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*  Hepcidin
84 amino acids), prohormone (60 amino acids), and hormone (25 amino acids). Twenty- and 22-amino acid metabolites of hepcidin ... The peptide was initially named LEAP-1, for Liver-Expressed Antimicrobial Protein. Later, a peptide associated with ... Deletion of 5 N-terminal amino acids results in loss of function. The conversion of prohepcidin to hepcidin is mediated by the ... heriditrary hemochromatosis protein, transferrin receptor 2, bone morphogenic protein 6 (BMP6), matriptase-2, neogenin, BMP ...
*  Peptide library
A peptide library contains a great number of peptides that have a systematic combination of amino acids. Usually, peptide ... The peptide library provides a powerful tool for drug design, protein-protein interactions, and other biochemical as well as ... As a general formula, if you made a completely random peptide library with n amino acids for each link in the chain with a ... any one of all 20 amino acids residue 4: acetyl-lysine only residue 5: alanine residue 6: isoleucine residue 7: aspartic acid ...
*  Sequencing
... it is currently much easier to sequence the DNA and infer the protein sequence. Determining part of a protein's amino-acid ... Methods for performing protein sequencing include: Edman degradation Peptide mass fingerprinting Mass spectrometry Protease ... and a range of physical and computational tools used in protein expression and in determining protein structures. In chain ... Derived from the exons these mRNAs are to be later translated to proteins that support particular cellular functions. The ...
*  Nonribosomal peptide
Nonribosomal peptides often have cyclic and/or branched structures, can contain non-proteinogenic amino acids including D-amino ... Some A domains require interaction with MbtH-like proteins for their activity. Sometimes the amino group of the bound amino ... Ten amino acids that control substrate specificity and can be considered the 'codons' of nonribosomal peptide synthesis have ... Cyclization of amino acids against the peptide "backbone" is often performed, resulting in oxazolines and thiazolines; these ...
*  Molecular Biology Core Facilities
Amino acid analysis Biacore HPLC (for MBCF Q/C only) Bioinformatics Sequence analysis Genome annotation Gene expression Protein ... A Peptide Synthesizer using Bruce Merrifield's solid phase peptide synthesis was brought online in 1988 when Fmoc chemistry ... Nucleic Acids Res. 1985 Apr 11;13(7):2399-412. The synthesis of oligonucleotides containing an aliphatic amino group at the 5' ... A Protein Sequencer using Edman degradation was installed in 1989 quickly followed by several DNA Sequencers which were the ...
*  Peptide YY
... is a short (36-amino acid) peptide released from cells in the ileum and colon in response to feeding. In the blood, ... Peptide YY can be produced as the result of enzymatic breakdown of crude fish proteins and ingested as a food product. Peptide ... Peptide YY3-36 (PYY) is a linear polypeptide consisting of 34 amino acids with structural homology to NPY and pancreatic ... related to the pancreatic peptide family by having 18 of its 36 amino acids located in the same positions as pancreatic peptide ...
*  Protein primary structure
... is the linear sequence of amino acids in a peptide or protein. By convention, the primary structure ... Amino acids are polymerised via peptide bonds to form a long backbone, with the different amino acid side chains protruding ... Protein sequencing Nucleic acid primary structure Translation Pseudo amino acid composition SANGER F (1952). "The arrangement ... Some organisms can also make short peptides by non-ribosomal peptide synthesis, which often use amino acids other than the ...
*  Phosphodiesterase 2
These atoms might interact with hydrogen bond donators, which are part of amino acids in the active site of the enzyme and ... It has been shown that PDE2 lowers cAMP through increased cGMP caused by atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) resulting in ... it causes conformational change in the protein structure leading to higher enzyme activity. Increased hydrolysis of cAMP due to ... The docking model of EHNA showed that the mutations of the amino acids Asp811 to Ala (Asp811Ala) and Ile826 to Val (Ile826Val) ...
