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*  CD154
Absence of CD154 also stops the formation of germinal centers and therefore prohibiting antibody affinity maturation, an ... the B cell can undergo rapid cellular division to form a germinal center where antibody isotype switching and affinity ... The end-result is a B cell that is able to mass-produce specific antibodies against an antigenic target. Early evidence for ... Randolph Noelle at Dartmouth Medical School generated an antibody that bound a 39 kDa protein on murine T cells and inhibited ...
*  Monoclonal antibody therapy
... with reported decreases in affinity of up to several hundredfold. Increases in antibody-antigen binding strength have been ... Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are antibodies linked to one or more drug molecules. Typically when the ADC meets the target ... Four major antibody types that have been developed are murine, chimeric, humanised and human. Antibodies of each type are ... Initial therapeutic antibodies were murine analogues (suffix -omab). These antibodies have: a short half-life in vivo (due to ...
*  Dimethyl pimelimidate
It is often used to prepare antibody affinity columns. The appropriate antibody is first incubated with Protein A or Protein G- ...
*  Protein design
To overcome this challenge, Bruce Tidor and coworkers developed a method to improve the affinity of antibodies by focusing on ... Lippow, SM; Wittrup, KD; Tidor, B (October 2007). "Computational design of antibody-affinity improvement beyond in vivo ... RSC3 was later used to discover the broadly neutralizing antibody VRC01 in the serum of a long-term HIV-infected non-progressor ... They found that, for the antibodies designed in the study, reducing the desolvation costs of the residues in the interface ...
*  César Milstein
He demonstrated the importance of somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin V genes in antibody affinity maturation. In this ... Milstein's early work on antibodies focused on the nature of their diversity at the amino acid level as well as on the ... Quite apart from his own achievements, Milstein acted as a guide and inspiration to many in the antibody field as well as ... The emphasis of his research then shifted towards the mRNA encoding antibodies where he was able to provide the first evidence ...
*  Antibody
The process of generating antibodies with increased binding affinities is called affinity maturation. Affinity maturation ... This serves to increase the diversity of the antibody pool and impacts the antibody's antigen-binding affinity. Some point ... Thus, B cells expressing antibodies with a higher affinity for the antigen will outcompete those with weaker affinities for ... This means binding between antibody and antigen is reversible, and the antibody's affinity towards an antigen is relative ...
*  Ira Pastan
30: 1822-1828, 2012 Chowdhury, P.S. and Pastan, I. Improving antibody affinity by mimicking somatic hypermutation in vitro. ... Gene splicing techniques are used to make chimeric proteins in which the Fv of an antibody, preferentially binding to a cancer ... One of the major obstacles to the success of RIT therapy is that antibodies often form and neutralize the RIT preventing ... Altogether these studies provided much of the framework that ultimately led to the use of antibodies targeted to the EGF ...
*  Chromogranin A
... purification by monoclonal antibody affinity chromatography and partial N-terminal amino acid sequence". Regulatory Peptides. ... Some specific parts of the molecule have a higher degree of amino acid homology and methods where the antibodies are directed ... chromogranin A antibody stains via Google Image [1]. ...
*  Monobody
"Directed evolution of high-affinity antibody mimics using mRNA display". Chem. Biol. 9: 933-42. doi:10.1016/s1074-5521(02)00187 ... Monobodies belong to the class of molecules collectively called antibody mimics (or antibody mimetics) and alternative ... most antibodies and antibody fragments depend on disulfide bonds formation and they must be produced under an oxidizing ... fifteen times smaller than an IgG type antibody and comparable to the size of a single variable domain of an antibody. They are ...
*  T helper cell
The immune system loses its ability to improve the affinity of their antibodies, and are unable to generate B cells that can ... Type 2 and Type 3 hypersensitivity both involve complications from auto-immune or low affinity antibodies. In both of these ... Absence of CD154 also stops the formation of germinal centers and therefore prohibiting antibody affinity maturation, an ... CD4+ T cells have TCRs with an affinity for Class II MHC, and CD4 is involved in determining MHC affinity during maturation in ...
