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*  Factor X
... a plays a key role in all three of these stages. In stage 1, Factor VII binds to the transmembrane protein TF on the ... antithrombin (AT) to inactivate several coagulation factors IIa, Xa, XIa and XIIa. The affinity of unfractionated heparin and ... This model has three stages: 1) initiation of coagulation on TF-bearing cells, 2) amplification of the procoagulant signal by ... The S4 sub-pocket has three ligand binding domains: the "hydrophobic box", the "cationic hole" and the water site. Factor Xa ...
*  Heparin cofactor II
Pizzo SV (1989). "Serpin receptor 1: a hepatic receptor that mediates the clearance of antithrombin III-proteinase complexes". ... heparin cofactor activities in a family with hereditary antithrombin III deficiency: evidence for a second heparin cofactor in ... This protein shares homology with antithrombin and other members of the alpha 1-antitrypsin superfamily. Mutations in this gene ... "minor antithrombin"). The product encoded by this gene is a serine proteinase inhibitor which rapidly inhibits thrombin in the ...
*  Antithrombin III deficiency
... (abbreviated ATIII deficiency) is a deficiency of antithrombin III. It is a rare hereditary ... Information on antithrombin from UIUC Non-profit advocacy group for patients and families with antithrombin deficiency. ... ATIII binds to thrombin and then forms the thrombin-anti thrombin complex or TAT complex. This is a major natural pathway of ... Antithrombin Editor: Robert J Kurman, Blaustein's Pathology of the Female Genital Tract, Fifth Edition, 2002, Ch. 23, Diseases ...
*  Thrombophilia
The main ones are antithrombin III deficiency, protein C deficiency and protein S deficiency. Milder rare congenital ... Antithrombin deficiency is present in 0.2% of the general population and 0.5-7.5% of people with venous thrombosis. Protein C ... 13 (2): iii, ix-x, 1-91. doi:10.3310/hta13020. PMID 19080721. Wu O, Greer IA (September 2007). "Is screening for thrombophilia ... Even small perturbances of proteins, such as the reduction of antithrombin to only 70-80% of the normal level, can increase the ...
*  Discovery and development of direct thrombin inhibitors
All three studies showed that the risk of new thrombosis was decreased with the use of lepirudin, but the risk for major ... DTIs aren't dependent to cofactors like antithrombin to inhibit thrombin so they can both inhibit free/soluble thrombin as well ... Three prospective studies, called the Heparin-Associated-Thrombocytopenia (HAT) 1,2, and 3, were performed that compared ... In contrast, heparin drugs bind in exosite 2 and form a bridge between thrombin and antithrombin, a natural anticoagulant ...
*  Thrombin
In human adults, the normal blood level of antithrombin activity has been measured to be around 1.1 units/mL. Newborn levels of ... Heparin increases the affinity of antithrombin to thrombin (as well as factor Xa). The direct thrombin inhibitors, a newer ... Thrombin is also inactivated by antithrombin, a serine protease inhibitor. The molecular weight of prothrombin is approximately ... 1 (3): 29-51. ,access-date= requires ,url= (help) Andrew M, Paes B, Milner R, Johnston M, Mitchell L, Tollefsen DM, Powers P ( ...
*  Fondaparinux
Unlike direct factor Xa inhibitors, it mediates its effects indirectly through antithrombin III, but unlike heparin, it is ... Binding of heparin/HS to ATIII has been shown to increase the anti-coagulant activity of antithrombin III 1000 fold. In ... this monomeric sequence is thought to form the high-affinity binding site for the anti-coagulant factor antithrombin III (ATIII ... Heart J. 29 (3): 324-31. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehm616. PMID 18245119. Arixtra home page Alchemia home page. ...
*  List of OMIM disorder codes
PITX3 Antithrombin III deficiency; 613118; AT3 Antley-Bixler syndrome; 207410; FGFR2 Antley-Bixler syndrome-like with ... GNPTAB Mucolipidosis III alpha/beta; 252600; GNPTAB Mucolipidosis III gamma; 252605; GNPTAG Mucolipidosis IV; 252650; MCOLN1 ... SDHAF1 Mitochondrial complex III deficiency; 124000; BCS1L Mitochondrial complex III deficiency; 124000; UQCRB Mitochondrial ... type III; 130020; COL3A1 Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, type IV; 130050; COL3A1 Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, type VI; 225400; PLOD Ehlers- ...
*  Margaret Oakley Dayhoff
... antithrombin-III, alpha-antitrypsin, and ovalbumin; epidermal growth factor and the light chain of coagulation factor X; and ... Dayhoff also served on the editorial boards of three journals: DNA, Journal of Molecular Evolution and Computers in Biology and ... apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, C-I and C-III. Based on this work, Dayhoff and her coworkers developed a set of substitution ...
