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*  L-Ribonucleic acid aptamer
L-RNA aptamers are a form of aptamers. Due to their L-nucleotides, they are highly resistant to degradation by nucleases. ... such as PEGylated L-RNA aptamers, show a prolonged plasma half-life. Unlike other aptamers, L-RNA aptamers are not directly ... This information is used for the synthesis of the oligonucleotide's enantiomer, the L-RNA aptamer, using L-nucleotides. ... Like other aptamers, L-RNA aptamers are able to bind molecules such as peptides, proteins, and substances of low molecular ...
*  Anti-thrombin aptamers
... lacking the first and the last nucleotides of 29-mer form) nucleotides. This aptamer recognizes the exosite II of thrombin, ... Despite that this aptamer only shows moderate effect on fibrinogen regulation, the affinity of this aptamer is slightly higher ... The aptamer HD22 (also known as HTDQ) is an optimized aptamer with 29 (5'-AGTCCGTGGTAGGGCAGGTTGGGGTGACT-3') or 27 ( ... These two aptamers have high affinity and good specificity and have been widely studied and used for the development of aptamer ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D13)
... aptamers, nucleotide MeSH D13.695.578.424.450 --- oligodeoxyribonucleotides MeSH D13.695.578.424.450.275 --- dna primers MeSH ... thymine nucleotides MeSH D13.695.740.706.788 --- thymidine monophosphate MeSH D13.695.740.850 --- uracil nucleotides MeSH ... deoxyadenine nucleotides MeSH D13.695.201.150 --- deoxycytosine nucleotides MeSH D13.695.201.150.200 --- deoxycytidine ... monophosphate MeSH D13.695.201.175 --- deoxyguanine nucleotides MeSH D13.695.201.200 --- deoxyuracil nucleotides MeSH D13.695. ...
*  PreQ1 riboswitch
PreQ1-I has a distinctly small aptamer, ranging from 25 to 45 nucleotides long, compared to the structures of PreQ1-II ... with an average of 58 nucleotides composing its aptamer, which forms as many as five base-paired substructures. PreQ1-III ... Binding of preQ1 to the aptamer domain promotes the sequestration of a part of SD sequence at the 5' end to the P2 stem of the ... In the native mRNA structure, binding of preQ1 to the aptamer region in the riboswitch leads to the formation of a terminator ...
*  CrcB RNA motif
These nucleotide regions in the crcB RNA motif play important roles in the aptamer binding region for fluoride. Upon binding ...
*  Spinach aptamer
Spinach is an 84-nucleotide-long structure with two helical strands and an internal bulge with a G-quadruplex motif. It is at ... The aptamer was designed to be an RNA mimic of green fluorescent protein (GFP); similar to GFP for proteins, Spinach can be ... This aptamer was created using Systematic Evolution for Ligands by EXponential enrichment, or SELEX, which is also known as in ... Spinach is a synthetically derived RNA aptamer born out of the need for a way of studying the role of RNAs at the cellular ...
*  Mesoplasma florum riboswitch
Mutagenesis confirmed that changing nucleotides within the loop regions of this riboswitch altered the specificity for ligand ... classed as novel riboswitches as they deviate in sequence and structure within the loops regions that are required in aptamer ...
*  Surface plasmon resonance microscopy
SPR imaging platform would be a good choice to characterize aptamer -protein interactions. To study the aptamer-protein ... Thiol groups are introduced on DNA nucleotides by N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). Target oligonucleotides having a primary amine ... Aptamer grafting biosensor is placed on SPRM after rinsing. Then Thrombin is co-injected with excess of cytochrome C for signal ... The interaction of thrombin and the aptamer can be monitored on microarray in real-time during injections of thrombin at ...
*  Xenobiology
... alongside the four naturally occurring nucleotides, and by including individual artificial nucleotides in the culture media, ... In 2013, they applied the Ds-Px pair to DNA aptamer generation by in vitro selection (SELEX) and demonstrated the genetic ... 2006). "An unnatural hydrophobic base pair system: site-specific incorporation of nucleotide analogs into DNA and RNA". Nat. ... In May 2014, researchers announced that they had successfully introduced two new artificial nucleotides into bacterial DNA, ...
