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*  Cryptobia
The protozoans can be identified in skin and gill biopsies and blood samples. For some of the protozoans, antibodies can be ... These protozoans can be found on most continents. Bloodfeeding leeches are implicated in the transmission of the bloodborne ... detected in the fish using ELISA and fluorescent antibody testing. Chemical treatment with isometamidium chloride has been ...
*  Z-RNA
Formation of Z-RNA in living cells was suggested by experiments using anti-Z-RNA antibodies to stain fixed protozoan cells ...
*  Crithidia luciliae
... a type of anti-nuclear antibody. Anti-nuclear antibodies are a common feature in SLE and anti-dsDNA antibodies are highly ... As a parasitic protozoan, C.luciliae lacks the ability to biosynthetically produce purine bases and therefore needs to salvage ... C.luciliae is a eukaryotic single-cell protozoan. The family Trypanosomatidae belongs to the order kinetoplastida and is ... The kinetoplast found in C.luciliae allows them to be used for the detection of anti-dsDNA antibodies, ...
*  Malabsorption
IgA Anti-transglutaminase antibodies or IgA Anti-endomysial antibodies for Coeliac disease (gluten sensitive enteropathy). ... Microscopy is particularly useful in diarrhoea, may show protozoa like Giardia, ova, cyst and other infective agents. Fecal fat ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D12.776)
... antibodies, phospho-specific MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.252 - antibodies, protozoan MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.254 - ... antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.071 - antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.107 - antibodies, ... antibodies, bispecific MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.143 - antibodies, blocking MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.167 - antibodies, ... antibodies, helminth MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.191 - antibodies, heterophile MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.224 - antibodies, ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D12.776.124)
... antibodies, phospho-specific MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.252 -- antibodies, protozoan MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.254 -- ... antibodies, phospho-specific MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.252 -- antibodies, protozoan MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.254 -- ... antibodies MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.071 -- antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.089 -- antibodies, ... antibodies, blocking MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.167 -- antibodies, catalytic MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.179 -- antibodies, ...
*  Hypothetical technology
Work with monoclonal antibodies (MAb) has shown or proven that the human body can defend itself against HIV, and certain ... Malaria vaccines are an area of intensive research, in an effort to cure the disease caused by parasitic protozoans (a type of ... Potential candidates for antibodies and early stage results from clinical trials have been announced. ...
*  Blood-brain barrier
Antibodies are too large to cross the blood-brain barrier, and only certain antibiotics are able to pass. In some cases, a drug ... is a condition in which trypanosoma protozoa are found in brain tissue. It is not yet known how the parasites infect the brain ... Therapeutic molecules and antibodies that might otherwise be effective in diagnosis and therapy do not cross the BBB in ... Patients with neuromyelitis optica have high levels of antibodies against a protein called aquaporin 4 (a component of the ...
*  Malaria vaccine
Antibodies that interfere with the binding, by either targeting the key region of the DARC or the DBP will prevent the ... By their very nature, protozoa are more complex organisms than bacteria and viruses, with more complicated structures and life ... Antibodies against the Schizont Egress Antigen-1 (PfSEA-1) were found to disable the parasite ability to rupture from the ... Antibodies are part of the specific immune response. They exert their effect by activating the complement cascade, stimulating ...
*  Meningoencephalitis
Antibodies targeting amyloid beta peptide proteins which have been used during research on Alzheimer's disease. The fungus, ... Causative organisms include protozoans, viral and bacterial pathogens. Specific types include: Listeria monocytogenes Neisseria ... Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (anti-NMDA) receptor antibodies, which are also associated with seizures and a movement disorder. ... Definite diagnosis - besides the above, the followings are needed CSF: HSV-antigen,HSV-Antibody, brain biopsy or pathology: ...
*  Ticks of domestic animals
... the ticks act as long term reservoirs of the protozoans. In addition, some species of protozoans (within the Theileria and ... Vaccinated cattle develop antibodies circulating in their blood. When the Rh. microplus female ticks engorge with blood, the ... Against Babesia protozoa are imidocarb and diminazine, both of which can be used to treat patent clinical infections. Against ... Acquisition of immunity may be aided by the protection of antibodies in the mother's colostrum (first milk). At least on ...
*  Outline of immunology
Antibodies Kinds of Antibodies Monoclonal antibodies Polyclonal antibodies Autoantibody Microantibody Neutralizing antibody ... Pathogens Pathogenic bacteria Viruses Fungi Protozoa Parasites Tumors Allergens Self-proteins Autoimmunity Alloimmunity Cross- ... Antibodies Immunoglobulin A (IgA) IgA1 IgA2 Immunoglobulin D (IgD) Immunoglobulin E (IgE) Immunoglobulin G (IgG) IgG1 IgG2 IgG3 ... Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) Foreign Pernicious anemia Hemolytic disease of the newborn Autoimmune ...
*  Trans-splicing
... is used by certain microbial organisms, notably protozoa of the Kinetoplastae class to express genes. In these ... "Trans-splicing as a novel method to rapidly produce antibody fusion proteins". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ...