*  Endocrine system
... and amino acid/protein derivatives (amines, peptides, and proteins). The glands that secrete hormones comprise the endocrine ... Amino acid-based hormones (amines and peptide or protein hormones) are water-soluble and act on the surface of target cells via ... Hormones can consist of either amino acid complexes, steroids, eicosanoids, leukotrienes, or prostaglandins. The endocrine ... Hormones affect distant cells by binding to specific receptor proteins in the target cell resulting in a change in cell ...
*  Peptide spectral library
1994) An approach to correlate tandem mass-spectral data of peptides with amino-acid-sequences in a protein database. J. Am. ... In this approach, a protein sequence database is used to calculate all putative peptide candidates in the given setting ( ... A peptide spectral library is a curated, annotated and non-redundant collection/database of LC-MS/MS peptide spectra. One ... utility of a peptide spectral library is to serve as consensus templates supporting the identification of peptide/proteins ...
*  CPK coloring
Molecular Models of Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins. Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 24, Issue 8, pp. 621-627. doi ... In 1952, Corey and Pauling published a description of space-filling models of proteins and other biomolecules that they had ...
*  Fluorescent tag
The most commonly labelled molecules are antibodies, proteins, amino acids and peptides which are then used as specific probes ... Common species that isotope markers are used for include proteins. In this case, amino acids with stable isotopes of either ... YFP or yellow fluorescent protein, BFP or blue fluorescent protein, and CFP or cyan fluorescent protein are examples of GFP ... Protein labeling uses a short tag to minimize disruption of protein folding and function. Transition metals are used to link ...
*  Nutrient
Proteins are organic compounds that consist of amino acids joined by peptide bonds. Since the body cannot manufacture some of ... An essential amino acid is an amino acid that is required by an organism but cannot be synthesized de novo by it, and therefore ... the amino acids (termed essential amino acids), the diet must supply them. Through digestion, proteins are broken down by ... Only two fatty acids are known to be essential for humans: alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid) and linoleic acid (an ...
*  Protein (nutrient)
... most proteins are already reduced to single amino acid or peptides of several amino acids. Most peptides longer than four amino ... Proteins are polymer chains made of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. During human digestion, proteins are broken ... Dietary protein is converted to individual amino acids by the digestive process, which are then absorbed. When amino acids are ... There, most of the peptides are broken into single amino acids. Absorption of the amino acids and their derivatives into which ...
*  Photo-reactive amino acid analog
... s may be incorporated into proteins and peptides in vivo or in vitro. Photo-reactive amino acid ... Photo-reactive amino acid analogs are artificial analogs of natural amino acids that can be used for crosslinking of protein ... they are activated and covalently bind to interacting proteins that are within a few angstroms of the photo-reactive amino acid ... They are then ultraviolet light (UV)-activated to covalently crosslink proteins within protein-protein interaction domains in ...
*  Reactive oxygen species production in marine microalgae
Reactions of ROS with proteins can modify amino acids, fragment peptide chains, alter electrical charges, and ultimately ... For instance, ROS from Chattonella marina have been shown to enhance the toxic effects of fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA ... Stadtman, E.R. (1986). "Oxidation of proteins by mixed-function oxidation systems: Implication in protein turnover, ageing and ... Juttner, Friedrich (2001). "Liberation of 5,8,11,14,17-Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Other Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Lipids ...
*  History of molecular biology
The (correct) theory that proteins were linear polymers of amino acids linked by peptide bonds was proposed independently and ... Mulder went on to identify the products of protein degradation such as the amino acid, leucine, for which he found a (nearly ... of these theories had difficulties in accounting for the fact that the digestion of proteins yielded peptides and amino acids. ... creates a correspondence between the succession of nucleotides in the DNA sequence and a series of amino acids in proteins. The ...
*  Kopi Luwak
... yielding shorter peptides and more free amino acids. The proteins also undergo non-enzymatic Maillard browning reactions in the ... The civet's protease enzymes seep into the beans, making shorter peptides and more free amino acids. Passing through a civet's ... He concluded that: Protein structure had been altered, reducing bitterness and potentially impacting flavour. Volatile ... Several studies have examined the process in which the animal's stomach acids and enzymes digest the beans' covering and ...
