Angiosperm derived characteristics[edit]. Angiosperms differ from other seed plants in several ways, described in the table ... The great angiosperm radiation, when a great diversity of angiosperms appears in the fossil record, occurred in the mid- ... There are eight groups of living angiosperms: *Basal angiosperms (ANA: Amborella, Nymphaeales, Austrobaileyales) *Amborella, a ... A Bayesian analysis of 52 angiosperm taxa suggested that the crown group of angiosperms evolved between 178 million years ago ...
Angiosperms[edit]. As the anther of a flowering plant develops, four patches of tissue differentiate from the main mass of ... It was found that over 250 different species of angiosperms responded this way.[6] In the anther, after a microspore undergoes ... all gymnosperms and all angiosperms. Plants with heterosporous life cycles using microspores and megaspores arose independently ...
Angiosperms. (unranked):. Monocots. (unranked):. Commelinids. Order:. Poales. Family:. Poaceae. Genus:. Cortaderia. Species:. C ...
... is hypogeal, which means the cotyledons of the germinating seed stay in the ground and inside the seed coat. Therefore, it is less vulnerable to frost, wind erosion, or insect attack.[3] The plant is a diploid, annual, bushy herb of erect, semierect, or spreading and compact growth and normally varies from 30 to 50 cm (10 to 20 in) in height. It has many hairy branches and its stem is slender and angular. The rachis bears 10 to 15 leaflets in five to eight pairs. The leaves are alternate, of oblong-linear and obtuse shape and from yellowish green to dark bluish green in colour. In general, the upper leaves are converted into tendrils, whereas the lower leaves are mucronate. If stipules are present, they are small. The flowers, one to four in number, are small, white, pink, purple, pale purple, or pale blue in colour. They arise from the axils of the leaves, on a slender footstalk almost as long as the leaves. The pods are oblong, slightly inflated, and about 1.5 cm long. Normally, each of ...
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of ... The genome size of Brassicaceae compared to that of other Angiosperm families is very small to small (less than 3.425 million ...
Logwood was used for a long time as a natural source of dye. It remains an important source of haematoxylin, which is used in histology for staining. The bark and leaves are also used in various medical applications. In its time, logwood was considered a versatile dye, and was widely used on textiles and also for paper.[4] The extract was once used as a pH indicator. Brownish when neutral, it becomes yellow-reddish under acidic conditions and purple when alkaline.[4] In a small demonstrative experiment, if two drops, one of concentrated ammonia and one of logwood extract, are placed close enough the NH3 vapours will change the color of the extract to a purple shade.[5] ...
It is an evergreen small tree or shrub that measures up to 8 m (26 ft) tall, smooth grey bark, young shoots are densely hairy, opposite and elliptical leaves with the entire margin, acuminate apex and wedge-shaped to acuminate base. The leaves are 2.2-8 cm long and 1.3 cm wide, glossy green and glabrous above and pale green and hairy below when young. Petioles are fluted 2-6 mm long. Midrib prominent underside. The flowers are hermaphrodite, solitary and axillary or clustered in axillary inflorescences in groups of 2-3 flowers, 4 sepals fused at the base and 4 with free falling white petals . The stamens are very numerous: they vary 120-220 and 7-12 mm long, a style about 5-8 mm long. The fruit is a black sub-globose berry, about 0.8-1 cm diameter . Within it there are 3-4 seeds about 4-5 mm long. ...
a b c Stevens, P.F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 9, June 2008. ... According to the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website as of July 2014[update], 434 genera are in the family Apiaceae.[1] ...
Convallaria majalis is a herbaceous perennial plant that forms extensive colonies by spreading underground stems called rhizomes. New upright shoots are formed at the ends of stolons in summer,[4] these upright dormant stems are often called pips.[5] These grow in the spring into new leafy shoots that still remain connected to the other shoots under ground, often forming extensive colonies. The stems grow to 15-30 cm tall, with one or two leaves 10-25 cm long; flowering stems have two leaves and a raceme of 5-15 flowers on the stem apex. The flowers have six white tepals (rarely pink), fused at the base to form a bell-shape, 5-10 mm diameter, and sweetly scented; flowering is in late spring, in mild winters in the Northern Hemisphere it is in early March. The fruit is a small orange-red berry 5-7 mm diameter that contains a few large whitish to brownish colored seeds that dry to a clear translucent round bead 1-3 mm wide. Plants are self-sterile, and colonies consisting of a single clone do not ...
