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*  Autoantibody
Antibodies are produced by B cells in two ways: (i) randomly, and (ii) in response to a foreign protein or substance within the ... The Antinuclear antibody (ANA) test is often ordered first. ANA is a marker of the autoimmune process - it is positive with a ... An autoantibody is an antibody (a type of protein) produced by the immune system that is directed against one or more of the ... Initially, one B cell produces one specific kind of antibody. In either case, the B cell is allowed to proliferate or is killed ...
*  CD154
The end-result is a B cell that is able to mass-produce specific antibodies against an antigenic target. Early evidence for ... As a result of this stimulation, the B cell can undergo rapid cellular division to form a germinal center where antibody ... Randolph Noelle at Dartmouth Medical School generated an antibody that bound a 39 kDa protein on murine T cells and inhibited ... Seth Lederman at Columbia University generated a murine monoclonal antibody, 5c8 that inhibited contact-dependent T cell helper ...
*  Monoclonal antibody therapy
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are antibodies linked to one or more drug molecules. Typically when the ADC meets the target ... Four major antibody types that have been developed are murine, chimeric, humanised and human. Antibodies of each type are ... Initial therapeutic antibodies were murine analogues (suffix -omab). These antibodies have: a short half-life in vivo (due to ... Murine antibodies in vitro are thereby transformed into fully human antibodies. The heavy and light chains of human IgG ...
*  Trifunctional antibody
... antibody as well as pure mouse and pure rat antibody. The trifunctional antibody is extracted chromatographically with protein ... A trifunctional antibody is a monoclonal antibody with binding sites for two different antigens, typically CD3 and a tumor ... Trifunctional antibodies were the first type of bispecific monoclonal antibodies to be produced. The first concepts date back ... 2006). "Phase I trial of the trifunctional antibody anti-HER2/neu x anti-CD3 antibody ertumaxomab in metastatic breast cancer ...
*  Antisperm antibodies
... are antibodies produced against sperm antigens. Antisperm antibodies (ASA) are immunoglobulins of IgG, IgA ... Many prostitutes (40-45%) are positive for antisperm antibodies. Risk factors for the formation of antisperm antibodies in men ... However, these antibodies are also present in approximately 1-2.5 % of fertile men and in 4 % of fertile women; the presence of ... Cui, D; Han, G; Shang, Y; Liu, C; Xia, L; Li, L; Yi, S (15 April 2015). "Antisperm antibodies in infertile men and their effect ...
*  Antibodies (film)
Antibody (film) Antibodies on IMDb Antibodies at Rotten Tomatoes. ... Antibodies (German: Antikörper) is a German crime-drama-thriller directed by Christian Alvart and stars Norman Reedus, Wotan ...
*  Antiganglioside antibodies
These antibodies were first found to react with cerebellar cells. These antibodies show highest association with certain forms ... In vivo studies of isolated anti-GM1 and GD3 antibodies indicate the antibodies can interfere with motor neuron function. Anti- ... Antibodies to a GM1 epitope as well as to one with the GT1a or GD3 epitope were found in different strains of Campylobacter ... In multiple sclerosis, antibodies to GM1 are dominated by the IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4. Also anti-GM1 IgG has been identified in ...
*  Polyclonal antibodies
... (pAbs) are antibodies that are secreted by different B cell lineages within the body (whereas monoclonal ... By contrast, monoclonal antibodies are derived from a single cell line Many methodologies exist for polyclonal antibody ... serum antibodies. However, polyclonal antibodies in mice can be collected from ascites fluid using any one of a number of ... Antibodies are currently also being produced from isolation of human B-lymphocytes to produce specific recombinant monoclonal ...
*  Natural antibodies
See Antibody#Natural antibodies are produced by the body, in contrast to administrated exogenously. Mahla, Ranjeet Singh. " ... Natural antibodies may refer to antibodies that: are produced without any previous infection, vaccination, other foreign ... Generation of diverse class of antibodies starts during organism development even before birth. Functionally antibodies are not ... In case of auto immune disease these natural antibodies functions deregulates that hampers the proper functioning of immune ...
