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*  HLA-DOB
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DOB gene. HLA-DOB ... Andrieu JM, Even P, Venet A (1986). "AIDS and related syndromes as a viral-induced autoimmune disease of the immune system: an ... 1992). "DNA sequence analysis of 66 kb of the human MHC class II region encoding a cluster of genes for antigen processing". J ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ...
*  HLA-DOA
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO alpha chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DOA gene. HLA-DOA ... Andrieu JM, Even P, Venet A (1986). "AIDS and related syndromes as a viral-induced autoimmune disease of the immune system: an ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... 1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ...
*  HLA-F
Viral proteins and other exogenous antigens decrease surface HLA-F expression because the exogenous proteins interact with HLA ... of HLA class I and they function together in cross-presentation of exogenous antigen. Exogenous antigen binds to a structure on ... Zhang X, Lin A, Zhang JG, Bao WG, Xu DP, Ruan YY, Yan WH (January 2013). "Alteration of HLA-F and HLA I antigen expression in ... Xu Y, Han H, Zhang F, Lv S, Li Z, Fang Z (January 2015). "Lesion human leukocyte antigen-F expression is associated with a poor ...
*  Epstein-Barr virus viral-capsid antigen
The Epstein-Barr virus viral-capsid antigen (EBV-VCA) is the viral protein that forms the viral capsid of the Epstein-Barr ... It is the antigen targeted by anti-VCA antibodies.[clarification needed] Such antibodies can be used in serology to diagnose ...
*  Siddhartha Mukherjee
in 1997 for his thesis titled The processing and presentation of viral antigens degree in 1997 for research on viral antigens ... He worked on the mechanism of activation of the immune system by viral antigens. He was awarded a D.Phil. ... The processing and presentation of viral antigens (DPhil thesis). University of Oxford. OCLC 43182774. "Medical Alumnus Wins ...
*  Orthoreovirus
Viral antigen can be detected by performing an assay. A serological assay can also be performed on the sample to look for virus ... The viral protein gyanyltransferase λ2 is responsible for capping the viral mRNA. Mammalian orthoreovirus mRNA transcripts have ... "Orthoreovirus". Viral Zone. Retrieved 1 October 2014. editors, Michael G. Rossmann, Venigalla B. Rao, (2012). Viral molecular ... "Viral Zone". Anonymous. "Orthoreovirus". ViralZone. Retrieved 1 October 2014. Anonymous. "Orthoreovirus". Viral Zone. Retrieved ...
*  Hepatitis A vaccine
Each adult dose contains 500 U of viral antigen. The pediatric dose contains 250 U of viral antigen. Vaqta: made by Merck. ... Each adult dose contains 1440 ELISA units of viral antigen adsorbed on aluminium hydroxide (0.5 mg Al). The pediatric (child) ... doses contain half the amount of viral antigen and aluminium. Healive: made by Sinovac. Inactivated hepatitis A virus cultured ... "Hepatitis, Viral, Type A". Travelers' Health: Yellow Book (CDC). Archived from the original on 28 March 2007. Retrieved 12 ...
*  Tick-borne encephalitis
In such cases a marker for TBE infection is elevated IFN-g in CSF.[citation needed] Viral antigen can usually be found in brain ... Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a viral infectious disease involving the central nervous system. The disease most often ... Tickborne encephalitis at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Factsheet from Viral Special Pathogens Branch at the ...
*  Shope papilloma virus
Fluorescent antibody study identified the locations of viral antigens in wild rabbit papillomas. They were present only in the ... In domesticated rabbits, the viral antigens were present in much smaller quantity in only superficial, keratinized layers. The ... Viral replication proteins E1 and E2 are also required to form the papilloma and keep the episomal viral genome replication low ... E4 proteins are expressed, and viral DNA amplification starts in the differentiated cells. Following this, the L1 and L2 viral ...
*  Yellow fever
Liver biopsy can verify inflammation and necrosis of hepatocytes and detect viral antigens. Because of the bleeding tendency of ... The sfRNAs are a result of incomplete degradation of the viral genome by the exonuclease and are important for viral ... Other viral hemorrhagic fevers, such as Ebola virus, Lassa virus, Marburg virus, and Junin virus, must be excluded as cause. ... The UTR contains PKS3 pseudoknot structure which serves as a molecular signal to stall the exonuclease and is the only viral ...
*  Japanese encephalitis
Viral antigen can be shown in tissues by indirect fluorescent antibody staining. Infection with Japanese encephalitis confers ... The outer envelope is formed by envelope protein and is the protective antigen. It aids in entry of the virus into the inside ... NS3 is a putative helicase, and NS5 is the viral polymerase. It has been noted that Japanese encephalitis infects the lumen of ... Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, with up to 70,000 cases reported annually. Case- ...
*  Polioencephalitis
Blood tests can be done to detect antibodies against viral antigens and foreign proteins. Virus isolation is the most sensitive ... Polioencephalitis is a viral infection of the brain, causing inflammation within the grey matter of the brain stem. The virus ... Experiments on transgenic mice are investigating the initial sites of viral replication in the host and how the virus moves ... "Polioencephalitis and the brain Fatigue Generator Model of Post-Viral Fatigue Syndromes". J. Of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. 2 (2- ...
*  Rabies in Haiti
There do exist other methods for viral antigen detection that may merit study. In 2013, the CDC and its partners began an ... Rabies is a viral disease that exists in Haiti and throughout the world. It often causes fatal inflammation of the brain in ...
