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*  Monoclonal antibody therapy
... recently antibodies have been used to bind to molecules involved in T-cell regulation to remove inhibitory pathways that block ... Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are antibodies linked to one or more drug molecules. Typically when the ADC meets the target ... Four major antibody types that have been developed are murine, chimeric, humanised and human. Antibodies of each type are ... Initial therapeutic antibodies were murine analogues (suffix -omab). These antibodies have: a short half-life in vivo (due to ...
*  Blocking antibody
A blocking antibody is an antibody that does not have a reaction when combined with an antigen, but prevents other antibodies ... Blocking antibodies have been described as a mechanism for HSV-1 to evade the immune system. Blocking antibodies can be used in ... Blocking antibodies have been used in clinical trials of cancer treatments. The blocking antibody ipilimumab has been ... Some blocking antibodies may inhibit the invasion of erythrocytes, while other blocking antibodies prevent the binding of ...
*  Icos
They are: ICM3, an antibody blocking ICAM-3, designed to treat psoriasis. IC14, an antibody blocking CD14, designed to treat ... Eos's antibody inhibited angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels) and was being researched as a treatment for solid ... Icos also manufactured antibodies for other biotechnology companies. Icos is famous for tadalafil (Cialis), a drug used to ... In Canada, Pfizer moved to block sales of Cialis five months after it was approved there, arguing that there could be consumer ...
*  Nimotuzumab
These monoclonal antibodies block EGFR and stop the uncontrolled cell division. It has a humanized human-mouse h-R3 heavy chain ... Mateo C, Moreno E, Amour K, Lombardero J, Harris W, Pérez R. Humanization of a mouse monoclonal antibody that blocks the ... Trial Watch: Tumor-targeting monoclonal antibodies in cancer therapy. Oncoimmunology. 2014 Jan 1;3(1):e27048. PMID 24605265 ... is a humanized monoclonal antibody that as of 2014 had orphan status in the US and EU for glioma, and marketing approval in ...
*  Control of chromosome duplication
Removal of cyclin E with antibodies blocks replication. Cyclin E-CDk2 is also important in Drosophila. Levels of cyclin E rise ... Mutations in S. pombe cdt1 blocked DNA replication. Mcm 2-7 form a six-subunit complex and is thought to have helicase activity ... DNA replication is inhibited when Cdc7 homologs are inhibited with antibodies in frog or human cells. It is not known whether ... Mutations in this protein in budding yeast, and in its homolog in fission yeast block initiation of replication. Cdc7 is highly ...
*  Epidermal growth factor receptor
The monoclonal antibodies block the extracellular ligand binding domain. With the binding site blocked, signal molecules can no ... However the former is of the IgG1 type, the latter of the IgG2 type; consequences on antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity ... CimaVax-EGF, an active vaccine targeting EGF as the major ligand of EGF, uses a different approach, raising antibodies against ... Interruption of EGFR signalling, either by blocking EGFR binding sites on the extracellular domain of the receptor or by ...
*  C-Met
The antibody blocks HGF binding to MET in a competitive fashion. Active immunotherapy to MET-expressing tumors can be achieved ... Neutralizing anti-HGF antibodies were initially tested in combination, and it was shown that at least three antibodies, acting ... Two anti-HGF antibodies are currently available: the humanized AV299 (AVEO), and the fully human AMG102 (Amgen). Uncleavable ... Since HGF is the only known ligand of MET, formation of a HGF:MET complex blocks MET biological activity. For this purpose, ...
*  Vascular endothelial growth factor C
"Effective suppression of vascular network formation by combination of antibodies blocking VEGFR ligand binding and receptor ... "Blocking VEGFR-3 suppresses angiogenic sprouting and vascular network formation". Nature. 454 (7204): 656-660. doi:10.1038/ ...
