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*  Troponin C type 1
Cardiac troponin C (cTnC) is a 161-amino acid protein organized into two domains: the regulatory N-terminal domain (cNTnC, ... "Interaction of levosimendan with cardiac troponin C in the presence of cardiac troponin I peptides". Journal of Molecular and ... van Eerd JP, Takahashi K (May 1975). "The amino acid sequence of bovine cardiac tamponin-C. Comparison with rabbit skeletal ... Troponin C, also known as TN-C or TnC, is a protein that resides in the troponin complex on actin thin filaments of striated ...
*  Zinc finger nuclease
Each zinc finger has an arginine (arg) amino acid protruding from the alpha helix, which forms a hydrogen bond with Nitrogen 7 ... August 2010). "TAL nucleases (TALNs): hybrid proteins composed of TAL effectors and FokI DNA-cleavage domain". Nucleic Acids ... Wayengera, M (2008). "Why bacteria derived R-M nucleic enzymatic peptides are efficient therapeutic molecules for use in the ... Chimeric nuclease Genome editing Gene targeting Zinc finger protein Zinc finger chimera Protein engineering Genome engineering ...
*  Diguanylate cyclase
... s are characterized by the conserved amino acid sequence motifs "GGDEF" (Gly-Gly-Asp-Glu-Phe) or "GGEEF" ( ... Often, GGDEF domains with DGC activity are found in the same proteins as c-di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) EAL (Glu-Ala ... The DGC domain of each subunit is linked to the two CheY-like domains by a flexible peptide linkage chain. The DCG domain ... During the cell cycle of C. crescentus, proteins with GGDEF and EAL domains are separated towards the two distinct poles. The ...
*  G protein-coupled receptor
... and the six-amino-acid polybasic (KKKRRK) domain in the C-terminus is necessary for its preassembly with Gq proteins. In ... and vary in size from small molecules to peptides to large proteins. G protein-coupled receptors are involved in many diseases ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases (protein kinase A) are activated by the signal chain coming from the G protein (that was ... The G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are protein kinases that phosphorylate only active GPCRs. G-protein-coupled ...
*  Proopiomelanocortin
... by the removal of a 44-amino-acid-long signal peptide sequence during translation. POMC is cleaved to give rise to multiple ... The encoded protein is synthesized mainly in corticotroph cells of the anterior pituitary, where four cleavage sites are used; ... is a precursor polypeptide with 241 amino acid residues. POMC is synthesized in the pituitary from the 285-amino-acid-long ... This gene encodes a 285-amino acid polypeptide hormone precursor that undergoes extensive, tissue-specific, post-translational ...
*  Papain
... and the mature peptide (134-345). The amino acid numbers are based on the mature peptide. The protein is stabilised by three ... The papain precursor protein contains 345 amino acid residues, and consists of a signal sequence (1-18), a propeptide (19-133) ... Amino acid residues within the pro-region mediate their membrane association, and play a role in the transport of the proenzyme ... This forms a covalent acyl-enzyme intermediate and frees the amino terminus of the peptide. The enzyme is deacylated by a water ...
*  Cathepsin G
... is a 255-amino-acid-residue protein including an 18-residue signal peptide, a two-residue activation peptide at the ... Heck LW, Rostand KS, Hunter FA, Bhown A (October 1986). "Isolation, characterization, and amino-terminal amino acid sequence ... "Leukocyte protease binding to nucleic acids promotes nuclear localization and cleavage of nucleic acid binding proteins". ... Cathepsin G is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSG gene. It is one of the three serine proteases of the ...
*  Cysteine protease
... catalyze the hydrolysis of peptide bonds is deprotonation of a thiol in the enzyme's active site by an adjacent amino acid with ... Cysteine proteases are used as feed additives for livestock to improve the digestibility of proteins and nucleic acids. ... Mitchel, R. E.; Chaiken, I. M.; Smith, E. L. (1970). "The complete amino acid sequence of papain. Additions and corrections". ... O'Keefe, Terrence (6 April 2012). "Protease enzymes improve amino acid digestibility". Wattagnet. Retrieved 6 January 2018. The ...
*  Prokaryotic small ribosomal subunit
Proteins are labelled "S#" to indicate the different peptides involved in rRNA stablization. S11 and H45 are located near the ... There is also one polypeptide chain that measures in at 26 amino acids. Conventionally, the rRNA is labeled with "H#" to ... Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis. 228 (3): 728-731. doi:10.1016/0005-2787(71)90737-4. Slobin, Lawrence I (December 1972). " ... This step is required in order for protein synthesis to occur. Then the large ribosomal subunit will bind and protein synthesis ...