*  Nephrotic syndrome
... particularly those caused by a decrease in blood antithrombin III levels due to leakage. Antithrombin III counteracts the ... is a greater predisposition for the formation of blood clots that is caused by a decrease in the levels of antithrombin III in ... Treatment is with oral anticoagulants (not heparin as heparin acts via anti-thrombin 3 which is lost in the proteinuria so it ... antithrombin or the immunoglobulins to pass through the cell membrane and appear in urine. Albumin is the main protein in the ...
*  Antithrombin
... is also termed Antithrombin III (AT III). The designations Antithrombin I through to Antithrombin IV originate in ... Antithrombin III (AT III) refers to a substance in plasma that inactivates thrombin. Antithrombin IV (AT IV) refers to an ... AT III is generally referred to solely as "Antithrombin" and it is Antithrombin III that is discussed in this article. ... Native antithrombin can be converted to latent antithrombin (L-antithrombin) by heating alone or heating in the presence of ...
*  Heparinoid
Some examples of heparin binding proteins include antithrombin III. It is thought that much protein interaction with heparin is ... 3 (5984): 614-6. doi:10.1136/bmj.3.5984.614. JSTOR 20406780. PMC 1674425 . PMID 51664. Rutjes AW, Jüni P, da Costa BR, Trelle S ... 157 (3): 180-91. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-157-3-201208070-00473. PMID 22868835. Template:Nieforth, Karl A., and Zbigniew J. ... Pharmacopeia Heparin Stage Two Monograph Revisions Open Microphone Web Meeting March 3, 2009 Powerpoint Presentation. Morris, ...
*  Reptilase time
Unlike thrombin, reptilase is resistant to inhibition by antithrombin III. Thus, the reptilase time is not prolonged in blood ...
*  Serpin
Petitou M, van Boeckel CA (June 2004). "A synthetic antithrombin III binding pentasaccharide is now a drug! What comes next?". ... Hunt LT, Dayhoff MO (July 1980). "A surprising new protein superfamily containing ovalbumin, antithrombin-III, and alpha 1- ... All typically have three β-sheets (named A, B and C) and eight or nine α-helices (named hA-hI). The most significant regions to ... "Antithrombin-S195A factor Xa-heparin structure reveals the allosteric mechanism of antithrombin activation". The EMBO Journal. ...
*  Anti-thrombin antibodies
... antithrombin III), which can be distinguished from autoimmune anti-thrombin. Anti-thrombin antibodies can react with both types ... Autoimmune anti-thrombin was also found to inhibit the binding of antithrombin III to thrombin. Such activities are more often ... "Antigenic changes produced by complex formation between thrombin and antithrombin-III". J. Immunol. 127 (1): 239-44. PMID ... "Monoclonal antibodies directed against human alpha-thrombin and the thrombin-antithrombin III complex". Thromb. Res. 36 (5): ...
*  Anticoagulant
It works by activating antithrombin III, which blocks thrombin from clotting blood. Heparin can be used in vivo (by injection ... The antithrombin protein itself is used as a protein therapeutic that can be purified from human plasma or produced ... "Thrombate III label" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-11-15. Research, Center for Biologics Evaluation and. " ... Fondaparinux is a synthetic sugar composed of the five sugars (pentasaccharide) in heparin that bind to antithrombin. It is a ...
*  Hypercoagulability in pregnancy
However, the other major anticoagulants, protein C and antithrombin III, remain constant. Fibrinolysis is impaired by an ... and antithrombin III deficiency. Hypercoagulability in pregnancy, particularly due to inheritable thrombophilia, can lead to ... Both anti-IIa and anti-Xa activity may return up to three hours after protamine reversal, possibly due to release of additional ... Pregnancy changes the plasma levels of many clotting factors, such as fibrinogen, which can rise up to three times its normal ...
*  Acute fatty liver of pregnancy
Castro MA, Goodwin TM, Shaw KJ, Ouzounian JG, McGehee WG (1996). "Disseminated intravascular coagulation and antithrombin III ... Deficiency of LCHAD (3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) leads to an accumulation of medium and long chain fatty acids. When this ... 20 (3): 420-422. doi:10.1023/A:1005310903004. PMID 9266371. Wanders RJ, Vreken P, den Boer ME, Wijburg FA, van Gennip AH, IJlst ... It is thought to be caused by a disordered metabolism of fatty acids by mitochondria in the mother, caused by long-chain 3- ...
*  Prothrombinase
After the antithrombin III binds to Factor Xa, the Fondaparinux is released and can activate another antithrombin. Another drug ... Fondaparinux binds to antithrombin III and activates the molecule for Factor Xa inhibition. In fact, Fondaparinux imparts an ... Idraparinux also binds antithrombin III, however with a 30-fold increase in affinity as compared to Fondaparinux. Idraparinux ... Factor Xa is inhibited by the antithrombin III/heparin system, which also acts to inhibit thrombin. Deficiencies of either ...
