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*  Autoantibody
Antibodies are produced by B cells in two ways: (i) randomly, and (ii) in response to a foreign protein or substance within the ... such as a viral illness or a prolonged exposure to certain toxic chemicals. There is generally not a direct genetic link ... The Antinuclear antibody (ANA) test is often ordered first. ANA is a marker of the autoimmune process - it is positive with a ... An autoantibody is an antibody (a type of protein) produced by the immune system that is directed against one or more of the ...
*  Colorado tick fever
Detection of viral antibodies on red blood cells is possible. No specific treatment for CTF is yet available. The first action ... Viral replication in infected cells is associated with characteristic cytoplasmic granular matrices. Evidence suggests viral ... The double-stranded RNA viral genome is about 20,000 bp long and is divided into 12 segments, which are termed Seg-1 to Seg-12 ... Colorado tick fever (CTF) (also called mountain tick fever, American tick fever, and American mountain tick fever) is a viral ...
*  Joshua Lederberg
He collaborated with Frank Macfarlane Burnet to study viral antibodies. With the launching of Sputnik in 1957, Lederberg became ... 1951 that genetic material could be transferred from one strain of the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium to another using viral ...
*  Diagnosis of HIV/AIDS
Like the ELISA procedure, the western blot is an antibody detection test. However, unlike the ELISA method, the viral proteins ... A specially prepared "secondary antibody" - an antibody that binds to human antibodies - is then applied to the plate, followed ... If no viral bands are detected, the result is negative. If at least one viral band for each of the GAG, POL, and ENV gene- ... Antibodies that do not attach are washed away, and enzyme-linked antibodies with the capability to attach to the person's ...
*  Ebola virus disease
Blood samples are tested for viral RNA, viral antibodies or for the virus itself to confirm the diagnosis. Control of outbreaks ... IgM antibodies are detectable two days after symptom onset and IgG antibodies can be detected 6 to 18 days after symptom onset ... The presence of viral particles and the cell damage resulting from viruses budding out of the cell causes the release of ... Additionally, survivors develop antibodies against Ebola that last at least 10 years, but it is unclear if they are immune to ...
*  Polioencephalitis
Blood tests can be done to detect antibodies against viral antigens and foreign proteins. Virus isolation is the most sensitive ... Polioencephalitis is a viral infection of the brain, causing inflammation within the grey matter of the brain stem. The virus ... Experiments on transgenic mice are investigating the initial sites of viral replication in the host and how the virus moves ... "Polioencephalitis and the brain Fatigue Generator Model of Post-Viral Fatigue Syndromes". J. Of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. 2 (2- ...
*  Scott K. Dessain
Dessain SK, editor (2008). Human Antibody Therapeutics for Viral Diseases. Berlin: Springer. (Current topics in microbiology ... Human Antibody Therapeutics for Viral Diseases. Berlin: Springer. (Current topics in microbiology and immunology; vol. 317). pp ... from homeobox genes to DNA tumor viruses and human antibody therapeutics. His technique for cloning native human antibodies has ... Using this cloning method, he and his team have been able to develop antibodies that fight against various toxins and ...
*  Michel C. Nussenzweig
28 July 2016). "HIV-1 antibody 3BNC117 suppresses viral rebound in humans during treatment interruption". Nature. 535 (7613): ... "Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies and Viral Inducers Decrease Rebound from HIV-1 Latent Reservoirs in Humanized Mice". Cell. 158 ... Work on adaptive immunity focuses on B lymphocytes and antibodies to HIV-1, while work on innate immunity focuses on dendritic ... In clinical trials, a broadly neutralizing antibody isolated from an HIV-infected patient was shown to be safe and effective ...
*  Hemagglutination assay
During the incubation, antibodies bind to the viral particles, and if the concentration and binding affinity of the antibodies ... HI is closely related to the HA assay, but includes anti-viral antibodies as "inhibitors" to interfere with the virus-RBC ... The goal is to characterize the concentration of antibodies in the antiserum or other samples containing antibodies. The HI ... Relative to the initial viral stock concentration, the virus concentration in this well will be some dilution of the stock, for ...
