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*  Proopiomelanocortin
... by the removal of a 44-amino-acid-long signal peptide sequence during translation. POMC is cleaved to give rise to multiple ... The encoded protein is synthesized mainly in corticotroph cells of the anterior pituitary, where four cleavage sites are used; ... is a precursor polypeptide with 241 amino acid residues. POMC is synthesized in the pituitary from the 285-amino-acid-long ... This gene encodes a 285-amino acid polypeptide hormone precursor that undergoes extensive, tissue-specific, post-translational ...
*  Nonribosomal peptide
Nonribosomal peptides often have cyclic and/or branched structures, can contain non-proteinogenic amino acids including D-amino ... Some A domains require interaction with MbtH-like proteins for their activity. Sometimes the amino group of the bound amino ... Ten amino acids that control substrate specificity and can be considered the 'codons' of nonribosomal peptide synthesis have ... Cyclization of amino acids against the peptide "backbone" is often performed, resulting in oxazolines and thiazolines; these ...
*  Papain
... and the mature peptide (134-345). The amino acid numbers are based on the mature peptide. The protein is stabilised by three ... The papain precursor protein contains 345 amino acid residues, and consists of a signal sequence (1-18), a propeptide (19-133) ... Amino acid residues within the pro-region mediate their membrane association, and play a role in the transport of the proenzyme ... This forms a covalent acyl-enzyme intermediate and frees the amino terminus of the peptide. The enzyme is deacylated by a water ...
*  Cathepsin G
... is a 255-amino-acid-residue protein including an 18-residue signal peptide, a two-residue activation peptide at the ... Heck LW, Rostand KS, Hunter FA, Bhown A (October 1986). "Isolation, characterization, and amino-terminal amino acid sequence ... "Leukocyte protease binding to nucleic acids promotes nuclear localization and cleavage of nucleic acid binding proteins". ... Cathepsin G is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSG gene. It is one of the three serine proteases of the ...
*  Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization
MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometers are used to reveal amino acid sequence of peptides using post-source decay or high energy ... Karas and Hillenkamp were subsequently able to ionize the 67 kDa protein albumin using a nicotinic acid matrix and a 266 nm ... These researchers found that the amino acid alanine could be ionized more easily if it was mixed with the amino acid tryptophan ... Using sinapinic acid, 4-HCCA and DHB as matrices, S. Martin studied loss of sialic acid in glycosylated peptides by metastable ...
*  Brain natriuretic peptide
The 32-amino acid polypeptide BNP is secreted attached to a 76-amino acid N-terminal fragment in the prohormone called NT- ... that induce the phosphorylation of a hormone-sensitive lipase and perilipin A via the activation of a cGMP-dependent protein ... Other terms for BNP include B-type natriuretic peptide, ventricular natriuretic peptide and natriuretic peptide B') C-type ... 1992). "Receptor selectivity of natriuretic peptide family, atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, and C-type ...
*  Cysteine protease
... catalyze the hydrolysis of peptide bonds is deprotonation of a thiol in the enzyme's active site by an adjacent amino acid with ... Cysteine proteases are used as feed additives for livestock to improve the digestibility of proteins and nucleic acids. ... Mitchel, R. E.; Chaiken, I. M.; Smith, E. L. (1970). "The complete amino acid sequence of papain. Additions and corrections". ... O'Keefe, Terrence (6 April 2012). "Protease enzymes improve amino acid digestibility". Wattagnet. Retrieved 6 January 2018. The ...
*  MHC class I
... molecules bind peptides that are 8-10 amino acid in length (Parham 87). The peptides are generated mainly in the ... The proteasome degrades intracellular proteins into small peptides that are then released into the cytosol. The peptides have ... A normal cell will display peptides from normal cellular protein turnover on its class I MHC, and CTLs will not be activated in ... Their function is to display peptide fragments of non-self proteins from within the cell to cytotoxic T cells; this will ...
*  Prokaryotic small ribosomal subunit
Proteins are labelled "S#" to indicate the different peptides involved in rRNA stablization. S11 and H45 are located near the ... There is also one polypeptide chain that measures in at 26 amino acids. Conventionally, the rRNA is labeled with "H#" to ... Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis. 228 (3): 728-731. doi:10.1016/0005-2787(71)90737-4. Slobin, Lawrence I (December 1972). " ... This step is required in order for protein synthesis to occur. Then the large ribosomal subunit will bind and protein synthesis ...
