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*  CD28
Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen Chart Human CD28 genome location and CD28 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... antigen complex without CD28:B7 interaction results in a T cell that is anergic. CD28 possesses an intracellular domain with ... Schneider H, Cai YC, Prasad KV, Shoelson SE, Rudd CE (Apr 1995). "T cell antigen CD28 binds to the GRB-2/SOS complex, ... Linsley PS, Ledbetter JA (1993). "The role of the CD28 receptor during T cell responses to antigen". Annu. Rev. Immunol. 11: ...
*  Theralizumab
... or human CD28 identified so-called "superagonistic" antibodies that could stimulate T cells without concurrent antigen-receptor ... the CD28 receptor of the immune system's T cells. CD28 is the co-receptor for the T cell receptor; It binds to receptors on the ... "TGN1412 is a humanised monoclonal antibody directed against the human CD28 antigen. The molecule was genetically engineered by ... "Expression of CD28 and CD86 by Human Eosinophils and Role in the Secretion of Type 1 Cytokines (Interleukin 2 and Interferon { ...
*  Cytokine-induced killer cell
Hombach, AA; Rappl, G; Abken, H (December 2013). "Arming cytokine-induced killer cells with chimeric antigen receptors: CD28 ... redirected by chimeric antigen receptors with an antibody-defined specificity for different tumor antigens, showed an improved ... "Targeting of acute myeloid leukaemia by cytokine-induced killer cells redirected with a novel CD123-specific chimeric antigen ... outperforms combined CD28-OX40 "super-stimulation"". Molecular Therapy. 21 (12): 2268-77. doi:10.1038/mt.2013.192. PMC 3863798 ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D23)
... antigens, cd26 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.127 --- antigens, cd27 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.128 --- antigens, cd28 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd26 MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.127 --- antigens, cd27 MeSH D23.050.301.264.894.128 --- antigens, cd28 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd26 MeSH D23.101.100.110.127 --- antigens, cd27 MeSH D23.101.100.110.128 --- antigens, cd28 MeSH D23.101.100.110.129 ... antigens, cd26 MeSH D23.101.100.894.127 --- antigens, cd27 MeSH D23.101.100.894.128 --- antigens, cd28 MeSH D23.101.100.894.156 ...
*  MAPK phosphatase
"Inhibitory Role for Dual Specificity Phosphatase VHR in T Cell Antigen Receptor and CD28-induced Erk and Jnk Activation". ...
*  C3a (complement)
C3aR signaling along antigen-presenting cells' CD28 and CD40L pathways also plays a role in T cell proliferation and ... There are three pathways of activation, each of which leads to the formation of C3a and C3b, which is involved in antigen ... recognize and bind to pathogen-associated molecular patterns on the antigen, including sugars. These bound receptors then ...
*  AP2M1
... medium chain mu 2 subunit of the clathrin-associated adapter protein complex 2 with cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and CD28 ... medium chain mu 2 subunit of the clathrin-associated adapter protein complex 2 with cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and CD28 ...
*  CTLA-4
... on antigen-presenting cells. CTLA-4 binds CD80 and CD86 with greater affinity and avidity than CD28 thus enabling it to ... It acts as an "off" switch when bound to CD80 or CD86 on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. The CTLA-4 protein is encoded ... CTLA4 is homologous to the T-cell co-stimulatory protein, CD28, and both molecules bind to CD80 and CD86, also called B7-1 and ... T cell activation through the T cell receptor and CD28 leads to increased expression of CTLA-4. The mechanism by which CTLA-4 ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543)
... antigen, t-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824.133 -- antigens, cd28 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824.300 -- complementarity ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.124 -- antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.131 -- antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776. ... antigens, cd27 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.072 -- antigens, cd30 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.097 -- antigens, cd40 ... antigens, cd11a MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.150 -- antigens, cd11b MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.200 -- antigens, cd11c ...
*  Co-receptor
... or CD28 to bind antigens or regulate T cell activity in some way. Many co-receptor-related disorders occur due to mutations in ... In comparison, CD28 acts as a 'co-coreceptor' for the MHC-II binding with TCR and CD4. CD28 increases the Il-2 secretion from ... Carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule-1 (Caecam1) is an immunoglobulin-like co-receptor that aids in cell adhesion in ... Analysis of the CD4 coreceptor and activation-induced costimulatory molecules in antigen-mediated mature T lymphocyte death. ...
*  P110δ
In T cells, the antigen receptor (TCR) and costimulatory receptors (CD28 and ICOS) are thought to be main receptors responsible ... Genetic inactivation of p110δ in mice causes T cells to be less responsive to antigen as determined by their reduced ability to ... In immune cells, antigen receptors, cytokine receptors and costimulatory and accessory receptors stimulate tyrosine kinase ... Cook JA, August A, Henderson AJ (2002). "Recruitment of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to CD28 inhibits HIV transcription by a ...
*  Chimeric antigen receptor
More recent, third generation CARs combine multiple signaling domains, such as CD3z-CD28-41BB or CD3z-CD28-OX40, to augment ... A spacer region links the antigen binding domain to the transmembrane domain. It should be flexible enough to allow the antigen ... Bridgeman, JS; Hawkins RE; Bagley S; Blaylock M; Holland M; Gilham DE (2010). "The Optimal Antigen Response of Chimeric Antigen ... A list of tumors antigens and CARs in in vitro and in vivo trials A list of tumors antigens and CARs in in vitro and in vivo ...
*  VTCN1
These proteins are expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells and interact with ligands (e.g., CD28; MIM 186760) on T ...
