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*  CD154
Absence of CD154 also stops the formation of germinal centers and therefore prohibiting antibody affinity maturation, an ... The end-result is a B cell that is able to mass-produce specific antibodies against an antigenic target. Early evidence for ... As a result of this stimulation, the B cell can undergo rapid cellular division to form a germinal center where antibody ... Randolph Noelle at Dartmouth Medical School generated an antibody that bound a 39 kDa protein on murine T cells and inhibited ...
*  Monoclonal antibody therapy
Major problems associated with murine antibodies included reduced stimulation of cytotoxicity and the formation complexes after ... Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are antibodies linked to one or more drug molecules. Typically when the ADC meets the target ... Four major antibody types that have been developed are murine, chimeric, humanised and human. Antibodies of each type are ... Initial therapeutic antibodies were murine analogues (suffix -omab). These antibodies have: a short half-life in vivo (due to ...
*  Immune system
Jerne NK (Nov 1955). "THE NATURAL-SELECTION THEORY OF ANTIBODY FORMATION". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ... A B cell identifies pathogens when antibodies on its surface bind to a specific foreign antigen. This antigen/antibody complex ... This is also called antibody-dependent (or cytotoxic) hypersensitivity, and is mediated by IgG and IgM antibodies. Immune ... These antibodies circulate in blood plasma and lymph, bind to pathogens expressing the antigen and mark them for destruction by ...
*  Immunology
Jerne NK (1955). "The natural selection theory of antibody formation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 41 ... The humoral (antibody) response is defined as the interaction between antibodies and antigens. Antibodies are specific proteins ... These antibodies can also produce a negative response. If a child is exposed to the antibody for a particular antigen before ... Passively acquired maternal antibodies can suppress the antibody response to active immunization. Similarly the response of T- ...
*  Niels Kaj Jerne
The antibody formation theory gave Jerne international recognition and in 1956 Jerne went to work for the World Health ... "The Natural-Selection Theory of Antibody Formation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... and to other antibodies that bind to the same site. The antibodies are in balance, until an antigen disturbs the balance, ... was a research worker at the Danish National Serum Institute and during this time he formulated a theory on antibody formation ...
*  Angioedema
... can be due to antibody formation against C1INH; this is an autoimmune disorder. This acquired angioedema is ... This serine protease inhibitor (serpin) normally inhibits the association of C1r and C1s with C1q to prevent the formation of ... In hereditary angioedema, bradykinin formation is caused by continuous activation of the complement system due to a deficiency ...
*  Alfred Nisonoff
... of antibody formation. Alfred Nisonoff's most important work started when he began the enzymatic cleavage of rabbit antibodies ... Nisonoff's monograph, "The Antibody Molecule," was the most important and in-depth paper on the antibody during his time. ... It was determined that the two antigen binding sites of the antibody are located opposite the Fc fragment, the part of the ... This type of analytical and creative thinking would prove to be useful in his future research on the structure of the antibody ...
*  Factor VIII
Antibody formation to factor VIII can also be a major concern for patients receiving therapy against bleeding; the incidence of ... Lavigne-Lissalde G, Schved JF, Granier C, Villard S (October 2005). "Anti-factor VIII antibodies: a 2005 update". Thrombosis ...
*  Marian Koshland
These data had a profound effect on theories of antibody formation and how antibody specificity was generated. Legend has it ... By the 1960s, she had turned her attention to the origins of antibody specificity. Jim Allison, a colleague from Berkeley, said ... Barron, James (October 30, 1997). "Marian Koshland, 76, Expert On How Antibodies Fight Ills". The New York Times. Maugh II, ... In the early 1950s, Koshland demonstrated the molecular differences between serum-borne and secreted antibodies. ...
*  DNA vaccination
"Preferential induction of a Th1 immune response and inhibition of specific IgE antibody formation by plasmid DNA immunization ... Antibody-secreting cells migrate to the bone marrow and spleen for long-term antibody production, and generally localise there ... Antibody responses generated by DNA are useful as a preparative tool. For example, polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies can be ... "Prime-boost" strategies with recombinant protein have successfully increased both neutralising antibody titre, and antibody ...
*  Brigitte Askonas
From 1955-59 she studied the sites of antibody formation using radioactivity to develop our understanding of antibody molecules ... From 1959-61 she studied plasma cell tumors as models for antibody formation. She went on to investigate macrophages and their ... Askonasi, Brigitte A. (1 April 1990). "From Protein Synthesis to Antibody formation and Cellular Immunity: A Personal View". ... From 1963-66 she studied the fate of antigen in relation to antibody formation and later continued her study of B cells (1965- ...
*  Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency
The use of IVIG to treat SIGAD without first demonstrating an impairment of specific antibody formation is extremely ... It is the most common of the primary antibody deficiencies. Most such persons remain healthy throughout their lives and are ... People with this deficiency lack immunoglobulin A (IgA), a type of antibody that protects against infections of the mucous ... as the deficiency masks the high levels of certain IgA antibodies usually seen in celiac disease. As opposed to the related ...