*  Frederick Parker Gay
He continued to research antibodies and antigens. In 1918 he published his book on typhoid fever, and in 1921 he became Head of ... He contributed to Agents of Disease and Host Resistance(1935) concerned with bacteria, fungi, protozoa, rickettsiae and viruses ... 1912: (with G.Y. Rusk) Studies in the Locus of Antibody Formation, Fifteenth International Congress on Hygiene and Demography, ...
*  History of emerging infectious diseases
Many viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, helminthes and prions are identified as a confirmed or potential pathogen. In the ... An additional study found that many IBS patients from whom Blastocystis could not be identified showed a strong antibody ... The most prevalent protozoa in these studies are considered emerging infectious diseases by some researchers, because a ... Giardiasis is a disease caused by infection with the protozoan Giardia lamblia. Infection with Giardia can produce diarrhea, ...
*  Confocal microscopy
β-tubulin in Tetrahymena (a ciliated protozoan). Partial surface profile of a 1-Euro coin, measured with a Nipkow disk confocal ... Green signal from anti-tubulin antibody conjugated with Alexa Fluor 488) and nuclei (blue signal from DNA stained with DAPI) in ...
*  Immunoglobulin E
In the second approach, antibodies specific for a domain of 52 amino acid residues, referred to as CεmX or M1' (M1 prime), ... IgE is utilized during immune defense against certain protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium falciparum. IgE also has an ... "Antibody structure". Archived from the original on September 6, 2008. Erb KJ (2007). "Helminths, allergic disorders and IgE- ... Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has only been found in mammals. IgE is ...
*  Toxoplasmosis
The IgM antibodies appear sooner after infection than the IgG antibodies and disappear faster than IgG antibodies after ... Splendore reported the protozoan in a rabbit, while Nicolle and Manceaux identified it in a North African rodent, the gundi ( ... IgG antibodies usually appear within a week or two of infection, peak within one to two months, then decline at various rates. ... Toxoplasma IgG antibodies generally persist for life, and therefore may be present in the bloodstream as a result of either ...
*  Blastocystosis
These antibodies, known as immunoglobulin A (IgA), make up the immune defense system of human by preventing the growth of ... Khalifa AM, El Temsahy MM, Abou El Naga IF (2001). "Effect of ozone on the viability of some protozoa in drinking water". ... Fecal antibody testing: A 2003 study at Ain Shams University in Egypt indicated that patients symptomatically infected could be ... By breaking up the antibodies, it allows the persistence of Blastocystis in the human gut. Another more recent study has also ...
*  Hepatocystis
The protozoa are transmitted by the bite of the insect vector. The sporozoites migrate to the liver where they typically form ... Dracopoli NC, Turner TR, Else JG, Jolly CJ, Anthony R, Gallo RC, Saxinger WC (1986). "STLV-I antibodies in feral populations of ... Mature gametocytes are larger than a normal erythrocyte stain poorly compared to other protozoa. In both male and female ... Bray RS (1984). "Some parasitic protozoa from the Gambia". J. Euk. Microbiol. 31 (4): 577-8. Leathers CW (1978). "The ...
*  Phagocyte
Pathogenic bacteria and protozoa have developed a variety of methods to resist attacks by phagocytes, and many actually survive ... Opsonin receptors increase the phagocytosis of bacteria that have been coated with immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies or with ... The protozoan parasites Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania infect macrophages, and each has a unique way of ... Their size and rate of phagocytosis increases-some become large enough to engulf invading protozoa. In the blood, neutrophils ...
*  Babesia
... is a protozoan parasite found to infect vertebrate animals, mostly livestock mammals and birds, but also and humans. ... To supplement a blood smear, diagnoses should be made with an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test. IFA testing has a much ... As a protozoan parasite, the most effective way to identify Babesia infection is through blood sample testing. Babesia species ... Diagnostic measures through antibody testing are also particularly useful for identifying serum prevalence in asymptomatic ...
*  Trypanosoma brucei
Antibody-mediated trypanosome killing can also be observed in vitro by a complement-mediated lysis assay. However, with each ... an unusual feature unique to the kinetoplastid protozoans. The kinetoplast and the basal body of the flagellum are strongly ...
*  Amoebiasis
... protozoa and from cysts of free-living protozoa as discussed above. Recovery procedures are not very accurate; cysts are easily ... The levels of antibody are much higher in individuals with liver abscesses. Serology only becomes positive about two weeks ... Since antibodies may persist for years after clinical cure, a positive serological result may not necessarily indicate an ... The most accurate test is finding specific antibodies in the blood, but it may remain positive following treatment. Bacterial ...
*  Steak tartare
"Antibodies toToxoplasma gondiiin individuals with mania". Bipolar Disorders. 16: 129-136. doi:10.1111/bdi.12123. PMID 24102676 ... "Decreased level of psychobiological factor novelty seeking and lower intelligence in men latently infected with the protozoan ...
*  Pattern recognition receptor
... fungi and protozoa. MBL predominantly recognizes certain sugar groups on the surface of microorganisms but also binds ... including monoclonal antibodies, non-specific immunotherapies, oncolytic virus therapy, T-cell therapy and cancer vaccines. ...