Typical of leaf vegetables, Malabar spinach is high in vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, and calcium. It is low in calories by volume, but high in protein per calorie. The succulent mucilage is a particularly rich source of soluble fiber. Among many other possibilities, Malabar spinach may be used to thicken soups or stir-fries with garlic and chili peppers.. In the Philippines, the leaves of this vegetable is one of the main ingredients in an all vegetable dish called utan that is served over rice. It is usually cooked with sardines, onions, garlic, and parsley.. In Karnataka Cuisine (Karavali and Malnad regions), the leaves and stems are used to make Basale Soppu Saaru/Curry (Especially in combination with Jackfruit seed) and soupy raita with curd. Beary Muslims of coastal Karnataka prepare Basalede kunhi Pindi (small rice dumplings smeared in gravy prepared from Malabar spinach and dried tuna ). In Bengali cuisine it is widely used both in a vegetable dish, cooked with red pumpkin, and in ...
Broad beans (Amharic: baqella) are one of the most popular legumes in Ethiopia. They are tightly coupled with every aspect of Ethiopian life. They are mainly used as an alternative to peas to prepare a flour called shiro, which is used to make shiro wot (a stew almost ubiquitous in Ethiopian dishes). During the fasting period in the Ethiopian Orthodox Church tradition called Tsome Filliseta, Tsome arbeå, Tsome Tahsas, and Tsome Hawaria (which are in August, end of February-April, mid-November-beginning of January and June-July), two uncooked spicy vegetable dishes are made using broad beans. The first is Hilibet, a thin, white paste of broad bean flour mixed with pieces of onion, green pepper, garlic, and other spices based on personal taste. The second is siljo, a fermented, sour, spicy thin yellow paste of broad bean flour. Both are served with other stews and injera (a pancake-like bread) during lunch and dinner. Baqella nifro (boiled broad beans) are eaten as a snack during some holidays ...
Angiosperms Clade: Monocots Clade: Commelinids Order: Zingiberales Family: Zingiberaceae Genus: Zingiber Species: Z. officinale ...
... is an annual herb that grows erect to a maximum height near 100 centimeters (39.37 inches) with none to a few branches. The wild form is glandular and coated in short stiff hairs. The leaves, 20-200 millimetres (0.8-7.9 in), are mostly divided into smaller leaflets which are deeply and intricately cut into toothed lobes, giving them a lacy appearance. The dense and hairy inflorescence is a one-sided curving or coiling cyme of bell-shaped flowers in shades of blue and lavender. Each flower is just under a centimeter long and has protruding whiskery stamens.[2] The seeds are "negatively photoblastic", or photodormant, and will only germinate in darkness.[3] ...
While most commonly found as a wildflower, toadflax is sometimes cultivated for cut flowers, which are long-lasting in the vase. Like snapdragons (Antirrhinum), they are often grown in children's gardens for the "snapping" flowers which can be made to "talk" by squeezing them at the base of the corolla.[8] The plant requires ample drainage, but is otherwise adaptable to a variety of conditions. It has escaped from cultivation in North America where it is common on roadsides and in poor soils, where it has now naturalized in many U.S. states and Canadian provinces.[9] Despite its reputation as a weed, like the dandelion, this plant has also been used in folk medicine for a variety of ailments. A tea made from the leaves was taken as a laxative and strong diuretic as well as for jaundice, dropsy, and enteritis with drowsiness.[citation needed] For skin diseases and piles, either a leaf tea or an ointment made from the flowers was used.[citation needed] In addition, a tea made in milk instead of ...
