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*  Microneme
... possessed by Apicomplexa protozoans that are restricted to the apical third of the protozoan body. They are surrounded by a ... These organelles secrete several proteins such as the Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen-1, or PfAMA1, and ... Erythrocyte family antigen, or EBA, family proteins. These proteins specialize in binding to erythrocyte surface receptors and ...
*  Entamoeba coli
I: Protozoans and Diarrhea". Journal of travel medicine. 4 (1): 17-31. doi:10.1111/j.1708-8305.1997.tb00769.x. PMID 9815473. ... antigen detection tests, immunochromatographic assays, and DNA-based diagnostic tests. Some uses of microscopy also involve the ... "Intestinal Protozoa". Tulane.edu. 2015-06-03. Retrieved 2015-12-03. Jim McMorran; Damian Crowther; Stew McMorran; Steve ... "The other intestinal protozoa: Enteric infections caused by Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba coli, and Dientamoeba fragilis". ...
*  Alphavirus
They could therefore be used to vaccinate against viral, bacterial, protozoan, and tumor antigens. Alphavirus infection ...
*  Duffy antigen system
Historically the role of this antigen other than its importance as a receptor for Plasmodium protozoa has not been appreciated ... Because the Duffy antigen is uncommon in those of Black African descent, the presence of this antigen has been used to detect ... This antigen along with other blood group antigens was used to identify the Basque people as a genetically separate group. Its ... The Duffy antigen is expressed in greater quantities on reticulocytes than on mature erythrocytes. While the Duffy antigen is ...
*  Antigenic variation
The immune system will then "remember" that particular antigen, and defenses aimed at that antigen become part of the immune ... Antigenic variation refers to the mechanism by which an infectious agent such as a protozoan, bacterium or virus alters its ... as their antigens are no longer recognized by the host's immune system. When an organism is exposed to a particular antigen (i. ... However, if the pathogen can alter its surface antigens, it can evade the host's acquired immune system. This will allow the ...
*  Crithidia luciliae
As a parasitic protozoan, C.luciliae lacks the ability to biosynthetically produce purine bases and therefore needs to salvage ... The high concentration of dsDNA and the absence of human nuclear antigens in the kinetoplast provides a specific substrate for ... C.luciliae is a eukaryotic single-cell protozoan. The family Trypanosomatidae belongs to the order kinetoplastida and is ... "Guidelines for clinical use of the antinuclear antibody test and tests for specific autoantibodies to nuclear antigens. ...
*  Phagocyte
Mast cells express MHC class II molecules and can participate in antigen presentation; however, the mast cell's role in antigen ... Pathogenic bacteria and protozoa have developed a variety of methods to resist attacks by phagocytes, and many actually survive ... stimulate lymphocytes to produce antibodies by an important process called antigen presentation. Antigen presentation is a ... The protozoan parasites Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania infect macrophages, and each has a unique way of ...
*  Outline of immunology
Antigen Antigenicity Immunogen Superantigen Allergen Hapten Epitope Linear Conformational Mimotope Tumor antigen Antigen- ... Pathogens Pathogenic bacteria Viruses Fungi Protozoa Parasites Tumors Allergens Self-proteins Autoimmunity Alloimmunity Cross- ... T cells Antigen receptor - T cell receptor (TCR) Subunits - TRA@ / TRB@ / TRD@ / TRG@ Co-receptors CD8 (CD8α / CD8β) CD4 ... B cells Antigen receptor - B cell receptor (BCR) Subunits- Immunoglobulin heavy chain / Immunoglobulin light chain Co-receptors ...
*  Leishmanolysin
Button, L.L.; McMaster, W.R. (1988). "Molecular cloning of the major surface antigen of Leishmania". J. Exp. Med. 167: 724-729 ... This membrane-bound glycoprotein is present in the promastigote of various species of Leishmania protozoans. ...
*  SAG1 protein domain
The structure of the immunodominant SAG1 antigen reveals a homodimeric configuration. This family of surface antigens is found ... SAG1 is found on the surface of a protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. This parasite infects almost any warm-blooded ... This particular antigen contains many cysteine residues which lead to disulphide bridge formation. This domain has a sequence ... He XL, Grigg ME, Boothroyd JC, Garcia KC (2002). "Structure of the immunodominant surface antigen from the Toxoplasma gondii ...
*  Immunoglobulin E
Binding of antigens to IgE already bound by the FcεRI on mast cells causes cross-linking of the bound IgE and the aggregation ... IgE is utilized during immune defense against certain protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium falciparum. IgE also has an ... IgE also plays a pivotal role in responses to allergens, such as: anaphylactic drugs, bee stings, and antigen preparations used ... Basophils, upon the cross-linking of their surface IgE by antigens, release type 2 cytokines like interleukin-4 (IL-4) and ...
*  Frederick Parker Gay
He continued to research antibodies and antigens. In 1918 he published his book on typhoid fever, and in 1921 he became Head of ... He contributed to Agents of Disease and Host Resistance(1935) concerned with bacteria, fungi, protozoa, rickettsiae and viruses ...
*  Grand Challenges In Global Health
Grand Challenge #5: Solve How to Design Antigens for Effective, Protective immunity The priority areas for this challenge ... and complex pathogens such as protozoa and fungi. Dr. Hongkui Deng of Peking University in China is currently working with his ...
