to deep nuclei of the cerebellum including the fastigial and interposed nuclei. From the ... either the nucleus gracilis or the nucleus cuneatus, depending on the pathway it took. At this point, the secondary axon leaves ... The midbrain nuclei include four motor tracts that send upper motor neuronal axons down the spinal cord to lower motor neurons ...