*  Warfarin necrosis
Kiehl R, Hellstern P, Wenzel E (January 1987). "Hereditary antithrombin III (AT III) deficiency and atypical localization of a ... and antithrombin III deficiency. Although the above theory is the most commonly accepted theory, others believe that it is a ... Warfarin necrosis usually occurs three to five days after drug therapy is begun, and a high initial dose increases the risk of ... which usually occurs three to eight weeks after the start of anticoagulation therapy. No report has described this disorder in ...
*  HS3ST1
"Enzymatic modification of heparan sulfate on a biochip promotes its interaction with antithrombin III". Biochem. Biophys. Res. ... Heparan sulfate glucosamine 3-O-sulfotransferase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HS3ST1 gene. Heparan sulfate ... The D-glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase reaction: target and inhibitor saccharides". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (19): 11267-75. doi: ... "Entrez Gene: HS3ST1 heparan sulfate (glucosamine) 3-O-sulfotransferase 1". Razi N, Lindahl U (1995). "Biosynthesis of heparin/ ...
*  Histidine-rich glycoprotein
Koide T, Odani S, Ono T (November 1985). "Human histidine-rich glycoprotein: simultaneous purification with antithrombin III ... 31 (3): 239-46. doi:10.1203/00006450-199203000-00009. PMID 1561009. van den Berg EA, le Clercq E, Kluft C, Koide T, van der Zee ... 34 (3): 307-12. doi:10.1007/s12016-007-8058-6. PMID 18219588. Hennis BC, van Boheemen PA, Wakabayashi S, Koide T, Hoffmann JJ, ... 412 (3): 559-62. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(97)00827-2. PMID 9276466. Shigekiyo T, Yoshida H, Matsumoto K, Azuma H, Wakabayashi S, ...
*  Reference ranges for blood tests
MedlinePlus Encyclopedia 003652 Antithrombin III at eMedicine Antithrombin CO000300 in Coagulation Test Handbook at ... 80 (3): 752-8. PMID 15321818. Reusch J, Ackermann H, Badenhoop K (May 2009). "Cyclic changes of vitamin D and PTH are primarily ... 18 (3): 228-37. doi:10.1016/j.ghir.2007.09.005. PMID 17997337. Taken from the assay method giving the lowest and highest ... 25 (3): 274-5. doi:10.1097/00043426-200303000-00019. PMID 12621252. Derived from mass values using molar mass of 44324.5 g/mol ...
*  Purpura fulminans
... acute deficiencies of proteins C and S and early treatment with antithrombin III concentrates". Intensive Care Med. 16 (2): 121 ... resulting in decreased synthesis of the regulatory proteins antithrombin, protein C and protein S, with increased synthesis of ... 16 (3): 233-237. doi:10.1080/088800199277281. PMID 10326221. Levin M, Eley BS, Louis J, Cohen H, Young L, Heyderman RS (1995 ... 42 (3): 572-581. doi:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2006.11.018. PMC 1983066 . PMID 17276456. Goldenberg NA, Manco-Johnson MJ (2008). "Protein ...
*  Inverted repeat
The antithrombin III gene's coding region is an example of an imperfect inverted repeat as shown in the figure on the right. ... The three main repeats which are largely found in particular DNA constructs include the closely precise homopurine- ... Specifically, the missense mutation would lead to a defective gene and a deficiency in antithrombin which could result in the ... Sets 1 and 2 are the stem of stem-loop A and are part of the loop for stem-loop B. Similarly, sets 3 and 4 are the stem for ...
*  Susan K. Gilmour
In her examination of thrombin's effects on cancer growth, Gilmour has demonstrated that the antithrombin drug dabigatran ... 77 (3): 345-60. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4644(20000601)77:3. 3.0.CO;2-P. PMID 10760944. Gilmour, SK; Avdalovic, N; Madara, T; ... 224 (3): 249-56. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2006.11.023. PMC 2098876 . PMID 17234230. Gilmour, SK; Birchler, M; Smith, MK; Rayca, K; ... 3 (1): e27360. doi:10.4161/onci.27360. PMC 3976981 . PMID 24711956. Evageliou, NF; Haber, M; Vu, A; Laetsch, TW; Murray, J; ...
*  Sulodexide
... sulodexide potentiates the antiprotease activities of both antithrombin III and heparin cofactor II simultaneously. Clinically ... 46 (3): 797-806. doi:10.1038/ki.1994.335. PMID 7527876. Škrha J, Perušičová J, Pont'uch P, Okša A, et al. (1997). "Treatment ... 24 (3-4): 214-26. doi:10.1111/j.1527-3466.2006.00214.x. PMID 17214598. Harenberg J (1998). "Review of pharmacodynamics, ...