*  Hopkins syndrome
In several cases, anti-viral antibody titers for echovirus, enterovirus, coxsackievirus and poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3 were ... has led to suspicion that the initial viral insult that causes the respiratory infection is also implicated in the subsequent ...
*  Acute retinal necrosis
... viral PCR, direct/indirect immunofluorescence, viral antibody measurement. The American Uveitis Society has established the ... Together, the viral particles and mononuclear cells in the vitreous cause the retina to become opaque. In response to all this ... The acute herpetic phase is characterized by when viral particles infiltrate the retina and vitreous causing an inflammatory ... Common lab tests that are run on the sample include a viral culture, ...
*  Creative Diagnostics
The initial business is antibody-monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Later, various kinds of antibody, viral antigens, ... Matched antibody pairs Anti-idiotypic Antibodies HBV Core Antigen Antibody Isotyping Kits Protein Antigen Expression Service ... Creative Diagnostics is an American biotechnology company that specializes in research and manufacture of antibodies, viral ... "The Way We Take Care of Antibody Purification". APSence. Retrieved December 16, 2014. "Molecular detection of hepatitis B virus ...
*  Subacute thyroiditis
This evidence is limited to preceding upper respiratory tract infection, elevated viral antibody levels, and both seasonal and ... Indirect evidence has implicated viral infection in the aetiology of subacute thyroiditis. ...
*  Cell fusion
... viral adsorption takes place and the adsorbed virus can be inhibited by viral antibodies. The second stage, which is 20 minutes ... In the third, antibody-refractory stage, viral envelope constituents remain detectable on the surface of cells. During the ... To obtain viral replication. For gene and chromosome mapping. For production of monoclonal antibodies by producing hybridoma. ... is pH dependent and an addition of viral antiserum can still inhibit ultimate fusion. ...
*  Universal flu vaccine
Krammer F (May 2017). "Strategies to induce broadly protective antibody responses to viral glycoproteins". Expert Review of ... 2016 BBC: 'Super antibody' fights off flu Independent: Scientists hail the prospect of a universal vaccine for flu "Universal ... In July 2011, researchers created an antibody, which targets a protein found on the surface of all influenza A viruses called ... F16 is the only known antibody that binds (its neutralizing activity is controversial) to all 16 subtypes of the influenza A ...
*  2015-16 Zika virus epidemic
The PRINT test looks for viral-specific neutralizing antibodies. However, this test can still produce false positive results, ... A test for IgM antibodies has seen to be effective over longer periods of time, as these antibodies can be present starting 4 ... The methods currently available to test for Zika antibodies cross-react with dengue antibodies. An IgM-positive result in a ... However, it is suggested that a PRINT test be performed following a test for IgM antibodies to help eliminate false positives ...
*  Lipid raft
Implications for anti-viral-neutralizing antibodies (Review)". Molecular Membrane Biology. 23 (6): 453-65. doi:10.1080/ ... Campbell, S.M; Crowe, S.M; Mak, J (2001). "Lipid rafts and HIV-1: From viral entry to assembly of progeny virions". Journal of ... Alving, Carl R.; Beck, Zoltan; Karasavva, Nicos; Matyas, Gary R.; Rao, Mangala (2006). "HIV-1, lipid rafts, and antibodies to ... The best studied models of lipid rafts-related nonenveloped viral entry are simian virus 40 (SV40, Papovaviridae) and echovirus ...
*  HLA A1-B8 haplotype
The association with viral hepatitis was subsequently demonstrated and patients with antinuclear antibodies were more likely to ... Though, the association of A1 with autoimmune hepatitis with no anti-viral antibody was stronger than with chronic active ... Hug G (May 1976). "Genetic factors and autoimmunity in viral hepatitis". Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 65 (5 Suppl): 870-5. PMID 218441 ... Czaja AJ, Carpenter HA, Santrach PJ, Moore SB (January 1995). "Immunologic features and HLA associations in chronic viral ...