*  Chlamydia antibodies
... are antibodies targeting bacteria of the Chlamydia genus, but it generally refers specifically to ... Testing for Chlamydia antibodies is not the mainstay diagnostic tool for Chlamydia infection, which is preferentially diagnosed ... testing for Chlamydia antibodies is a cost-effective screening device in detecting fallopian tube pathology, as it is often ... "Chlamydia antibody testing and diagnosing tubal pathology in subfertile women: An individual patient data meta-analysis". Human ...
*  Anti-centromere antibodies
... are found in approximately 60% of patients with limited systemic scleroderma and in 15% of those ... Anti-centromere antibodies present early in the course of disease and are notably predictive of limited cutaneous involvement ... Anti-centromere antibodies (ACAs; often styled solid, anticentromere) are autoantibodies specific to centromere and kinetochore ... The specificity of this test is >98%. Thus, a positive anti-centromere antibody finding is strongly suggestive of limited ...
*  Anti-p62 antibodies
... (AP62A) are found in a primary biliary cirrhosis. The p62 protein is also more frequent in Stage IV primary ... Invernizzi P, Selmi C, Ranftler C, Podda M, Wesierska-Gadek J (2005). "Antinuclear antibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis". ... 2003). "Profile and clinical significance of anti-nuclear envelope antibodies found in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis ...
*  Anti-topoisomerase antibodies
They are also referred to as anti-DNA topoisomerase I antibody (anti-topo I). Anti Scl-70 antibodies (also called anti- ... Scl-70 antibodies are associated with more severe scleroderma disease. Anti-topoisomerase antibodies can be classified ... and serum antibody levels in systemic sclerosis patients with anti-topoisomerase I antibody". Arthritis Rheum. 56 (8): 2740-6. ... Since this activity occurs in the nucleus of the cell ATA is a form of anti-nuclear antibody. Scleroderma results from the ...
*  Anti-actin antibodies
In gastric cancer anti-actin antibodies were elevated, along with other antibodies in severe disease with poor outcomes. It has ... Anti-actin antibodies (AAA) are found at increased frequency in certain autoimmune diseases and may be of some diagnostic value ... Ballot E, Homberg JC, Johanet C (2000). "Antibodies to soluble liver antigen: an additional marker in type 1 auto-immune ... In coeliac disease anti-actin antibodies correlated with the level of intestinal damage. In autoimmune hepatitis anti-actin ...
*  Anti-apolipoprotein antibodies
In autoimmune disease, anti-apolipoprotein H (AAHA) antibodies, also called anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies, comprise a ... These antibodies are involved in sclerosis and are strongly associated with thrombotic forms of lupus. As a result AAHA are ... However, antiphospholipid antibodies bind phospholipids at sites similar to sites bound by anti-coagulants such as PAP1 sites ... HLA-DR7 may also be associated with these antibodies and the common haplotype association is the HLA-DR53 serotype. Viard JP, ...
*  Anti-transglutaminase antibodies
... (ATA) are autoantibodies against the transglutaminase protein. Antibodies serve an important ... Anti-Tissue Transglutaminase (tTG) Antibodies Also Found in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Tg6 Antibody Plays a Key Role in Celiac- ... The antibodies to tissue transglutaminase follow a complex pathway of generation. For most antigens, T-cells specific to those ... Antibodies to tissue transglutaminase (abbreviated as anti-tTG or anti-TG2) are found in patients with several conditions, ...