*  Virotherapy
That antigen could be from any species of virus/bactera or even human disease antigens, for example cancer antigens. The ... Recent papers have proposed the use of viruses to treat infections caused by protozoa. Chester M. Southam, a researcher at ... Trovax is an immunotherapy that uses a pox-virus bearing the tumour antigen 5T4, to induce an immune response against a variety ... Viral immunotherapy uses viruses to introduce specific antigens to the patient's immune system. Unlike traditional vaccines, in ...
*  Alveolar macrophage
"Downregulation of the Antigen Presenting Cell Function(s) of Pulmonary Dendritic Cells in Vivo by Resident Alveolar Macrophages ... "Macrophage-Mediated Innate Host Defense Against Protozoan Parasites." Critical reviews in microbiology 28.3 (2002): 187-248. ... It enhances MHC class II antigen (extracellular protein complex that interacts exclusively with CD4-T cells as part of the ... Yersinia enterocolitica has also been shown to releases virulence antigen LcrV, which induces IL-10 through Toll-like receptor- ...
*  Piet Borst
De Lange T, Borst P. Genomic environment of the expression-linked extra copies of genes for surface antigens of Trypanosoma ... Ouellette M, Borst P. Drug resistance and P-glycoprotein gene amplification in the protozoan parasite Leishmania. Res Microbiol ... Novel expression-linked copies of the genes for variant surface antigens in trypanosomes. Nature. 1980;284:78-80. Boothroyd JC ... Introduction of PFG electrophoresis for the separation of chromosome-sized DNA molecules of several protozoa (20) (21). The ...
*  Zanvil A. Cohn
... in which the body produces antibodies in response to exposure to an antigen. In pioneering studies, both at the laboratory ... large cells that can surround and digest foreign substances like protozoa and bacteria. He applied these insights to patient- ...
*  Occupational hazards of human nail dust
It has been suggested that absorption of trichophyton fungal antigens can give rise to immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody ... Possible ocular hazards result from exposure to foreign bodies, allergens, bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa that can be ... of the population has allergic antibodies to fungal antigens, and half of them, that is 5% of the population, would be ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D12.776)
... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.950.500 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.377.715.647.100 - alpha-macroglobulins MeSH ... protozoan MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.254 - antibodies, viral MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.254.150 - deltaretrovirus ... antigen-antibody complex MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.301 - antitoxins MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.301.138 - antivenins MeSH ... antigens, polyomavirus transforming MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.420 - papillomavirus e7 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.750 - ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D12.776.124)
... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.950.500 -- antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.124.790.106.050 -- alpha 1-antichymotrypsin ... protozoan MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.254 -- antibodies, viral MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.254.150 -- deltaretrovirus ... antigens, cd46 MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.920.250 -- complement c1 inactivator proteins MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.920.250.500 -- ... antigen-antibody complex MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301 -- antitoxins MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301.138 -- antivenins MeSH ...
*  Human parasite
The most accurate diagnosis is by qPcr DNA antigen assay, not generally available by primary care physicians in the USA: most ... Human parasites include various protozoa and worms which may infect humans that cause parasitic diseases. Human parasites are ...
*  Cell-mediated immunity
... antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen. Historically, the ... It is most effective in removing virus-infected cells, but also participates in defending against fungi, protozoans, cancers, ... Naive T cells, mature T cells that have yet to encounter an antigen, are converted into activated effector T cells after ... Cellular immunity protects the body by: T-cell mediated immunity or T-cell immunity : activating antigen-specific cytotoxic T ...
*  Selective sweep
While antigenic drift (the gradual change of surface antigens) is considered the traditional model for changes in the viral ... A similar case can be found in Toxoplasma gondii, a remarkably potent protozoan parasite capable of infecting warm-blooded ...
*  Parasite-stress theory
... the ability of an organism to produce a normal immune response to an antigen) had a significant relationship with fluctuating ... which measured the prevalence of protozoa and worm parasites in over 300 children, found a positive correlation between gut ...
*  Hepatocystis
The protozoa are transmitted by the bite of the insect vector. The sporozoites migrate to the liver where they typically form ... Some versions of the Duffy antigen have been associated with protection from Hepatocytis infection in yellow baboons (Papio ... Mature gametocytes are larger than a normal erythrocyte stain poorly compared to other protozoa. In both male and female ... Bray RS (1984). "Some parasitic protozoa from the Gambia". J. Euk. Microbiol. 31 (4): 577-8. Leathers CW (1978). "The ...
*  Pattern recognition receptor
PRRs also mediate the initiation of antigen-specific adaptive immune response and release of inflammatory cytokines The microbe ... fungi and protozoa. MBL predominantly recognizes certain sugar groups on the surface of microorganisms but also binds ... CLEC12B DC immunoreceptor (DCIR) subfamily which includes: DCIR/CLEC4A Dectin 2/CLEC6A Blood DC antigen 2 (BDCA2) ( CLEC4C) ... Tissue Antigens. 68 (3): 193-209. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00649.x. PMID 16948640. "Understanding Immunotherapy". Cancer. ...
*  Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis
There are six subspecies of S. neurona which can be identified by surface antigens (SAG). Equine EPM is caused by the parasites ... Protozoa: Apicomplexa), the Etiologic Agent of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis". The Journal of Parasitology. 77 (2): 212. ... Ellison SP, Omara-Opyeme AL, Yowell C, Dame J. Molecular characterization of a major 29 kDa surface antigen of Sarcocystis ... Horses produce antibodies to these surface antigens. Serum antibody testing is available that measures levels of these ...