Pronunciation of the Chinese names for A. tuberosum, 韭菜, vary between Mandarin Chinese and Cantonese, as well as other dialects.[13][23] For instance, the green leaves are jiu cai, the flower stem jiu cai hua, and blanched leaves jiu huang in Mandarin, but in Cantonese are gau tsoi/kow choi韭菜, gau tsoi fa韭菜花(chive blossoms), and gau wong 韭黃(chive sprout) respectively.[25] Other renderings include cuchay, kucai, kuchay, or kutsay. The leaves are used as a flavoring in a similar way to chives, scallions as a stir fry ingredient. In China, they are often used to make dumplings with a combination of egg, shrimp, and pork. They are a common ingredient in Chinese jiǎozi dumplings and the Japanese and Korean equivalents. A Chinese flatbread similar to the scallion pancake may be made with garlic chives instead of scallions; such a pancake is called a jiucai bing 韭菜饼 or jiucai you bing 韭菜油饼. Garlic chives are also one of the main ingredients used with yi mein (E-Fu) ...
Persillade is a mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley in French cuisine. Parsley is the main ingredient in Italian salsa verde, which is a mixed condiment of parsley, capers, anchovies, garlic, and sometimes bread, soaked in vinegar. It is an Italian custom to serve it with bollito misto or fish. Gremolata, a mixture of parsley, garlic, and lemon zest, is a traditional accompaniment to the Italian veal stew, ossobuco alla milanese. In England, parsley sauce is a roux-based sauce, commonly served over fish or gammon. Root parsley is very common in Central, Eastern, and Southern European cuisines, where it is used as a snack or a vegetable in many soups, stews, and casseroles, and as ingredient for broth. In Brazil, freshly chopped parsley (salsa) and freshly chopped scallion (cebolinha) are the main ingredients in the herb seasoning called cheiro-verde (literally "green aroma"), which is used as key seasoning for major Brazilian dishes, including meat, chicken, fish, rice, beans, stews, ...
... plants are hardy, deciduous-leaved shrubs. The leaves are simple and usually short stalked, and are arranged in a spiralling, alternate fashion. In most species, the leaves are lanceolate (narrowly oval) and about 2.5 to 10 centimetres (0.98 to 3.94 in) long. The leaf margins are usually toothed, occasionally cut or lobed, and rarely smooth. Stipules are absent. The many small flowers of Spiraea shrubs are clustered together in inflorescences, usually in dense panicles, umbrella-like corymbs, or grape-like clusters. The radial symmetry of each flower is five-fold, with the flowers usually bisexual, rarely unisexual. The flowers have five sepals and five white, pink, or reddish petals that are usually longer than the sepals. Each flower has many (15 to 60) stamens. The fruit is an aggregate of follicles.[3] ...
Bitter melon is generally consumed cooked in the green or early yellowing stage. The young shoots and leaves of the bitter melon may also be eaten as greens. In Chinese cuisine, bitter melon (苦瓜, pinyin: kǔguā, POJ: khó͘-koe) is valued for its bitter flavor, typically in stir-fries (often with pork and douchi), soups, dim sum, and herbal teas (gohyah tea). It has also been used in place of hops as the bittering ingredient in some beers in China and Okinawa.[3] Bitter melon is commonly eaten throughout India. In North Indian cuisine, it is often served with yogurt on the side to offset the bitterness, used in curry such as sabzi or stuffed with spices and then cooked in oil. In South Indian cuisine, it is used in the dishes thoran/thuvaran (mixed with grated coconut), mezhukkupuratti (stir-fried with spices), theeyal (cooked with roasted coconut) and pachadi (which is considered a medicinal food for diabetics). Other popular recipes include preparations with curry, deep-frying with ...
It is an evergreen or drought-deciduous succulent shrub (which can also lose its leaves during cold spells, or according to the subspecies or cultivar). It can grow to 1-3 m (3.3-9.8 ft) in height, with pachycaul stems and a stout, swollen basal caudex. The leaves are spirally arranged, clustered toward the tips of the shoots, simple entire, leathery in texture, 5-15 cm (2.0-5.9 in) long and 1-8 cm (0.39-3.15 in) broad. The flowers are tubular, 2-5 cm (0.79-1.97 in) long, with the outer portion 4-6 cm (1.6-2.4 in) diameter with five petals, resembling those of other related genera such as Plumeria and Nerium. The flowers tend to red and pink, often with a whitish blush outward of the throat. ...