*  NanoCLAMP
... (CLostridal Antibody Mimetic Proteins) affinity reagents are recombinant 15 kD antibody mimetic proteins selected for ... Burgess RR, Watson JD (June 2017). "Gentle antibody-mimetic affinity chromatography with polyol-responsive nanoCLAMPs". Protein ... conferring binding affinity and specificity for the target. nanoCLAMPs are the first antibody mimetics described to be polyol- ... Suderman RJ, Rice DA, Gibson SD, Strick EJ, Chao DM (Apr 17, 2017). "Development of polyol-responsive antibody mimetics for ...
*  B cell
... have antibodies with a higher affinity towards their target antigen due to affinity maturation in the germinal center (GC) and ... B cell response to these antigens is rapid, though antibodies generated tend to have lower affinity and are less functionally ... B cell response to these antigens takes multiple days, though antibodies generated have a higher affinity and are more ... Plasmablasts are generated early in an infection and their antibodies tend to have a weaker affinity towards their target ...
*  Protein
... antibodies have no such constraints. An antibody's binding affinity to its target is extraordinarily high. Many ligand ... Antibodies are protein components of an adaptive immune system whose main function is to bind antigens, or foreign substances ... Antibodies can be secreted into the extracellular environment or anchored in the membranes of specialized B cells known as ... With the use of fluorescently tagged versions of these markers or of antibodies to known markers, it becomes much simpler to ...
*  Oncomatryx
"Generation of human high-affinity antibodies specific for the fibroblast activation protein by guided selection". European ... Völkel, T.; Müller, Rolf; Kontermann, Roland E (2004). "Isolation of endothelial cell-specific human antibodies from a novel ... "Human antibody derivatives against the fibroblast activation protein for tumor stroma targeting of carcinomas". International ... combining cytotoxic molecules and monoclonal antibodies specifically directed towards tumor associated stroma. Franco Dosio, Ph ...
*  Directed evolution
Improving binding affinity of therapeutic antibodies (Affinity maturation) and the activity of de novo designed enzymes. ... Hawkins, RE; Russell, SJ; Winter, G (5 August 1992). "Selection of phage antibodies by binding affinity. Mimicking affinity ...
*  Genmab
... 's technology is licensed from Medarex to create fully human high affinity antibodies using transgenic mice. These ... Genmab changes the shape of the IgG4 antibody by eliminating the hinge, the part of the antibody that creates the "Y" shape. ... which is used to make smaller antibodies in contrast to the traditional full sized monoclonal antibody. Its smaller size allows ... This halves the antibody, creating a smaller version now known as their UniBody. This smaller version can only bind to one site ...
*  Rituximab
... antibody's ability to induce ADCC takes advantage of the fact that the displayed Fc glycan controls the antibody's affinity for ... The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ... Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the protein CD20, which is primarily found on the surface of immune system ... The efficacy and success of Rituximab has led to some other anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies being developed: ocrelizumab, ...
*  Epitope binning
"High throughput solution-based measurement of antibody-antigen affinity and epitope binning". MAbs. 5 (2). ... Antibodies against a similar target are tested against all other antibodies in the library in a pairwise fashion to see if ... After each antibody has a profile created against all of the other antibodies in the library, a competitive blocking profile is ... Epitope binning is a competitive immunoassay used to characterize and then sort a library of monoclonal antibodies against a ...
*  Herman Eisen
He is particularly well known for his studies of affinity maturation of antibodies beginning in the late 1950s while he was at ... In the 1980s Eisen changed research interests from a focus on antibodies to a focus on T cells and cell-mediated immunity. ... scientist for many years following his official retirement and was working on a manuscript related to antibody affinity the day ... which supported further work at NYU with Fred Karush studying antibodies. Eisen next moved to Sloan-Kettering to work with ...