*  RNA world
Specifically, peptide bond formation, the reaction that binds amino acids together into proteins, is now known to be catalyzed ... Peptide bond formation The ability to catalyse the formation of peptide bonds between amino acids to produce short peptides or ... As some co-factors contain both nucleotide and amino acid characteristics, it may be that amino acids, peptides and finally ... pre-RNA nucleic acids have included peptide nucleic acid (PNA), threose nucleic acid (TNA) or glycol nucleic acid (GNA). ...
*  John Tileston Edsall
In 1943, Edsall and Cohn published a physical chemistry book Proteins, Amino Acids and Peptides, that had a profound influence ... John Edsall was a founding co-editor of the journal Advances in Protein Chemistry. He was invited by the publisher Kurt Jacoby ... Edsall was active in preserving the history of protein science. John T. Edsall married Margaret Dunham of Scarsdale, NY, May 1 ... John Tileston Edsall (3 November 1902 - 12 June 2002) was an early protein scientist, who contributed significantly to the ...
*  Natriuretic peptide precursor C
The precursor NPPC protein is cleaved to the 22 amino acid peptide C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). Natriuretic peptides ... 1992). "Receptor selectivity of natriuretic peptide family, atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, and C-type ... brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), encoded by a gene symbolized NPPC. These peptides ... Natriuretic peptide precursor C, also known as NPPC, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NPPC gene. ...
*  Hydroxyacyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase
The HADH gene encodes a 34.3 kDa protein that has 314 amino acids and 124 observed peptides. This gene is a member of the 3- ... The encoded protein functions in the mitochondrial matrix to catalyze the oxidation of straight-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoAs as ... Its enzymatic activity is highest with medium-chain-length fatty acids. Mutations in this gene cause one form of familial ... Among them are missense mutations (A40T, P258L, D57G, Y226H) and nonsense mutations (R236X) in the protein, and splicing ...
*  CPN1
Carboxypeptidase N is a plasma metallo-protease that cleaves basic amino acids from the C terminal of peptides and proteins. ... 1988). "Amino acid sequence of the N-terminus and selected tryptic peptides of the active subunit of human plasma ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038 ... The enzyme is important in the regulation of peptides like kinins and anaphylatoxins, and has also been known as kininase-1 and ...
*  De novo peptide sequencing
Knowing the amino acid sequence of peptides from a protein digest is essential to study the biological function of the protein ... In mass spectrometry, de novo peptide sequencing is the method in which a peptide amino acid sequence is determined from tandem ... For interpretation, first, look for single amino acid immonium ions (H2N+=CHR2). Corresponding immonium ions for amino acids ... as well as single amino acids that have equal mass to b2-ions. The mass of b2-ion = mass of two amino acid residues + 1. ...
*  Sigma-Aldrich
... proteins, peptides, amino acids and their derivatives. Sigma RBI produces specialized products for use in the field of cell ... ISOTEC provides isotopically labeled products for protein structure determination, peptide synthesis, proteomics, metabolic ... isotopically-labelled peptides and peptide libraries. Sigma Advanced Genetic Engineering (SAGE) Labs is a division within Sigma ...
*  Mupirocin
In E. coli IleRS, a single amino acid mutation was shown to alter mupirocin resistance. MuH is linked to the acquisition of a ... Mupirocin is in the carboxylic acid class of medications. It works by blocking the making of protein by the bacteria which ... The 74 kb mupirocin gene cluster contains six multi-domain enzymes and twenty-six other peptides (Table 1). Four large multi- ... Pseudomonic acid A is the product of an esterification between the 17C polyketide monic acid and the 9C fatty acid 9-hydroxy- ...
*  Peptide hormone
Most hormones can be classified as either amino acid-based hormones (amine, peptide, or protein) or steroid hormones. The ... Peptide hormones or protein hormones are hormones whose molecules are peptides or proteins, respectively. The latter have ... peptide hormones and protein hormones are synthesized in cells from amino acids according to mRNA transcripts, which are ... Some peptide/protein hormones (angiotensin II, basic fibroblast growth factor-2, parathyroid hormone-related protein) also ...