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*  Autoantibody
Initially, one B cell produces one specific kind of antibody. In either case, the B cell is allowed to proliferate or is killed ... Antibodies are produced by B cells in two ways: (i) randomly, and (ii) in response to a foreign protein or substance within the ... An autoantibody is an antibody (a type of protein) produced by the immune system that is directed against one or more of the ... The Antinuclear antibody (ANA) test is often ordered first. ANA is a marker of the autoimmune process - it is positive with a ...
*  CD154
The end-result is a B cell that is able to mass-produce specific antibodies against an antigenic target. Early evidence for ... the CD40L on the T cell binds to the B cell's CD40, causing B cell activation. The T cell also produces IL-4, which directly ... NK cells, B lymphocytes, as well as non-haematopoietic cells (smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and epithelial cells). ... B cells can present antigens to a specialized group of helper T cells called TFH cells. If an activated TFH cell recognizes the ...
*  Monoclonal antibody therapy
... can affect T cell functions directly and indirectly via cells such as Treg cells. CD8 cells can be suppressed by B cells ... Humanised antibodies are produced by grafting murine hypervariable regions on amino acid domains into human antibodies. This ... Monoclonal antibodies can target tumor cells or abnormal cells in the body that are recognized as body cells, but are ... Tumor vasculature helps tumors preferentially recruit other immune cells over T cells, in part through endothelial cell (EC)- ...
*  Trifunctional antibody
These two cell types are hybridised, yielding hybrid-hybridomas or quadromas, which produce hybrid (trifunctional) antibody as ... in eliminating tumor cells than conventional antibodies. These drugs evoke the removal of tumor cells by means of (i) antibody- ... natural killer cells, dendritic cells or other Fc receptor expressing cells to the tumor cells, leading to their destruction. ... At first, mouse hybridoma cells whose monoclonal antibodies target one of the desired antigens are produced. Independently, rat ...
*  Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis
These destroy excess antibody-producing cells in the thecal sac, thus alleviating the symptoms. A more sophisticated analysis ... a monoclonal antibody that targets the CD20 receptor on the surface of B cells, thus destroying the self-reactive B cells. ... These can be produced by cross reactivity with NMDA receptors in teratomas, which contain many cell types, including brain ... The cell subsequently lyses. Notably, this mechanism is unlikely as it causes the cell to die, which is inconsistent with ...
*  Vaccinogen
"Exploiting highly ordered subnanoliter volume microcapillaries as microtools for the analysis of antibody producing cells". ... "Vaccinogen Enhances Patient-Derived Antibody Program with Revolutionary High-Throughput Single Cell Screening and Analysis ... It is currently developing a potential cancer immunotherapy called OncoVAX, where a patient's own tumor cells are used as the ... The patient is then administered two injections of these tumor cells mixed with the TICE strain of BCG via intradermal ...
*  Lymphotoxin alpha
The gastrointestinal immune system contains up to 70-80% of the antibody producing cells of the body. During embryonic ... including cell proliferation and cell death. After LT-β receptor activation, IKK-α, β, and γ are produced, which increases ... Activation of LT-β receptors is capable of inducing cell death of cancerous cells and suppressing tumor growth. The process of ... Clinical trials involving this antibody have yet to be employed, but the creation of this antibody offers alternative ...
*  Albert Coons
Sercarz EE, Coons AH: The absence of antibody-producing cells during unresponsiveness to BSA in the mouse. J Immunol 1963; 90: ... Knowledge of antibody structure was rudimentary, a method for attaching a fluorescent molecule to antibodies did not exist, and ... I considered that it might be easier to find the antigen than the antibody... The notion of labeling an antibody molecule with ... Coons AH: Fluorescent antibodies as histochemical tools. Fed Proc 1951; 10: 558-559. Coons AH: Fluorescent antibody methods. ...
*  Flow cytometry
Julius MH, Masuda T, Herzenberg LA (1972). "Demonstration that antigen-binding cells are precursors of antibody-producing cells ... Cell adherence (for instance, pathogen-host cell adherence) Cell pigments such as chlorophyll or phycoerythrin Cell surface ... automated quantification of specified optical parameters on a cell-by-cell basis. To analyze solid tissues, a single-cell ... A flow cytometer is similar to a microscope, except that, instead of producing an image of the cell, flow cytometry offers high ...
*  Michael Neuberger
... a cancer of antibody-producing cells, at Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, on 26 October 2013. "Prof Michael Neuberger, FRS ... He supervised students reading the Natural Sciences Tripos in the fields of cell biology and biochemistry. He was also joint ... He also received the Novartis medal in 2002 and delivered the Novartis medal lecture, entitled "Antibodies: a Paradigm for the ... "Replacing the complementarity-determining regions in a human antibody with those from a mouse". Nature. 321 (6069): 522-525. ...
*  Testicular immunology
... since these are the antibody-producing cells of the immune system. Since anti-sperm antibodies can cause infertility, it is ... B-lymphocytes take part in the adaptive immune response and produce antibodies. These cells are not normally found in the ... These cells were isolated from the testis, then added to transplants of the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas (islets of ... Non-immune cells of the testis such as Sertoli cells and Leydig cells also able to respond to bacteria. During a bacterial ...
*  Mast cell
As a result, mast cells are coated with IgE, which is produced by plasma cells (the antibody-producing cells of the immune ... Other neoplastic disorders associated with mast cells include mast cell sarcoma and mast cell leukemia. Mast cell activation ... connective tissue-type mast cells and mucosal mast cells. The activities of the latter are dependent on T-cells. Mast cells are ... "Distinguishing mast cell and granulocyte differentiation at the single-cell level". Cell Stem Cell. 6: 361-8. doi:10.1016/j. ...