*  Strep-tag
Another option is the immobilization of Strep-tag proteins with a specific high affinity antibody on microplates or biochips. ... The binding affinity of Strep-tag to Strep-Tactin is nearly 100 times higher than to Streptavidin. The so called Strep-tag ... Because of its high affinity for the vitamin h-biotin, Streptavidin is commonly used in the fields of molecular biology and ... Just like other short-affinity tags (His-tag, FLAG-tag), the Strep-tag can be easily fused to recombinant proteins during ...
*  CRISPR-Display
... antibody affinity tagging, and recruitment of tagged fusion proteins. One example of artificial ncRNA functionalization is ... CRISPR-Display can target the sgRNA with a particular epitope sequence to various loci, and fluorescently tagged antibodies can ... and locus affinity tagging for cell imaging. CRISPR-Display allows targeted localization of natural lncRNAs to ectopic sites ... incorporating RNA domains recognized by specific antibodies to the sgRNA. ...
*  Cambridge Antibody Technology
1996). "Human antibodies with sub-nanomolar affinities isolated from a large non-immunized phage display library". Nature ... Cambridge Antibody Technology (officially Cambridge Antibody Technology Group Plc, informally CAT) was a biotechnology company ... "Cambridge Antibody Technology Partners With Immunex Corporation to Develop Novel Human Monoclonal Antibodies. - PR Newswire , ... "Cambridge Antibody Technology and AMRAD to develop antibody therapeutics. , Europe - Western Europe from". AllBusiness.com. ...
*  Follicular B helper T cells
The switched antibodies acquire better effector functions, and hypermutated antibody shows greater affinity for antigen. TFH ... low affinity plasma cell production is formed but this does not lead to germinal center induction nor permit antibody affinity ... causes B cell antibodies to class switch from IgM/IgD to other antibody isotypes and drives somatic hypermutation during clonal ... survival of B cells that go on to differentiate either into special plasma cells capable of producing high affinity antibodies ...
*  List of MeSH codes (G04)
... antibody affinity MeSH G04.610.143.140 --- antigenic modulation MeSH G04.610.143.232 --- binding sites, antibody MeSH G04.610. ... antibody diversity MeSH G04.610.626.073 --- antigenic variation MeSH G04.610.626.320 --- gene rearrangement, b-lymphocyte MeSH ... antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity MeSH G04.610.270.500 --- macrophage activation MeSH G04.610.484.100 --- clonal anergy MeSH ... antibody-dependent enhancement MeSH G04.185.515.880.210 --- cell transformation, viral MeSH G04.185.515.880.225 --- ...
*  Multicolumn countercurrent solvent gradient purification
In the case of antibodies, the state-of-the-art technique is based on batch affinity chromatography (with Protein A or Protein ... Continuous capturing of antibodies without affinity chromatography can be realized with the MCSGP-process. Subramanian, ... In general, affinity techniques have the advantage of purifying biomolecules with high yields and purities but the ... hydrophobic interaction chromatography for fatty acids or for example ion exchange chromatography of proteins or antibodies. ...
*  Phage display
Barbas CF, Languino LR, Smith JW (November 1993). "High-affinity self-reactive human antibodies by design and selection: ... Antibody phage display was later used by Carlos F. Barbas at The Scripps Research Institute to create synthetic human antibody ... HUMIRA, an antibody to TNF alpha, was the world's first fully human antibody, which achieved annual sales exceeding $1bn. Below ... The invention of antibody phage display revolutionised antibody drug discovery. Initial work was done by laboratories at the ...
*  Germinal center
This phenomenon underscores the process of affinity maturation, whereby greater affinity antibodies are produced and selected ... This rescue process, known as germinal center selection, is believed to be dependent on the affinity of their surface antibody ... Such that, a B cell that has successfully gained mutations that confer a higher affinity surface antibody towards antigen gains ... and mutate their antibody genes (through somatic hypermutation aimed at achieving higher affinity), and switch the class of ...