*  TLR2
B1a and MZ B cells form the first antibodies, and specific antibody formation gets started in the process. Cytokines ... This leads to disinhibition of the early inflammation phase and of specific antibody formation. Following a reduction in ... as the result of which specific antibodies are formed that recognize precisely that antigen. These newly formed antibodies ... In the early inflammation phase, the pathogens are recognized by antibodies that are already present (innate or acquired ...
*  Gustav Nossal
He is famous for his contributions to the fields of antibody formation and immunological tolerance. Nossal's family was from ... Nossal's research is in fundamental immunology, in the field of "antibody formation and immunological tolerance". He has ... Recipient of the Centenary Medal for distinguished service to the study of antibody formation and immunological tolerance 2002 ...
*  Avery-MacLeod-McCarty experiment
Pneumococcus is characterized by smooth colonies and has a polysaccharide capsule that induces antibody formation; the ... Blood serum containing the antibodies can then be extracted and applied to cultured bacteria. The antibodies will react with ... An immunological precipitation caused by type-specific antibodies was used to verify the complete destruction of the capsules. ... generating antibodies that react specifically with antigens on the bacteria. ...
*  P-Azobenzenearsonate
It causes antibody formation and delayed hypersensitivity when bound to aromatic amino acids, polypeptides or proteins. It is ...
*  Anna Mitus
In 1959, Mitus was the lead author of an article entitled "Persistence of Measles Virus and Depression of Antibody Formation in ... Oct 29, 1959). "Persistence of Measles Virus and Depression of Antibody Formation in Patients with Giant-Cell Pneumonia after ...
*  Insulin
... enhanced purity reducing antibody formation. Researchers have succeeded in introducing the gene for human insulin into plants ... All are rapidly absorbed due to amino acid sequences that will reduce formation of dimers and hexamers (monomeric insulins are ... Induce glycogen synthesis - When glucose levels are high, insulin induces the formation of glycogen by the activation of the ... These two enzymes are key for the formation of glycogen. Also, insulin activates the enzymes phosphofructokinase and glycogen ...
*  Aminobacter lissarensis
"Primary in vitro anti-KLH antibody formation by peripheral blood lymphocytes in man: Detection with a radioimmunoassay". ...
*  Frederick Parker Gay
1912: (with G.Y. Rusk) Studies in the Locus of Antibody Formation, Fifteenth International Congress on Hygiene and Demography, ... He continued to research antibodies and antigens. In 1918 he published his book on typhoid fever, and in 1921 he became Head of ...
*  Neonatal isoerythrolysis
... group antigens are similar in structure to the antigen of a common bacteria in the gut of cats leading to antibody formation. ... After ingestion, these antibodies coat the red blood cells of the foal, leading to lysis through the complement system or ... Because of the delay in production of antibody, this first foal is not at risk for isoerythrolysis since the mare will not have ... In the kitten this is referred to as "fading kitten syndrome." It occurs when the mother has antibodies against the blood type ...
*  Timeline of immunology
Antibody formation theory (Paul Ehrlich) 1901 - Blood groups (Karl Landsteiner) 1902 - Immediate hypersensitivity anaphylaxis ( ... I. Isolation with a monoclonal antibody". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 157 (4): 1149-69. doi:10.1084/jem.157.4.1149. ... Köhler, G; Milstein, C (Aug 7, 1975). "Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity". Nature ... Antibody production in plasma B cells 1949 - Growth of polio virus in tissue culture, neutralization with immune sera, and ...
*  Infectious tolerance
Later was shown that the effect of monoclonal antibodies is formation of regulatory T lymphocytes. It has been shown that ... Because second-generation tolerance arises in the absence of any monoclonal antibodies to CD4 or CD8, it probably represents a ... In 1989 was successfully induced classical transplantation tolerance to skin grafts in adult mice using antibodies blocking T ... Production of IL-10 induces the formation of another population of regulatory T cells called Tr1. Tr1 cells are dependent on IL ...
*  Linus Pauling
Pauling, L. (1940). "A Theory of the Structure and Process of Formation of Antibodies*". Journal of the American Chemical ... He was also among the first scientists to postulate that the binding of antibodies to antigens would be due to a ...
*  Frank Macfarlane Burnet
Pauling, L. (1940). "A theory of the structure and process of formation of antibodies". Journal of the American Chemical ... Jerne proposed that the antigen bound to an antibody by chance and, that upon binding, more antibodies to that antigen would be ... In 1958 Gustav Nossal and Lederberg showed that one B cell always produces only one antibody, which was the first evidence for ... Using the concept of self, Burnet introduced a hypothesis about the situation where the body failed to make antibodies to its ...
*  TENM3
They are also expressed in some non-neuronal tissues that regulate pattern formation and sites of cell migration. Some Ten-m3 ... also identified Ten-m in Drosophila by screening for tyrosine phosphorylation on cDNA using monoclonal antibodies. However, ... Ten-m3 plays an important role during early development in directing the topographic neural projection and formation of the ...
*  Oxygen
December 13, 2002). "Evidence for Antibody-Catalyzed Ozone Formation in Bacterial Killing and Inflammation". Science. 298 (5601 ... Many steps are involved, but the result is the formation of a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane, which is used to ... any free oxygen produced by these organisms combined with dissolved iron in the oceans to form banded iron formations. When ...