*  Alcohol dehydrogenase
ADH was also one of the first oligomeric enzymes that had its amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure determined. ... coli and Salmonella typhimurium ethanolamine utilization protein eutG. E. coli hypothetical protein yiaY. A further class of ... "Molecular dynamics study of zinc binding to cysteines in a peptide mimic of the alcohol dehydrogenase structural zinc site". ... and Cys111 in the amino acid sequence) positioned in an almost symmetric tetrahedron around the Zn ion. A recent study showed ...
*  FAM163A
... its protein product is 167 amino acids long. FAM163A contains a very highly conserved signal peptide sequence, coded for by the ... Comparison between the two proteins reveals that the signal peptide sequence is identical; using the CLUSTALW program through ... FAM163A, also known as cebelin and neuroblastoma-derived secretory protein (NDSP) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... 37 amino acids in its sequence; albeit only conserved in eukaryotes, the most distant of which being the Japanese Rice Fish. ...
*  Glatiramer acetate
It is a mixture of random-sized peptides that are composed of the four amino acids found in myelin basic protein, namely ... composed of four amino acids found in myelin basic protein. The mechanism of action for glatiramer acetate is not fully ... glutamic acid, lysine, alanine, and tyrosine. Myelin basic protein is the antigen in the myelin sheaths of the neurons that ... Given its resemblance to myelin basic protein, glatiramer acetate may act as a decoy, diverting an autoimmune response against ...
*  Protein tag
See Proteinogenic amino acid#Chemical properties for the A-Z amino-acid codes) AviTag, a peptide allowing biotinylation by the ... a peptide derived from c-myc recognized by an antibody (EQKLISEEDL) NE-tag, a novel 18-amino-acid synthetic peptide ( ... a peptide which binds covalently to SnoopCatcher protein (KLGDIEFIKVNK) BCCP (Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Protein), a protein ... Often, these consist of polyanionic amino acids, such as FLAG-tag. Epitope tags are short peptide sequences which are chosen ...
*  WALP peptide
... amino acids. They are designed to study properties of proteins in lipid membranes such as orientation, extent of insertion, and ... This core is readily manipulated by extending or decreasing the number of amino acids. Another key feature is the presence of " ... When charged residues are substituted for the anchoring residues, these charged amino acids prefer a higher position, farther ... This class of model peptides has proved useful for studying the impact of changes in lipid composition on peptide insertion. ...
*  VEK-30 protein domain
In molecular biology, the protein domain VEK-30, is a 30-amino acid long, internal peptide present within bacterial organisms ... VEK-30 is a protein domain of the group A streptococcal protein PAM. It binds to Pg-K2 domain of angiostatin and activates the ... bound to a peptide from the group A streptococcal surface protein PAM". Biochemistry. 45 (37): 11052-60. doi:10.1021/bi060914j ... Plasminogen is made up of five subunit kringle molecules (Pg-K1 to Pg-K5), of which the first three make the protein ...
*  Peptide library
A peptide library contains a great number of peptides that have a systematic combination of amino acids. Usually, peptide ... The peptide library provides a powerful tool for drug design, protein-protein interactions, and other biochemical as well as ... As a general formula, if you made a completely random peptide library with n amino acids for each link in the chain with a ... any one of all 20 amino acids residue 4: acetyl-lysine only residue 5: alanine residue 6: isoleucine residue 7: aspartic acid ...
*  Immunosuppressive drug
It is a cyclic fungal peptide, composed of 11 amino acids. Ciclosporin is thought to bind to the cytosolic protein cyclophilin ... Antimetabolites interfere with the synthesis of nucleic acids. These include: folic acid analogues, such as methotrexate purine ... A TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-alpha) binding protein is a monoclonal antibody or a circulating receptor such as infliximab ( ... Methotrexate is a folic acid analogue. It binds dihydrofolate reductase and prevents synthesis of tetrahydrofolate. It is used ...
*  Braun's lipoprotein
... which includes a 20 amino acid signal peptide at the amino terminus. The mature protein is 6 kDa in size. Three monomers of Lpp ... Lpp is anchored to the outer membrane by its amino-terminal lipid group. In E. coli, one third of Lpp proteins form a peptide ... The gene encoding Braun's lipoprotein initially produces a protein composed of 78 amino acids, ... Large amounts of Braun's lipoprotein is present, more than any other protein in E. coli. Unlike other lipoproteins, it is ...