*  Thyroid
Occasionally such antibodies block but do not activate the receptor, leading to symptoms associated with hypothyroidism. In ... These antibodies activate the receptor, leading to development of a goitre and symptoms of hyperthyroidism, such as heat ... Lastly, antibodies against components of the thyroid, particularly anti-TPO and anti-thyroglobulin, can be measured. These may ... Antibodies against thyroid peroxidase can be found on testing. The inflammation usually resolves without treatment, although ...
*  Breakthrough infection
If these mutations occur in sites that are recognized by antibodies, the mutations block antibody binding which inhibits the ... The recognition of viral proteins by maternal antibodies neutralizes the virus. Further, the maternal antibodies outcompete B ... mutations in viruses and antibody blocking. For these reasons, vaccines are rarely 100% effective. The common flu vaccine is ... Thus, an infant's immune system is not highly activated and the infant produces fewer antibodies. Even when B cells do bind to ...
*  Fremanezumab
Other anti-migraine antibodies blocking the CGRP pathway Eptinezumab Erenumab Galcanezumab "International Nonproprietary Names ... Fremanezumab (INN) is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against calcitonin-related polypeptides alpha and beta. It is ...
*  CHI3L1
Faibish M, Francescone R, Bentley B, Yan W, Shao R (May 2011). "A YKL-40-neutralizing antibody blocks tumor angiogenesis and ... Targeting YKL-40 with neutralizing antibodies is effective as a treatment in animal models of glioblastoma multiforme. YKL-40 ... cartilage glycoprotein-39 complexes in synovia of rheumatoid arthritis patients using complex-specific monoclonal antibodies". ...
*  Hook effect
The antibody that fails to react is known as the blocking antibody and prevents the precipitating antibody from binding to the ... However, when the serum is diluted, the blocking antibody is as well and its concentration decreases enough for the proper ... Blocking antibody Schiettecatte, Johan; Anckaert, Ellen; Smitz, Johan (2012-03-23). Interferences in Immunoassays. InTech. doi: ... In this case, no sandwich can be formed by the capturing antibody, the antigen and the detection antibody. In this case, free ...
*  Neutralizing antibody
They could block about two-thirds of a large panel of HIV strains. These antibodies did not bind to known epitopes, on Env, ... The difference between neutralizing antibodies and binding antibodies is that neutralizing antibodies neutralize the biological ... Blocking antibody Mike Recher; Karl S Lang; Lukas Hunziker; Stefan Freigang; Bruno Eschli; Nicola L Harris; Alexander Navarini ... A neutralizing antibody (NAb) is an antibody that defends a cell from an antigen or infectious body by neutralizing any effect ...
*  Omalizumab
Scheinfeld N (2005). "Omalizumab: a recombinant humanized monoclonal IgE-blocking antibody". Dermatol. Online J. 11 (1): 2. ... In the next year, the company converted one candidate antibody to a chimeric antibody (which was later named CGP51901 and ... A a recombinant humanized monoclonal IgE blocking antibody". Dermatology Online Journal. 11 (1). "CTRI". www.ctri.nic.in. " ... The antibody molecules are secreted by the host cells in a cell culture process employing large-scale bioreactors. At the end ...
*  Apolipoprotein H
Shi W, Chong BH, Hogg PJ, Chesterman CN (1993). "Anticardiolipin antibodies block the inhibition by beta 2-glycoprotein I of ... In autoimmune disease, anti-apolipoprotein antibodies (Anti β2 glycoprotein I antibodies) strongly associate with thrombotic ... The subset of antibodies that bind Apo-H and alter its activity are considered different from antibodies that bind thrombin, ... Anti-cardiolipin antibodies are found in both infectious (syphilis) and autoimmune disease (sclerosis, lupus). The activity of ...
*  Anti-apolipoprotein antibodies
Shi W, Chong BH, Hogg PJ, Chesterman CN (1993). "Anticardiolipin antibodies block the inhibition by beta 2-glycoprotein I of ... In autoimmune disease, anti-apolipoprotein H (AAHA) antibodies, also called anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies, comprise a ... These antibodies are involved in sclerosis and are strongly associated with thrombotic forms of lupus. As a result AAHA are ... However, antiphospholipid antibodies bind phospholipids at sites similar to sites bound by anti-coagulants such as PAP1 sites ...