*  Gordon Ada
From 1962 he focused on immune reactions, demonstrating that antigens are not present in antibody-producing cells, in support ... during his period of leadership the school became an international centre for the analysis of T cell-mediated immunity. He was ...
*  NS0 cell
As myeloma cells, they are naturally antibody producing suspension cells. Gene amplication is typically performed using GS- ... Several therapeutic antibody products are produced using the NS0 cell line including daclizumab and eculizumab. Barnes, LM; ... The cell line is a cholesterol-dependent cell line that was generated from a subline of NSI/1 which produced only the light ... From this tumor, the P3K cells were isolated and developed into two cell lines, 289-16 and P3-X63. The 289-16 cell line ...
*  AL amyloidosis
The disease is caused when a person's antibody-producing cells do not function properly and produce abnormal protein fibers ... The most effective treatment is autologous bone marrow transplants with stem cell rescues. However many patients are too weak ... A combination of melphalan and dexamethasone has been found effective in those who are ineligible for stem cell transplantation ... amyloidosis who are ineligible for stem cell transplantation". Blood. 103 (8): 2936-8. doi:10.1182/blood-2003-08-2788. PMID ...
*  Jerry Adams
... a malignancy of antibody-producing cells, called "B lymphocytes". It was in Adams' lab that his PhD student, David Vaux, made ... Their research first looked into how lymphocytes could produce so many different antibodies, providing insights into the ... also led to the discovery that antibody genes encode as bits and pieces, that can recombine in a myriad of ways to help fight ... arbiters of cell survival". Science. 281 (5381): 1322-6. doi:10.1126/science.281.5381.1322. PMID 9735050. ...
*  Enumeral
These potentially allosteric antibodies also produced more interferon gamma and showed dose-dependent increases in T cell CD25 ... Their foundational paper showed that it was possible to quickly capture a large mass of antibody-producing cells through ... June 1, 2006). "A microengraving method for rapid selection of single cells producing antigen-specific antibodies". Nat. ... Enumeral's antibodies caused higher T cell activation in ex vivo human assays than the currently marketed anti-PD-1 antibodies ...
*  Artificial immune system
This class of algorithms focus on the network graph structures involved where antibodies (or antibody producing cells) ... Dendritic Cell Algorithms: The Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA) is an example of an immune inspired algorithm developed using a ... Negative selection refers to the identification and deletion (apoptosis) of self-reacting cells, that is T cells that may ... from the molecular networks present within the cell to the behaviour exhibited by a population of cells as a whole. Within the ...
*  Memory cell
as Memory B cell, an antibody producing cell Memory T cell, an infection fighting cell. ... Memory cell may refer to: Memory cell (computing), a building block of computer data storage Memory cells (motor cortex), found ...
*  Antibody
B cells differentiate into either antibody-producing cells called plasma cells that secrete soluble antibody or memory cells ... most antibodies are produced by hybridoma cell lines through immortalization of antibody-producing cells by chemically-induced ... causing the cell to divide and differentiate into an antibody-producing cell called a plasma cell. In this activated form, the ... interaction of the B cell with a T helper cell is necessary to produce full activation of the B cell and, therefore, antibody ...
*  Philip Leder
Leder's work on antibody genes was later extended to research into Burkitt's lymphoma, a tumour of antibody-producing cells, ... The main focus of this inquiry was the question of how the enormous diversity of antibody molecules are formed by a limited ... His research into the structure of genes which carry the code for antibody molecules was of pioneering significance. ...
*  Lymphokine
... s aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include: Interleukin 2 ... They are protein mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. ... Lymphokines are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte. ... Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an ...
*  Prostaglandin EP4 receptor
... inhibit antibody-producing B cells from proliferating; d) suppresses the development of Atherosclerosis plaques by promoting ... trabecular cells, ciliary epithelium, conjunctival stromal cells, and iridal stromal cells of the eye; and gingival fibroblasts ... Its activation also: a) supports the development of Regulatory T cells (i.e. suppressor T cells that modulate the immune system ... cell growth, and cell survival (see NF-κB#Structure). The activation of these pathways lead to variety of different types of ...
*  Clonal selection
Talmage hypothesized that antigens bind to antibodies on the surface of antibody-producing cells and "only those cells are ... its counter-specific cell so that particular cell is induced to multiply (producing its clones) for antibody production. This ... In 1958, Gustav Nossal and Joshua Lederberg showed that one B cell always produces only one antibody, which was the first ... After antigen binding the cell proliferates, forming a clone producing the same antibody. Later in the same year, Australian ...
*  Switching
Immunoglobulin class switching, an immunological mechanism that changes the type of antibody produced by B cells. Task ...
*  Phage display
... always limited by the inability of most prokaryotes in producing post-translational modifications present in eukaryotic cells ... Antibody phage display was later used by Carlos F. Barbas at The Scripps Research Institute to create synthetic human antibody ... HUMIRA, an antibody to TNF alpha, was the world's first fully human antibody, which achieved annual sales exceeding $1bn. Below ... The invention of antibody phage display revolutionised antibody drug discovery. Initial work was done by laboratories at the ...
*  Computational immunology
Immunogenicity is due to responses of an IgE antibody-producing B cell and/or of a T cell to a particular allergen. Therefore, ... Mehr R, Segel L, Sharp A, Globerson A (October 1994). "Colonization of the thymus by T cell progenitors: models for cell-cell ... Pappalardo F, Pennisi M, Ricupito A, Topputo F, Bellone M (2014). "Induction of T cell memory by a dendritic cell vaccine: a ... Jacob J, Baltimore D (June 1999). "Modelling T-cell memory by genetic marking of memory T cells in vivo". Nature. 399 (6736): ...