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*  Hok/sok system
The F plasmid contains another homologous toxin-antitoxin system called srnB. The first type I toxin-antitoxin system to be ... Daughter cells without a copy of the R1 plasmid die because they do not have the means to produce more sok antitoxin transcript ... It was the first type I toxin-antitoxin pair to be identified through characterisation of a plasmid-stabilising locus. It is a ... Due to the short half-life of the sok antitoxin, daughter cells inherit only small amounts and it quickly degrades. If a ...
*  Toxin-antitoxin system
Type III toxin-antitoxin systems rely on direct interaction between a toxic protein and an RNA antitoxin. The toxic effects of ... Type I toxin-antitoxin systems rely on the base-pairing of complementary antitoxin RNA with the toxin's mRNA. Translation of ... Toxin-antitoxin systems are typically classified according to how the antitoxin neutralises the toxin. In a Type I toxin- ... Toxin-antitoxin database Van Melderen L, Saavedra De Bast M (March 2009). Rosenberg, Susan M., ed. "Bacterial Toxin-Antitoxin ...
*  LdrD-RdlD toxin-antitoxin system
... as is common with Type 1 toxin-antitoxin systems. Toxin-antitoxin system Hok/sok system RatA Kawano M, Oshima T, Kasai H, Mori ... This is in keeping with other type I toxin-antitoxin systems. Northern blots showed that ldrD and rdlD are both transcribed and ... Fozo EM, Makarova KS, Shabalina SA, Yutin N, Koonin EV, Storz G (June 2010). "Abundance of type I toxin-antitoxin systems in ... Van Melderen L, Saavedra De Bast M (March 2009). "Bacterial toxin-antitoxin systems: more than selfish entities?". PLoS Genet. ...
*  Antitoxin
An antitoxin is an antibody with the ability to neutralize a specific toxin. Antitoxins are produced by certain animals, plants ... To prevent serum sickness, it is often best to use antitoxin generated from the same species (e.g. use human antitoxin to treat ... When the antitoxin is obtained from the blood, it is purified and injected into a human or other animal, inducing passive ... Antitoxins are made within organisms, but can be injected into other organisms, including humans. This procedure involves ...
*  Diphtheria antitoxin
... was developed and came into medical use in the late 1800s. It is on the World Health Organization's List ... Diphtheria antitoxin (DAT) is a medication made up of antibodies used in the treatment of diphtheria. It is no longer ... Diphtheria antitoxin is made from the blood plasma of horses that have been immunized against diphtheria toxin. It works by ... "A review of the international issues surrounding the availability and demand for diphtheria antitoxin for therapeutic use". ...
*  Epsilon antitoxin
In molecular biology, the epsilon antitoxin, produced by various prokaryotes, forms part of a post-segregational killing system ...
*  Toxin-antitoxin database
TADB is a database of Type 2 toxin-antitoxin loci in bacterial and archaeal genomes. Toxin-antitoxin system Shao, Yucheng; ... a web-based resource for Type 2 toxin-antitoxin loci in bacteria and archaea". Nucleic Acids Res. England. 39 (Database issue ...
*  Heptavalent botulism antitoxin
CDC/MMWR (March 19, 2010): "Investigational Heptavalent Botulinum Antitoxin (HBAT) to Replace Licensed Botulinum Antitoxin AB ... The Botulism Antitoxin Heptavalent (A, B, C, D, E, F, G) - (Equine) (BAT) - BAT, made by Cangene Corporation, now a subsidiary ... A related product - Botulism AntiToxin, Heptavalent, Equine, Types A, B, C, D, E, F and G (HE-BAT) - is also available to the U ... This "equine" antitoxin requires skin testing with escalating dose challenges before full dose administration to obviate ...