*  Carcinoembryonic antigen peptide-1
... is a nine amino acid peptide fragment of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a protein that is ... Synonyms: CAP-1 Carcinoembryonic Antigen Peptide-1 Carcinoembryonic Peptide-1 CEA Peptide 1 CEA Peptide 9-mer National Cancer ...
*  History of Earth
Amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, are easily synthesized in plausible prebiotic conditions, as are small peptides ( ... polymers of amino acids) that make good catalysts.:295-297 A series of experiments starting in 1997 showed that amino acids and ... Nelson, K.E.; Levy, M. & Miller, S.L. (April 2000). "Peptide nucleic acids rather than RNA may have been the first genetic ... A similar hypothesis presents self-replicating iron-rich clays as the progenitors of nucleotides, lipids and amino acids. It is ...
*  Post-translational modification
... cleavage of a protein at a peptide bond isoaspartate formation, via the cyclisation of asparagine or aspartic acid amino-acid ... Post-translational modifications can occur on the amino acid side chains or at the protein's C- or N- termini. They can extend ... Stark GR, Stein WH, Moore X (1960). "Reactions of the Cyanate Present in Aqueous Urea with Amino Acids and Proteins". J Biol ... a frog opioid peptide of methionine in deltorphin, also a frog opioid peptide protein splicing, self-catalytic removal of ...
*  Transforming growth factor beta superfamily
TGF-beta-1 is a peptide of 112 amino acid residues derived by proteolytic cleavage from the C-terminal of a precursor protein. ... These proteins interact with a conserved family of cell surface serine/threonine-specific protein kinase receptors, and ... Proteins from the TGF-beta family are only active as homo- or heterodimer; the two chains being linked by a single disulfide ... Many proteins have since been described as members of the TGF-β superfamily in a variety of species, including invertebrates as ...
*  Transmembrane protein 134
The protein is encoded by TMEM134 gene and is 195 amino acids in length. The protein contains two transmembrane domains but ... This suggests that there is an internal signal peptide upstream of the translated portion of the protein. The protein is ... There are 870 amino acids in the promoter and 15 transcripts variants of it. The promoter is well conserved in mammals. There ... This gives the protein an isoelectric point of 6.08. The overall weight of the protein is 21.6 kilodaltons, which is conserved ...
*  Formyl peptide receptor 2
... a series of subsequent studies cloned two genes that encoded receptor-like proteins with amino acid sequences very similar to ... FPR2 and FPR3 are termed formyl peptide receptors base on the similarities of their amino acid sequences to that of FPR1 rather ... F peptide, which is derived from gp120 protein of the HIV-1 Bru strain virus, and V3 peptide, which is derived from a linear ... N-formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) located on the surface of many cell types of various ...
*  Protein C
... a 32 amino acid N-terminus signal peptide preceding a propeptide. Protein C is formed when a dipeptide of Lys198 and Arg199 is ... Inactive protein C comprises 419 amino acids in multiple domains: one Gla domain (residues 43-88); a helical aromatic segment ( ... In addition, Protein C is inhibited by protein C inhibitor. Protein C is a major component in anticoagulation in the human body ... The protein C zymogen is activated when it binds to thrombin, another protein heavily involved in coagulation, and protein C's ...
*  Metabolic syndrome
... essential fatty acids and essential amino acids in the blood serum of affected patients.[medical citation needed] However, it ... Ali ES, Hua J, Wilson CH, Tallis GA, Zhou FH, Rychkov GY, Barritt GJ (September 2016). "The glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue ... Kogiso T, Moriyoshi Y, Shimizu S, Nagahara H, Shiratori K (2009). "High-sensitivity C-reactive protein as a serum predictor of ... is not entirely clear whether the accumulation of essential fatty acids and amino acids is the result of excessive ingestion or ...
*  Formyl peptide receptor 1
... the second of which has an intronless open reading frame coding for a protein containing ~354 amino acids; the studies also ... amino acid sequence identity) with high binding affinity for FMLP; rats express an ortholog of FPR2 (74% amino acid sequence ... All of the active mouse FPR receptors have ≥50% amino acid sequence identity with each other as well as with the three human ... Rivière S, Challet L, Fluegge D, Spehr M, Rodriguez I (May 2009). "Formyl peptide receptor-like proteins are a novel family of ...