*  Anti-gliadin antibodies
Clinically these antibodies and IgG antibodies to gliadin are abbreviated as AGA. The IgG antibody is similar to AGA IgA, but ... Anti-gliadin antibodies are frequently found with anti-transglutaminase antibodies. The IgE antibodies are more typically found ... removal of gluten results in the benign circulation of antibodies. The half life of these antibodies is typically 120 days. ... This antibody is found in ~80% of patients with coeliac disease. It is directed against the alpha/beta and gamma (α,β,γ) ...
*  Anti-sp100 antibodies
... are found in association with primary biliary cirrhosis. The autoimmune target of anti-sp100 is the sp100 ...
*  Anti-cardiolipin antibodies
They are a form of anti-mitochondrial antibody. In SLE, anti-DNA antibodies and anti-cardiolipin antibodies may be present ... Anti-cardiolipin antibodies (ACA) are antibodies often directed against cardiolipin and found in several diseases, including ... Only a subset of autoimmune anti-cardiolipin antibodies bind Apo-H, these anti-apolipoprotein antibodies are associated with ... Anti-cardiolipin antibodies can be classified in two ways: As IgM, IgG or IgA As β2-glycoprotein dependent or independent In ...
*  Anti-thrombin antibodies
... can react with both types of thrombin in the antithrombin-thrombin complex. Antibodies (IgG) against ... Other than antibodies to thrombin, antibodies to vascular heparin sulfate appear to interfere with antithrombin-thrombin ... Inhibitory anti-thrombin antibodies can be divided into 2 groups, those that inhibit coagulation activity and those the inhibit ... Anti-thrombin antibodies are autoantibodies directed against thrombin that may constitute a fraction of lupus anticoagulant and ...
*  Anti-histone antibodies
... are autoantibodies that are a subset of the anti-nuclear antibody family. They are found in 50%-70% of ... An ELISA for detecting anti-histone antibodies is said to be positive when there is more than 25 units/ml anti-histone ... antibodies in a blood sample. Muller, Sylviane (2014). Chapter 23 - Histone Autoantibodies, In Autoantibodies (Third ed.). San ...
*  Anti-dsDNA antibodies
... are a group of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) the target antigen of which is double stranded DNA. Blood ... Anti-dsDNA antibodies might also be created secondary to the production of antibodies to other proteins within the nucleosome. ... Anti-dsDNA antibodies can be present in normal individuals, however these antibodies are usually low avidity IgM isotype. In ... Serum is incubated with the beads and in the presence of anti-dsDNA antibodies, or any other ANA, the antibodies will bind and ...
*  Afucosylated monoclonal antibodies
... are monoclonal antibodies engineered so that the oligosaccharides in the Fc region of the ... When antibodies are afucosylated the effect is to increase antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Most approved ... ADCC is important in the efficacy of cancer antibodies, but with many approved cancer antibodies there is less ADCC that could ... Satoh M, Iida S, Shitara K. "Non-fucosylated therapeutic antibodies as next-generation therapeutic antibodies". Expert Opin ...
*  Primary and secondary antibodies
Secondary antibody is especially efficient in immunolabeling. Secondary antibodies bind to primary antibodies, which are ... Then, the secondary antibody's Fab domain binds to the primary antibody's Fc domain. Since the Fc domain is constant within the ... Primary and secondary antibodies are two groups of antibodies that are classified based on whether they bind to antigens or ... Secondary antibodies help increase sensitivity and signal amplification due to multiple secondary antibodies binding to a ...
*  Anti-Scl-70 antibodies
Anti Scl-70 antibodies are associated with more severe scleroderma disease. The etymology of scl-70 consists of an abbreviation ... Anti-Scl-70 (also called anti-topoisomerase I after the type I topoisomerase target) is an anti-topoisomerase antibody-type of ... de Rooij DJ, Van de Putte LB, Habets WJ, Van Venrooij WJ (1989). "Marker antibodies in scleroderma and polymyositis: clinical ... of the antibodies. Guldner HH, Szostecki C, Vosberg HP, Lakomek HJ, Penner E, Bautz FA (1986). "Scl 70 autoantibodies from ...