*  SymE-SymR toxin-antitoxin system
It is a type I toxin-antitoxin system, and is under regulation by the antitoxin, SymR. SymR was originally labelled RyjC and is ... Toxin-antitoxin system Hok/sok system Kawano M, Aravind L, Storz G (May 2007). "An antisense RNA controls synthesis of an SOS- ... The SymE-SymR toxin-antitoxin system consists of a small hydrophobic toxin named SymE and a non-coding RNA called SymR which ... Buts L, Lah J, Dao-Thi MH, Wyns L, Loris R (December 2005). "Toxin-antitoxin modules as bacterial metabolic stress managers". ...
*  FlmA-FlmB toxin-antitoxin system
Toxin-antitoxin system IstR RNA RdlD RNA Sib RNA SymR RNA ptaRNA1 Loh SM, Cram DS, Skurray RA (June 1988). "Nucleotide sequence ... The FlmA-FlmB toxin-antitoxin system consists of FlmB RNA (F leading-region maintenance B), a family of non-coding RNAs and the ... Fozo EM, Makarova KS, Shabalina SA, Yutin N, Koonin EV, Storz G (June 2010). "Abundance of type I toxin-antitoxin systems in ... Gerdes K, Wagner EG (April 2007). "RNA antitoxins". Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 10 (2): 117-24. doi:10.1016/j.mib.2007.03.003. PMID ...
*  TxpA-RatA toxin-antitoxin system
The toxin-antitoxin system contained within skin forces the inheritance of this element, which is acting as a selfish gene. The ... It consists of a non-coding 222nt sRNA called RatA (RNA anti-toxin A) and a protein toxin named TxpA (Toxic protein A). RatA ... Toxin-antitoxin system Hok/sok system RdlD RNA Silvaggi JM, Perkins JB, Losick R (October 2005). "Small untranslated RNA ... Fozo EM, Makarova KS, Shabalina SA, Yutin N, Koonin EV, Storz G (June 2010). "Abundance of type I toxin-antitoxin systems in ...
*  TisB-IstR toxin-antitoxin system
The TisB-IstR toxin-antitoxin system is the first known toxin-antitoxin system which is induced by the SOS response in response ... Toxin-antitoxin system Sib RNA hok/sok system Vogel J, Argaman L, Wagner EG, Altuvia S (December 2004). "The small RNA IstR ... There are two small RNAs encoded by the IstR locus: IstR-1 and IstR-2, of which IstR-1 works as antitoxins against the toxic ... Fozo EM, Makarova KS, Shabalina SA, Yutin N, Koonin EV, Storz G (June 2010). "Abundance of type I toxin-antitoxin systems in ...
*  SprA1/SprA1as toxin/antitoxin system
The SprA1/SPrA1as toxin/antitoxin system identified in Staphylococcus aureus, belongs to the Type I system encoding toxin ... "Functional and structural insights of a Staphylococcus aureus apoptotic-like membrane peptide from a toxin-antitoxin module". ... protein: SprA1 and antitoxin RNA: SprA1as. The SprA1as postranscriptionally regulates SprA1 encoding small membrane damaging ...
*  SrnB-SrnC toxin-antitoxin system
The SrnB-SrnC toxin-antitoxin system of the F plasmid is homologous to the hok/sok system of R1. Like the hok/sok system, it ... an antitoxin with complementarity to srnB. The suspected method of regulation has not been directly tested for this system, ...
*  ParDE type II toxin-antitoxin system
The parDE type II toxin-antitoxin system is one example of the bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems that encode two proteins ... The antitoxin protein of each system interacts with its cognate toxin to neutralise the activity of the toxin and in the ... Toxin-antitoxin database Jensen RB, Gerdes K (1995). "Programmed cell death in bacteria: proteic plasmid stabilization systems ... Oberer M, Zangger K, Prytulla S, Keller W (January 2002). "The anti-toxin ParD of plasmid RK2 consists of two structurally ...