*  Purine riboswitch
... in position 74 of the aptamer domain, it has been found that conversion of a cytosine to a uracil changes an aptamer from being ... Such a conversion is owed to the ability of a nucleotide in position 74 to Watson-Crick base pair with the ligand in the ... The xpt guanine riboswitch aptamer is stabilized by guanine in a way that allows the riboswitch to more easily bind magnesium, ... In the absence of adenine, the aptamer domain of the riboswitch instead associates with the riboswitch expression platform, ...
*  Cyclic di-GMP-II riboswitch
Several nucleotide positions are highly conserved, with many around the terminal loops involved in the pseudoknot interaction. ... a mechanism commonly used in engineered aptamers but not previously observed in nature. Cyclic di-GMP-II riboswitches are a ...
*  CRISPR-Display
Allows construction of Cas9 complexes with protein binding cassettes, artificial aptamers, pools of random sequences as well as ... 80-250 nucleotides) to overcome this limitation. CRISPR-Display can therefore add larger RNA domains, like natural and lncRNA ... artificial aptamers and small molecules with varying size. While all the complexes were functional and viable, and successfully ... insert sequence was also determined through a set of unique sgRNA variants displaying cassettes of 25 random nucleotides. ...
*  Xeno nucleic acid
Strands of DNA and RNA are formed by stringing together long chains of molecules called nucleotides. A nucleotide is made up of ... One experiment conducted at the University of Florida led to the production of an XNA aptamer by the AEGIS-SELEX (artificially ... Using a genetic code of six XNAs rather than the four naturally occurring DNA nucleotide bases yields endless opportunities for ... in XNA nucleotides, the deoxyribose and ribose sugar groups of DNA and RNA have been replaced. Some of these replacement ...
*  Expanded genetic code
Each three nucleotide codon is translated into one of twenty naturally occurring amino acids. There is at least one tRNA for ... In 2013, they applied the Ds-Px pair to DNA aptamer generation by in vitro selection (SELEX) and demonstrated the genetic ... The 3'-end of the tRNA is mutated from CCA to CGA, while two cytidine nucleotides in the ribosomes A- and P-sites are mutated ... However, by co-mutating the binding nucleotides in such a way, that they can still base pair, the translational fidelity can be ...
*  Base pair
Chemical analogs of nucleotides can take the place of proper nucleotides and establish non-canonical base-pairing, leading to ... In 2013, they applied the Ds-Px pair to DNA aptamer generation by in vitro selection (SELEX) and demonstrated the genetic ... Hence, the number of total base pairs is equal to the number of nucleotides in one of the strands (with the exception of non- ... The nucleotides, which encoded RNA and proteins, were successfully replicated in vitro. Since then, Benner's team has been ...
*  Autotaxin
A DNA aptamer inhibitor of Autotaxin has also been described. The crystal structures rat and mouse autotaxin have been solved. ... Autotaxin is able to cleave the phosphodiester bond between the α and the β position of triphosphate nucleotides, acting as an ... Gijsbers R, Aoki J, Arai H, Bollen M (March 2003). "The hydrolysis of lysophospholipids and nucleotides by autotaxin (NPP2) ... Clair T, Lee HY, Liotta LA, Stracke ML (January 1997). "Autotaxin is an exoenzyme possessing 5'-nucleotide phosphodiesterase/ ...
*  SAM-II riboswitch
The SAM-II riboswitch is short with less than 70 nucleotides and is structurally relatively simple being composed of a single ... Poiata E, Meyer MM, Ames TD, Breaker RR (November 2009). "A variant riboswitch aptamer class for S-adenosylmethionine common in ...