The main compounds responsible for the biological activity of skullcap are flavonoids.[9] Baicalein, one of the important Scutellaria flavonoids, was shown to have cardiovascular effects in in vitro.[14] Research also shows that Scutellaria root modulates inflammatory activity in vitro to inhibit nitric oxide (NO), cytokine, chemokine and growth factor production in macrophages.[15] Isolated chemical compounds including wogonin, wogonoside, and 3,5,7,2',6'-pentahydroxyl flavanone found in Scutellaria have been shown to inhibit histamine and leukotriene release.[16] Other active constituents include baicalin, apigenin, oroxylin A, scutellarein, and skullcapflavone.[17] Some Scutellaria species, including S. baicalensis and S. lateriflora, have demonstrated anxiolytic activity in both animals and humans.[17][18][19] A variety of flavonoids in Scutellaria species have been found to bind to the benzodiazepine site and/or a non-benzodiazepine site of the GABAA receptor, including baicalin, baicalein, ...
... is an aromatic evergreen shrub with leaves similar to hemlock needles. It is native to the Mediterranean and Asia, but is reasonably hardy in cool climates. It can withstand droughts, surviving a severe lack of water for lengthy periods.[8] Forms range from upright to trailing; the upright forms can reach 1.5 m (5 ft) tall, rarely 2 m (6 ft 7 in). The leaves are evergreen, 2-4 cm (0.8-1.6 in) long and 2-5 mm broad, green above, and white below, with dense, short, woolly hair. The plant flowers in spring and summer in temperate climates, but the plants can be in constant bloom in warm climates; flowers are white, pink, purple or deep blue.[2] Rosemary also has a tendency to flower outside its normal flowering season; it has been known to flower as late as early December, and as early as mid-February (in the northern hemisphere).[9] In some parts of the world, it is considered an invasive species.[2] ...
It is increasingly incorrect to call Papaver somniferum the opium poppy, as many varieties do not produce a significant amount of opium. At least one produces no latex at all. That variety, therefore, also cannot be used to create codeine and other drugs from other alkaloids present in Papaver somniferum latex. This breeding has been done for two purposes. The first is to produce ornamental varieties that cannot be used for home or small-scale opium production, such as one called Danish Flag. Danish Flag and other examples of these cultivars are widely available for consumer purchase, unlike varieties that produce opium. The second is to produce cultivars that can only be used to produce other alkaloids. These are grown commercially for the pharmaceutical industry, as are varieties that are bred for high opium production. Varieties that produce large amounts of opium have been bred for the pharmaceutical industry and are not available for consumers to purchase as seed. The rapidly decreasing ...
The leaves are opposite, simple, oval, 8-12 cm long, and 5-8 cm broad. The flowers are individually small and inconspicuous, 2-3 mm across, produced in a dense, rounded, greenish-white flowerhead 2 cm diameter; the 4-8 large white "petals" are actually bracts, each bract 4-7 cm long and broad. The fruit is a compound pink-red berry about 3 cm diameter, containing 50-100 small seeds; it is edible, though not very palatable. They are eaten by band-tailed pigeon.[3] Like the related Cornus florida, it is very susceptible to dogwood anthracnose, a disease caused by the fungus Discula destructiva. This has killed many of the larger plants in the wild and also restricted its use as an ornamental tree. Cornus nuttallii is named after Thomas Nuttall, an English botanist and zoologist who worked in North America in the nineteenth century. Some Plateau Indian tribes used the bark as a laxative and emetic.[4] ...
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of ... by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, and in the most recent comprehensive treatment of vascular plant families and genera, the ... Johansson, J.T. 2013 (and onwards). The Phylogeny of Angiosperms. Published online. http://angio.bergianska.se Malvales ...
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of ... Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of ... Some early molecular phylogenies suggested it was the sister group to all other angiosperms, but more recent research suggests ...