*  CcdA/CcdB Type II Toxin-antitoxin system
The CcdA/CCdB Type II Toxin-antitoxin system is one example of the bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems that encode two ... The antitoxin protein of each system interacts with its cognate toxin to neutralise the activity of the toxin and in the ... In absence of the antitoxin, the CcdB poison traps DNA-gyrase cleavable complexes, inducing breaks into DNA and cell death. ... 2012). "A Common Origin for the Bacterial Toxin-Antitoxin Systems parD and ccd, Suggested by Analyses of Toxin/Target and Toxin ...
*  PtaRNA1
These observations are in accordance with those made of Type I toxin-antitoxin systems. In type I toxin-antitoxin systems, the ... Type I toxin-antitoxin loci are frequently found in both prokaryotic chromosomes and plasmids. The secondary structure of ... Hok/sok system Toxin-antitoxin system Findeiss S, Schmidtke C, Stadler PF, Bonas U (March 2010). "A novel family of plasmid- ... Gerdes K, Wagner EG (April 2007). "RNA antitoxins". Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 10 (2): 117-24. doi:10.1016/j.mib.2007.03.003. PMID ...
*  Anti-tetanus immunoglobulin
... , also known as tetanus immune globulin (TIG) and tetanus antitoxin, is a medication made up of ... "Tetanus Antitoxin". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 8 December 2016. "Immunoglobulin Prices 2013 - PAHO/WHO ...
*  Diphtheria
Patients with severe cases are put in a hospital intensive care unit and given a diphtheria antitoxin. Since antitoxin does not ... Louis children died from contaminated diphtheria antitoxin. The horse from which the antitoxin was derived died of tetanus. ... In 1919, in Dallas, Texas, 10 children were killed and 60 others made seriously ill by toxic antitoxin which had passed the ... ISBN 0-07-139140-1. "Antitoxin dars 1735 and 1740." The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., Vol 6, No 2. p. 338. Shulman, S. ...
*  The Adventure Girls
27 (Associated Press).-Nome has a diphtheria epidemic and no antitoxin. The nearest known supply of antitoxin is at Anchorage, ... "DOGS RUSH ANTI-TOXIN FOR NOME EPIDEMIC; Two Fliers Volunteer Services". The New York Times. Associated Press. January 29, 1925 ... The antitoxin units are to leave Seattle Saturday on the steamship Alameda. . . . WASHINGTON, Jan. 29.-Possibility that an ... This is reminiscent of the 1925 serum run to Nome, a sled dog relay carrying antitoxin that was responsible for halting a ...
*  VapBC
... its cognate antitoxin. The toxin-antitoxin complex is thought to autoregulate its own operon, repressing transcription of both ... Zhang, YX; Li, J; Guo, XK; Wu, C; Bi, B; Ren, SX; Wu, CF; Zhao, GP (Jun 2004). "Characterization of a novel toxin-antitoxin ... The toxins in this family are thought to perform RNA cleavage, which is inhibited by the co-expression of the antitoxin, in a ... Toxin-antitoxin database Robson, Jennifer; McKenzie, Joanna L.; Cursons, Ray; Cook, Gregory M.; Arcus, Vickery L. (17 July 2009 ...
*  St. Mary's General Hospital (Passaic, New Jersey)
"Tetanus Antitoxin Successfully Administered". Reading Times. 1898-10-20. p. 2. Retrieved 2017-10-27. "General Hospital May ...
*  Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research
Plasma derivatives, including immunoglobulins, hyperimmune products, and antitoxins. Human cells, tissues, and cellular and ...
*  Leroy Hood
Rees, Anthony R. (2015). The Antibody Molecule: From Antitoxins to Therapeutic Antibodies. Oxford University Press. pp. 104-120 ...
*  Botulism
The second antitoxin, heptavalent (A,B,C,D,E,F,G) botulinum antitoxin, is derived from "despeciated" equine IgG antibodies ... This human-derived antitoxin has been shown to be both safe and effective for the treatment of infant botulism. However, the ... A trivalent antitoxin containing antibodies raised against botulinum toxin types A, B, and E is used most commonly, however a ... To avoid this, a human-derived antitoxin has been developed and approved by the U.S. FDA in 2003 for the treatment of infant ...