*  Dengue fever
PCR and viral antigen detection are more accurate in the first seven days. In 2012 a PCR test was introduced that can run on ... where the cell's protein synthesis apparatus produces new viral proteins that replicate the viral RNA and begin to form viral ... This can be done by virus isolation in cell cultures, nucleic acid detection by PCR, viral antigen detection (such as for NS1) ... The first approach is inhibition of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (coded by NS5), which copies the viral genetic ...
*  TAP1
"Presentation of viral antigen controlled by a gene in the major histocompatibility complex". Nature. 345 (6274): 449-52. doi: ... Transporter associated with Antigen Processing 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAP1 gene. The membrane- ... Gobin SJ, Wilson L, Keijsers V, Van den Elsen PJ (1997). "Antigen processing and presentation by human trophoblast-derived cell ... WHO Nomenclature Committee for factors of the HLA system". Tissue Antigens. 39 (4): 161-73. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1992. ...
*  Herpesviridae
Viral proteins inhibit TAP preventing the MHC from picking up a viral antigen peptide. This prevents proper folding of the MHC ... allowing viral DNA to migrate to the cell nucleus. Within the nucleus, replication of viral DNA and transcription of viral ... During symptomatic infection, infected cells transcribe lytic viral genes. In some host cells, a small number of viral genes ... As discussed above, one way is by a viral chemokine homolog such as IL-10. Another mechanism to down regulate MHCs is to encode ...
*  CCDC85B
DIPA interacts with the viral antigen, HDAg, and can affect HDV replication in vitro. CCDC85B has been shown to interact with: ... "A cellular homolog of hepatitis delta antigen: implications for viral replication and evolution". Science. 274 (5284): 90-4. ... Long M, de Souza SJ, Gilbert W (May 1997). "Delta-interacting protein A and the origin of hepatitis delta antigen". Science. ... Delta-interacting protein A (DIPA), a cellular gene product, has been found to have homology to hepatitis delta virus antigen ( ...
*  Avian nephritis virus
For definitive diagnosis the virus or viral antigens must be demonstrated in the affected tissue(s). Diagnostic techniques used ...
*  Julianna Lisziewicz
It is a new immunization strategy that uses dendritic cells to increase viral antigen production. DermaVir contains a plasmid ... These complementary DNA pieces can bind to the HIV viral mRNA and prevent the HIV virus from replicating itself. The use of ... Langerhans cells are a natural agent of antigen release. They are the precursors of dendritic cells in the skin and mucosa. ... Another investigation Lisziewicz is involved with is how human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes regulate immune responses. This ...
*  Bovine viral diarrhea
Antigen ELISA and rtPCR are currently the most frequently performed tests to detect virus or viral antigen. Individual testing ... PIs act as viral reservoirs and are the principal source of viral infection but transiently infected animals and contaminated ... Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) or bovine viral diarrhoea (UK English), and previously referred to as bovine virus diarrhoea (BVD ... Following viral entry and contact with the mucosal lining of the mouth or nose, replication occurs in epithelial cells. BVDV ...
*  Daniel A. Portnoy
Ikonomidis, G.; Paterson, Y.; Kos, F. J.; Portnoy, D. A. (1994-12-01). "Delivery of a viral antigen to the class I processing ... "Induction of a cellular immune response to a foreign antigen by a recombinant Listeria monocytogenes vaccine". Journal of ...
*  Pepscan
Geysen M, et al (1984). Use of peptide synthesis to probe viral antigens for epitopes to a resolution of a single amino acid. ...
*  José Esparza
Drake, S; Schaffer, PA; Esparza, J; Mayor, HD (Jul 1974). "Complementation of adeno-associated satellite viral antigens and ... By this stage Esparza had attained hands-on command of many aspects of viral research techniques (i.e., virus-isolation, ... From 1986 to 2014 he worked continuously as a viral vaccine expert and senior public health adviser for international health ... During his undergraduate teenage years, Esparza teamed up with some of his teachers in viral research studies designed to ...
*  ISCOM
"Qualitative T-Helper Responses to Multiple Viral Antigens Correlate with Vaccine-Induced Immunity to Simian/Human ... Moreover, the technology is highly efficient; its long-lasting immune responses allow reduction of the antigen dose. Typically ... If required, however, the antigen can also be incorporated into the structure. Immunologic adjuvant Immune system Immunology ... Since the ISCOM-Matrix is simply mixed with the antigen post-manufacturing, it offers great production advantages and ...
*  Porcine parvovirus
The first unequivocal evidence of viral replication is the appearance of nascent viral antigen in the nucleus (Fig. 2A). In at ... Viral antigen is detected in the cytoplasm of cells soon after infection if the inoculum contains a high titer of virus and ... 5). Virus and viral antigen are widely distributed in tissues of infected embryos and their placentas, and it is probable that ... Viral antigen is especially concentrated in lymphoid tissues (Fig. 3A, B). Many pigs, irrespective of age or sex, have a ...
*  Phage display
Instead, one could cleave in a section between the bead and the antigen to elute. Since the pIII is intact it does not matter ... so that they are displayed on the surface of the viral particle. The protein displayed corresponds to the genetic sequence ... The technique is also used to determine tumour antigens (for use in diagnosis and therapeutic targeting) and in searching for ... novel expression vectors that display cloned antigens on the virion surface". Science. 228 (4705): 1315-7. Bibcode:1985Sci... ...
*  Glioblastoma
Association of viral antigen in low grade gliomas". Journal of Clinical Virology. 46 (1): 37-42. doi:10.1016/j.jcv.2009.05.011 ... McFaline-Figueroa, JR; Wen, PY (February 2017). "The Viral Connection to Glioblastoma". Current infectious disease reports. 19 ...