*  Deamidation
As a free amino acid, or as the N-terminal residue of a peptide or protein, glutamine deamidates readily to form pyroglutamic ... Glutamine is converted to glutamic acid or pyroglutamic acid (5-oxoproline). In a protein or peptide, these reactions are ... either aspartic acid (in black at left) or isoaspartic acid, which is a beta amino acid (in green at bottom right). The ... J., Peptide Protein Res., 30, 808-821. PMID 3440704 Stephenson RC and Clarke S. (1989) "Succinimide Formation from Aspartyl and ...
*  L-Ribonucleic acid aptamer
In the case of peptides and small proteins that are produced synthetically, an enantiomer is made using synthetic D-amino acids ... Like other aptamers, L-RNA aptamers are able to bind molecules such as peptides, proteins, and substances of low molecular ... An L-ribonucleic acid aptamer (L-RNA aptamer, trade name Spiegelmer - from German Spiegel "mirror" - by Noxxon Pharma) is an ... If the target is a larger protein molecule, beyond synthetic abilities, the enantiomer of an epitope is produced. Conventional ...
*  HEBP1
This protein includes a natural chemoattractant peptide of 21 amino acids at the N-terminus, which is a natural ligand for ... Heme binding protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HEBP1 gene. The full-length protein encoded by this gene ... a peptide derived from heme-binding protein, chemoattracts mouse neutrophils by specifically activating Fpr2, the low-affinity ... Zylka MJ, Reppert SM (Dec 1999). "Discovery of a putative heme-binding protein family (SOUL/HBP) by two-tissue suppression ...
*  Pepsin
... collaborate to break down dietary proteins into their components, i.e., peptides and amino acids, which can be readily absorbed ... Increased susceptibility to hydrolysis occurs if there is a sulfur-containing amino acid close to the peptide bond, which has ... Pepsin is most efficient in cleaving peptide bonds between hydrophobic and preferably aromatic amino acids such as ... "Acid and non-acid reflux in patients with persistent symptoms despite acid suppressive therapy: a multicentre study using ...
*  Catgrip
They are also observed in synthetic peptides and in cyclic hexapeptides made from alternating D,L amino acids. The conformation ... Catgrips are small cation-binding molecular features of proteins and peptides. Each consists of the main chain atoms only of ... Catgrips are defined by the phi,psi main chain dihedral angles of the second and third amino acids in the nest. If two catgrips ... Pavone, V; Benedetti E; Di Blasio B; Lombardi A (1989). "Regularly alternating L,D peptides. III Hexacyclic peptides from ...
*  Biosynthesis
A protein is a polymer that is composed from amino acids that are linked by peptide bonds. There are more than 300 amino acids ... The glutamate family of amino acids includes the amino acids that derive from the amino acid glutamate. This family includes: ... Some important biological macromolecules include: proteins, which are composed of amino acid monomers joined via peptide bonds ... The first step for joining an amino acid to its corresponding tRNA is the formation of aminoacyl-AMP: Amino acid + ATP ↽ − − ⇀ ...
*  LRRC24
Human LRRC24 consists of 513 amino acids including a 23 amino acid signal peptide. The mature form of the protein has a ... LRRC24 is a secreted protein as is evidenced by the presence of a signal peptide. The structure of the protein suggests that it ... Protein-protein interactions of LRRC24 implicate the protein with cell signaling, cell migration, and axon guidance. ROBO2 was ... The isoelectric point of the mature human protein is 7.98 The protein is largely composed of alpha helices. LRRC24 is a single- ...
*  Neurotransmitter
Dividing them into amino acids, peptides, and monoamines is sufficient for some classification purposes. Major ... "CART peptide stimulation of G protein-mediated signaling in differentiated PC12 cells: identification of PACAP 6-38 as a CART ... Amino acids: glutamate, aspartate, D-serine, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine Gasotransmitters: nitric oxide (NO), carbon ... Most neurotransmitters are about the size of a single amino acid, however, some neurotransmitters may be the size of larger ...
*  Dansyl chloride
"Microanalysis of proteins and peptides. I. Enhancement of the fluorescence intensity of dansyl amino acids and dansyl proteins ... Dansyl chloride is widely used to modify amino acids; specifically, protein sequencing and amino acid analysis. Dansyl chloride ... from the amino acid tryptophan, allows this labeling technique to be used in investigating protein folding and dynamics. The ... in aqueous media and its application to assay of amino acids and proteins". Chem. Pharm. Bull. 22 (10): 2413-20. doi:10.1248/ ...