*  Artificial gene synthesis
Thus it is possible to change up to about a third of the nucleotides in an open reading frame and still produce the same ... 2013). "Generation of high-affinity DNA aptamers using an expanded genetic alphabet". Nat. Biotechnol. 31: 453-457. doi:10.1038 ... This was in part achieved by the addition of a supportive algal gene that expresses a nucleotide triphosphate transporter which ... They usually employ oligonucleotides of 40-50 nucleotides long that overlap each other. These oligonucleotides are designed to ...
*  Nucleic acid analogue
... they did not create mRNA or proteins able to use the artificial nucleotides. The artificial nucleotides featured 2 fused ... In 2013, they applied the Ds-Px pair to DNA aptamer generation by in vitro selection (SELEX) and demonstrated the genetic ... When a nucleotide containing 5-bromouracil is incorporated into the DNA, it is most likely to pair with adenine; however, it ... Artificial nucleotides (Unnatural Base Pairs (UBPs) named d5SICS UBP and dNaM UBP) have been inserted into bacterial DNA but ...
*  G-quadruplex
Nanopore and Aptamer Biosensor group{NAB group} G-Quadruplex World - a website to discuss publications and other information of ... QGRS Mapper: a web-based application for predicting G-quadruplexes in nucleotide sequences and NCBI genes from Bagga's group. ... 2011). Potent and selective antisense oligonucleotides targeting single nucleotide polymorphisms in the Huntington disease gene ... where N is any nucleotide base (including guanine). This rule has been widely used in on-line algorithms. Although the rule ...
*  DNA binding site
Gilbert W, Maxam A (1973). "The nucleotide sequence of the lac operator". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ... Baaske P, Wienken CJ, Reineck P, Duhr S, Braun D (Feb 2010). "Optical Thermophoresis quantifies Buffer dependence of Aptamer ... Bulyk M.L; Johnson P.L; Church G.M (2002). "Nucleotides of transcription factor binding sites exert interdependent effects on ... Schneider TD, Stormo GD, Gold L, Ehrenfeucht A (1986). "Information content of binding sites on nucleotide sequences". Journal ...
*  Riboswitch
... es are often conceptually divided into two parts: an aptamer and an expression platform. The aptamer directly binds ... but have more significant differences than a single nucleotide mutation. SAH riboswitches bind S-adenosylhomocysteine to ... as it contains contiguous dual aptamers. Though no longer shown to be cooperative, the cause of dual aptamers still remains ... of the relevant genes and the success of procedures to create artificial small molecule-binding RNAs called aptamers. In 2002, ...
*  RNA origami
These structures include riboswitches, ribozymes, interaction sites, and aptamers. Aptamer structures allow the binding of ... This is largely a result of four different nucleotides: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and uracil (U), and ability to ...
*  Primer dimer
HANDS (Homo-Tag Assisted Non-Dimer System): a nucleotide tail, complementary to the 3' end of the primer is added to the 5' end ... antibody or aptamer are non-covalently bound to the enzyme at low temperature and inhibit its activity. After an incubation of ... nucleotides, ionic strength and temperature of the reaction. This method is somewhat limited by the physical-chemical ... improved specificity and single nucleotide polymorphism detection using blocked cleavable primers". BMC Biotechnology. 11: 80. ...
*  Cofactor (biochemistry)
Many contain the nucleotide adenosine monophosphate (AMP) as part of their structures, such as ATP, coenzyme A, FAD, and NAD+. ... Saran D, Frank J, Burke DH (2003). "The tyranny of adenosine recognition among RNA aptamers to coenzyme A". BMC Evol. Biol. 3: ... The nucleotide adenosine is present in cofactors that catalyse many basic metabolic reactions such as methyl, acyl, and ... Many organic cofactors also contain a nucleotide, such as the electron carriers NAD and FAD, and coenzyme A, which carries acyl ...
*  SaRNA
... s are typically 21 nucleotides in length with 2 nucleotides overhang at the 3' end of each strand, the same structure of a ... saRNA by Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma-specific RNA Aptamers Inhibits Tumor Growth In Vivo". Molecular Therapy. 24: 1106-16 ...