*  Pemphigus foliaceus
Disruption of function: In this case, the antibody blocks the desmoglein 1 from being formed into a desmosome. This in turn ... If there is an autoimmune IgG buildup in the epidermis, then nearly all of the antibodies are aimed against desmoglein 1. The ... The immune system produces antibodies against proteins in the skin known as desmogleins. These proteins form the glue that ... Activation of an endocytic pathway: The antibody activates a pathway which causes an internalization of desmogleïn 1, which in ...
*  Gap junction
Embryos with areas of blocked gap junctions failed to develop normally. The mechanism by which antibodies blocked the gap ... Warner, AE (1987). "The use of antibodies to gap junction protein to explore the role of gap junctional communication during ... Bastide, B; Jarry-Guichard, T; Briand, JP; Délèze, J; Gros, D (April 1996). "Effect of antipeptide antibodies directed against ... It was discovered that gap junction communication could be disrupted by adding anti-connexin antibodies into embryonic cells. ...
*  Eptinezumab
It is in Phase III clinical trials as of August 2017[update]. Other anti-migraine antibodies blocking the CGRP pathway Erenumab ... It is a monoclonal antibody that targets calcitonin gene-related peptides (CGRP) alpha and beta. ... an antibody to calcitonin gene-related peptide, for the prevention of frequent episodic migraine: A randomised, double-blind, ...
*  Agglutination (biology)
Agglutination-PCR Blocking antibody Coagulation Immune system Macrophage Mannan oligosaccharides (MOS). ... The clumping of cells such as bacteria or red blood cells in the presence of an antibody or complement. The antibody or other ... When people are given blood transfusions of the wrong blood group, the antibodies react with the incorrectly transfused blood ... Agglutination is the process that occurs if an antigen is mixed with its corresponding antibody called isoagglutinin. This term ...
*  Infectious tolerance
In 1989 was successfully induced classical transplantation tolerance to skin grafts in adult mice using antibodies blocking T ... Later was shown that the effect of monoclonal antibodies is formation of regulatory T lymphocytes. It has been shown that ... Because second-generation tolerance arises in the absence of any monoclonal antibodies to CD4 or CD8, it probably represents a ... in particular the use of non-depleting anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies, demonstrating that neither thymus nor clonal deletion is ...
*  PD-L1
... blockade (using blocking antibodies) resulted in increased mortality for infected mice. Blockade reduced TNFα and nitric ...
*  Lanadelumab
"Inhibition of Plasma Kallikrein by a Highly Specific Active Site Blocking Antibody". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 289 ( ... Lanadelumab (INN) (alternative identifier DX-2930) is a human monoclonal antibody (class IgG1 kappa) that targets plasma ...
*  CD47
Thus blocking CD47 with antibody turns off "don't eat me" signal and favors phagocytosis. Anti-CD47 antibody-mediated ... In mice xenografted with human non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) cells, blocking CD47 function with shRNA or antibodies led to a ... Additionally, CD47 blocking antibodies inhibit proliferation of unstimulated astrocytoma cells but not normal astrocytes. ... The role of CD47 in cell migration was first demonstrated for neutrophils, where CD47 blocking antibodies inhibited ...
*  Follicular dendritic cells
In mice lacking B cells, or with blocked TNF-a and lymphotoxin (LT) production, cells with FDC phenotype are missing. In normal ... Follicular DCs receptors CR1, CR2 and FcγRIIb trap antigen opsonized by complement or antibodies. To become selected as a ...
*  Erenumab
Other anti-migraine antibodies blocking the CGRP pathway Eptinezumab Fremanezumab Galcanezumab Statement On A Nonproprietary ... Erenumab (INN; trade name Aimovig) is a human monoclonal antibody against the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor (CGRPR) ...