*  Protein mimetic
Small protein-like chains designed to mimic larger peptide. Phosphomimetics - An amino acid substitution or modification which ... A protein mimetic is a molecule such as a peptide, a modified peptide or any other molecule that biologically mimics the action ... Protein mimetics are commonly used in drug design and discovery. There are a number of different distinct classes of protein ... mimic the effect of protein phosphorylation. Homology (biology). ...
*  UBA2
The UBA2 cDNA fragment 2683 bp long and encodes a peptide of 640 amino acids. The predicted protein sequence is more analogous ... The predicted protein has 766 amino acid residues and weighs 84 kDa. The protein has an overall identity of 47% to hUBA2 and 31 ... Posttranslational modification of proteins by the addition of the small protein SUMO (see SUMO1), or sumoylation, regulates ... "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ...
*  Franz Hofmeister
... also argued for peptide bonds based on the biuret reaction observed with all proteins but never with free amino acids. Since ... Hofmeister was the first to propose that polypeptides were amino acids linked by peptide bonds in 1902, although this model of ... that suggested the presence of similar peptide bonds in proteins. primary structure peptide bond Picture of Hofmeister at ... "Protein, section: Classification of protein". britannica.com. Retrieved 4 April 2017. Baldwin RL. (1996). "How Hofmeister ion ...
*  Peanut agglutinin
The protein is 273 amino acids in length with the first 23 residues acting and a signal peptide which is subsequently cleaved. ... There are over 20 structures of this protein in the PDB which reveal and all beta-sheet protein with a tetrameric quaternary ... Peanut agglutinin (PNA) is plant lectin protein derived from the fruits of Arachis hypogaea. Peanut agglutinin may also be ...
*  CLE peptide
The 12 or 13 amino acid polypeptides are the mature forms of the CLE proteins that are derived from the conserved CLE domains. ... The minimal length of functioning CLE peptides has been found to be 12 amino acids with several critical residues. There are ... CLE peptides are coded by the CLE genes. These peptides vary in structure with each peptide structure performing a different ... The specicific peptides are: A-type peptides CLE 1/3/4 CLE 2 CLE 5/6 CLE 7 CLE 8 CLE 9 CLE 10 CLE 11 CLE 12 CLE 13 CLE 14 CLE ...
*  West Runton Mammoth
Although shorter peptides (chains of amino acids) have been allegedly reported from dinosaur fossils, this is arguably the ... "Protein from bones 600,000-year-old Mammoth extracted successfully". www.sciencedaily.com. Coordinates: 52°56′27″N 1°15′13″E ... Despite the age of the fossil, sufficient peptides were obtained from the West Runton skeleton to identify it as part of the ... it was reported in the news that researchers from the Universities of York and Manchester had successfully extracted protein ...
*  Methanosarcina
... suggested the possibility of an unknown amino acid which was confirmed over several years by slicing the protein into peptides ... In 2002, the amino acid pyrrolysine was discovered in M. barkeri by Ohio State University researchers. Earlier research by the ... The amino acid pyrrolysine was first discovered in a Methanosarcina species, M. barkeri. Primitive versions of hemoglobin have ... "New Amino Acid Discovered". Applied Genetics. 22 (11). June 2002. Ian Kerman. "Methanosarcina barkeri". Retrieved Apr 9, 2014. ...
*  Pinealocyte
... s synthesize the hormone melatonin by first converting the amino acid tryptophan to serotonin. The serotonin is then ... The presence of the protein RIBEYE and other proteins in both pinealocytes and sensory cells (both photoreceptors and hair ... a peptide which affects pCREB transcription, have a resulting increase in melatonin synthesis. AANAT is activated through a ... The presence of proteins such as Munc13-1 indicates that they are important in neurotransmitter release. At night, synaptic ...
*  Interleukin 9
IL-9 protein sequence contains 144 residues with a typical signal peptide of 18 amino acids.There is also the presence of 10 ... The cloning and complete amino acid sequencing of P40 disclosed that it is structurally different from other T cells growth ... proteins namely STAT1, STAT3 and STAT5 and thus connects this cytokine to various biological processes. The gene encoding this ... cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein, suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS)-2 and SOCS-3, but only SOCS-3 ...