*  Splenic disease
Assessment of IgM antibodies to viral capsid antigen (a rising titer) is indicated to confirm Epstein-Barr virus or ... The most common cause of acute splenomegaly in children is viral infection, which is transient and usually moderate. Basic work ...
*  Swine influenza
Vicente J, León-Vizcaíno L, Gortázar C, José Cubero M, González M, Martín-Atance P (July 2002). "Antibodies to selected viral ... Antibodies to the virus are also common in pigs in other countries. The main route of transmission is through direct contact ... Of the 25 swine exhibitors aged 9 to 19 at the fair, 19 tested positive for antibodies to SIV, but no serious illnesses were ... Genetic components of these 1998 triple-hybrid stains would later form six out of the eight viral gene segments in the 2009 flu ...
*  Herpes simplex
Rates of infection are determined by the presence of antibodies against either viral species. In the US, 58% of the population ... Akhtar, Jihan; Shukla, Deepak (December 2009). "Viral entry mechanisms: cellular and viral mediators of herpes simplex virus ... Antibodies that develop following an initial infection with a type of HSV prevents reinfection with the same virus type-a ... Herpes simplex is a viral disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. Infections are categorized based on the part of the body ...
*  Human respiratory syncytial virus
RSV infection can be confirmed using tests for antigens or antibodies, or viral RNA by reverse transcription PCR. ... Quantification of viral load can be determined by various assay tests. As the virus is ubiquitous in all parts of the world, ... Four of the viral genes code for intracellular proteins that are involved in genome transcription, replication, and particle ... HRSV is divided into two antigenic subgroups, A and B, on the basis of the reactivity of the virus with monoclonal antibodies ...
*  Trichodysplasia spinulosa polyomavirus
TSPyV infects the skin, but viral DNA is rarely detectable there in asymptomatic individuals even if they possess antibodies to ... Estimates of seroprevalence - that is, prevalence of detectable antibodies against viral proteins - in immunocompetent adults ... Wu, J.H.; Nguyen, H.P.; Rady, P.L.; Tyring, S.K. (March 2016). "Molecular insight into the viral biology and clinical features ... It was suspected to be associated with viral infection on the basis of the patient population in which it appeared, and ...
*  Trichodysplasia spinulosa
Antibodies against major capsid protein VP1, the major component of the viral capsid, can be used to confirm the presence of ... TSPyV infects the skin, but viral DNA is rarely detectable there in asymptomatic individuals even if they possess antibodies to ... Quantification of viral load can be performed using quantitative PCR, as affected skin demonstrates much higher viral loads ... Trichodysplasia spinulosa (also known by many other names, including viral-associated trichodysplasia spinulosa, viral- ...
*  Bovine malignant catarrhal fever
... histopathology and detection in the blood or tissues of viral antibodies by ELISA or of viral DNA by PCR. The characteristic ... Antibody from sheep and from cattle with BMCF is cross reactive with AlHV-1. AHV-1/OHV-2 can also cause problems in zoological ... OHV-2 viral DNA has been detected in the alimentary, respiratory and urino-genital tracts of sheep all of which could be ... The viral life cycle is outlined in three stages: entry, maintenance, and shedding. Entry occurs through the sheep's nasal ...
*  Phage display
Antibody phage display was later used by Carlos F. Barbas at The Scripps Research Institute to create synthetic human antibody ... so that they are displayed on the surface of the viral particle. The protein displayed corresponds to the genetic sequence ... HUMIRA, an antibody to TNF alpha, was the world's first fully human antibody, which achieved annual sales exceeding $1bn. Below ... The invention of antibody phage display revolutionised antibody drug discovery. Initial work was done by laboratories at the ...
*  Plasmapheresis
... is also maintained by the PPTA for use in keeping donors with prior positive viral antibody test results from donating at any ... Antibodies Donors are sometimes immunized against agents such as tetanus or hepatitis B so that their plasma contains the ... Donors are screened at each donation for viral diseases that can be transmitted by blood, sometimes by multiple methods. For ... In other donors, an intentionally incompatible unit of blood is transfused to produce antibodies to the antigens on the red ...