*  CTL-mediated cytotoxicity
... a costimulatory signal is transmitted by the interaction between CD28 and B7 of the precursor cell and the licensed antigen ... In the second phase, affector CTLs destroy target cells by recognizing the antigen-MHC class I complex. In phase one, effector ... This results in proliferation and differentiation of the antigen-activated precursor cell into a functional effector CTL. In ... This step allows the cell to become licensed to an antigen presenting cell. Second, ...
*  T helper cell
CD28 plays an important role in decreasing the risk of T cell auto-immunity against host antigens. Once the naïve T cell has ... For example, when an antigen-presenting cell expresses an antigen on MHC class II, a CD4+ cell will aid those cells through a ... these T cells must rely on the activation of CD28 for confirmation that they recognise a foreign antigen (as CD80/CD86 is only ... that a host antigen is foreign. As a result, the CD8+ T cells treat the host cell presenting that antigen as infected, and go ...
*  Antigen-presenting cell
The latter can interact with CD28 on the surface of a CD4+ T cell. The dendritic cell is then a fully mature professional APC. ... An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays antigen complexed with major histocompatibility ... Antigen: protease degradation on YouTube - PMAP animation Antigen-Presenting Cells at the US National Library of Medicine ... Professional antigen-presenting cells, including macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells, present foreign antigens to helper T ...
*  Autocrine signalling
MHC complex on a professional antigen-presenting cell and by the B7:CD28 costimulatory signal. Upon activation, "low-affinity" ...
*  Ipilimumab
"Antigen-dependent clonal expansion of a trace population of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in vivo is dependent on CD28 ... These antigens are recognized by dendritic cells that present the antigens to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in the lymph nodes ... Following the 1987 cloning of CTLA-4 in mice, its conservation in humans and similarities with CD28 were soon noticed. CD28 at ... The CTLs recognize the cancer cells by those antigens and destroy them. However, along with the antigens, the dendritic cells ...
*  Alloimmunity
229(1):271-93 Jenkins MK, Taylor PS, Norton SD, Urdahl KB (1991), CD28 delivers a costimulatory signal involved in antigen- ... Two major types of alloantigens are blood group antigens and histocompatibility antigens. In alloimmunity, the body creates ... Antigen presentation by chemically modified splenocytes induces antigen-specific T cell unresponsiveness in vitro and in vivo. ... There are costimulatory molecules on T-cell surface and APCs express their ligands (e.g. molecule CD28, which is on the surface ...
*  Cancer immunotherapy
... the T-cell receptor binding to an antigen-MHC complex and T-cell surface receptor CD28 binding to CD80 or CD86 proteins. CTLA4 ... Dendritic cells are antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the mammalian immune system. In cancer treatment they aid cancer antigen ... Cancer vaccine Antigen 5T4 Chimeric antigen receptor Coley's Toxins Combinatorial ablation and immunotherapy Cryoimmunotherapy ... Antigens can be added to the antibody and can induce the dendritic cells to mature and provide immunity to the tumor. Dendritic ...
*  Joel N. Blankson
"The CD28/B7 pathway costimulates the response of primary murine T cells to superantigens as well as to conventional antigens". ... antigens in HIV-1-infected patients with immune reconstitution". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 183 (4): 657-661. doi: ... "Superantigens and conventional antigens induce different responses in alpha beta T-cell receptor transgenic mice". Immunology. ...
*  Immune checkpoint
CD28 itself and ICOS. CD27 - This molecule supports antigen-specific expansion of naïve T cells and is vital for the generation ... CD28 - This molecule is constitutively expressed on almost all human CD4+ T cells and on around half of all CD8 T cells. ... CD28 was the target of the TGN1412 'superagonist' which caused severe inflammatory reactions in the first-in-man study in ... The ligand for GITR is mainly expressed on antigen presenting cells. Antibodies to GITR have been shown to promote an anti- ...
*  Biochemical cascade
CD28/CD19) play an important role because they can improve the antigen/receptor binding and initiate parallel cascade events, ... These receptors, that recognize the antigen soluble (B cells) or linked to a molecule on Antigen Presenting Cells (T cells), ... The antigen receptor and signal protein form a stable complex, named BCR or TCR, in B or T cells, respectively. The family Src ... Therefore, Lyn and Lck, in lymphocytes B and T, respectively, phosphorylate ITAMs after the antigen recognition and the ...
*  B7 (protein)
CD28 and CTLA-4 each interact with both B7-1 and B7-2. There are several steps to activation of the immune system against a ... This is also called "Signal 1" and its main purpose is to guarantee antigen specificity of the T cell activation. However, MHC ... Blockade of CD28 is effective in stopping T cell activation, a mechanism that the immune system uses to down-regulate T cell ... The B7 (B7-1/B7-2) protein is present on the APC surface, and it interacts with the CD28 receptor on the T cell surface. This ...
*  T cell
Antigen-naïve T cells expand and differentiate into memory and effector T cells after they encounter their cognate antigen ... Other receptors are expressed upon activation of the T cell, such as OX40 and ICOS, but these largely depend upon CD28 for ... These self-antigens are expressed by thymic cortical epithelial cells on MHC molecules on the surface of cortical epithelial ... The second signal licenses the T cell to respond to an antigen. Without it, the T cell becomes anergic, and it becomes more ...
*  Dendritic cell
Every helper T-cell is specific to one particular antigen. Only professional antigen-presenting cells (macrophages, B ... An example of this includes the interaction of the membrane proteins of the B7 family of the dendritic cell with CD28 present ... Their main function is to process antigen material and present it on the cell surface to the T cells of the immune system. They ... Here they act as antigen-presenting cells: they activate helper T-cells and killer T-cells as well as B-cells by presenting ...